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Maine at Gettysburg 



REPORT 



•OF : 



MAINE COMMISSIONERS 



PREPARED BY 



THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



Ad majorem patrim gloriam 



1898 



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CopvncRTSD 1898 

for and in behalf of the State of Maine, by Chariet Hamlin, Greenlief T. Sterens and 

George W. Verrill, of the Maine Gettysburg Commissioners' Executive 

Committee and subcommittees on editing, illustrating, 

printing and binding. 



The L akes id e Press 

Engrarers, Printers and Binders 

Portland, Maine 



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in 



MAINE GETTYSBURG COMMISSION 

The Governor of Maine, ex officio, 

Charles Hamlin, Bvt Brig. -Gen., A. A. G. Vols. 2d Div. 3d Corps. 

Moses B. Lakeman, Colonel 3d Regt 

Elijah Walker, Colonel 4th Regt 

Clark S. Edwards, Bvt. Brig.-Gen., Colonel 5th R^. 
tBenjamin F. Harris, Bvt Brig.-Gen., Lt-Col. 6th R^. 

Alexander B. Sumner, Lieut -Colonel 6th Regt 
tSelden Connor, Brig.-Gen., Lt-Col. 7th Regt 

Thomas W. Hyde, Bvt Brig.-Gen., Lt.-Col. 7th Regt. 

John D. Beardsley, Lt.-Col. U. S. C. T., Capt. loth Battn. 

Charles W. Tilden, Bvt. Brig.-Gen., Col. i6th Regt. 
*Charles B. Merrill, Lieut. -Colonel 17th Regt 

George W. Verrill, Captain 17th Regt. 
*Francis E. Heath, Bvt. Brig.-Gen., Col. 19th Regt 

Charles E. Nash, Captain 19th Regt 

Joshua L. Chamberlain, Bvt. Maj.-Gen., Col. 20th Regt 
*Jacob McClure, Lt.-Col. Me. S. S., Capt. Co. D 2d U. S. S. S. 
tCharles H. Smith, Bvt Major.-Gen. U. S. A., Col. ist Cav. 

Sidney W. Thaxter, Major ist Cav. Regt. 
♦James A. Hall, Bvt. Brig.-Gen., Captain 2d Batty. 

Greenlief T. Stevens, Bvt. Major, Captain 5th Batty. 

Edwin B. Dow, Bvt Major, Captain 6th Batty. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Charles Hamlin chairman, Greenlief T. Stevens secretary, Charles H. 
Smithf, Frands E. Heath*, Charles B. Merrill*, Sidney W. Thaxter, George 
W. Verrill, Charles E. Nash. 

^Deceased. tBesigned. 



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PREFACE 



The Executive Committee of the Maine Gettysburg Commission 
were charged, among other duties, with preparing and publishing a 
report of the Commission and its work. 

This volume constitutes the report so prepared by the Committee. 
It will be found to contain principally an accoimt of the monuments 
erected by the State of Maine on the Gettysburg battlefield "to 
commemorate and perpetuate the conspicuous valor and heroism 
of Maine soldiers on that decisive battlefield of the war of the 
rebellion " ; a full description of each monument, accompanied with 
half-tone pictures; the exercises attending their dedication; a 
statement of the part taken by each of the fifteen regiments, 
battalions, batteries, or other commands of Maine troops, illustrated 
with maps and diagrams ; a list of the participants in each command, 
with the casualties in the same ; a list of Maine Generals, and staff 
and other officers additional to Maine organizations ; a historical 
sketch of each command ; and a brief summary of the work of the 
Committee. 

The different features of the report, taken as a whole, are 
dissimilar to those issued by other States; but the contributions 
thus made to history will serve to add to its value. To procure all 
the materials of the report has required more time and labor than 
was originally contemplated. The time and labor thus spent have^ 
however, aided in setting forth the facts more fully, accurately and 
reliably, and in a manner justly due to the memory of those who so 
freely gave their lives to their country on this eventful field. 

Charles Hamlin, 
Greenlief T. Stevens, 
Sidney W. Thaxter, 
George W. Verrill, 
Charles E. Nash. 



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VII 



CONTENTS 

Preface V. 

Part I. 

The Battle of Gettysburg, a sketch by Brevet Brig. -Gen. Charles Hamlin i 
Four m*p6 of the battlefield in colors, drawn by Q. W. Verrill. 
[Concerning each of the following Maine organizations are given the 
picture, description and location of its monument (and markers, if any), 
its part in the battle, nominal lists of participants and of casualties, a 
general historical sketch, and a roster of its officers. — ^See under Gbttvs- 
BURG in Index.] 

Hairs Second Maine Battery 14 

Historioal Sketch, compiled by Charles Hamlin. 
Sixteenth Maine Regiment 37 

Diagram showing positions, by C. K. Tilden,— Incidents of the battle, by BCajor A. 

B. Small.— Historical Sketch, by lient. Francis Wiggin. 

Stevens* Fifth Maine Battery 80 

At Qettysborg, by Brevet Major Q. T. Stevens and Brevet Captain B. N. Whittier. 

—Historical Sketch, by Brevet Major Qreenlief T. Stevens. 
Third Maine Regiment 126 

Itinerary, by Col. Moses B. Lakeman.— Historical Sketch, compiled by the Editors. 
Fourth Maine Regiment 158 

Dedication of Monument and Historical Address, by Col. Elijah Walker. 
Seventeenth Maine Regiment 190 

Diagrams showing positions, by G. W. Verrill,— Dedication of Monument: Prayer 

by Rev. C. G. Holyoke. Address by Brevet Lt.-Col. Edward Moore, Poem by G. W. 

Verrill, Oration by Brevet Brig.-Gen. William Hobson,— Historical Sketch by 

Captain George W. Verrill. 

Twentieth Maine Regiment 249 

Diagram showing positions, by G. W. Verrill.— At Gettysburg, excerpts from 
Address of Lieut. S. L. Miller and from field notes by Brevet Maj.-Gen. J. L. 
Chamberlahi, — Historical Sketch, by an Officer of the Regiment,— The Last 
Act, by Editors, from information furnished by Gton. Chamberlain and Gen. Spear. 

Nineteenth Maine Regiment 289 

Historical Sketch, by Officers of the Regiment (Brevet Brig.-Gen. Frands E. 
Heath, Major David E. Parsons and Lt.-Col. Joseph W. Spaulding). 

Dow's Sixth Maine Battery 325 

Historical Sketch, compiled by Brevet Brig.-Gen. Charles Hamlin. 
Company D, Second U. S. Sharpshooters 348 

Historical Sketch, by the Editors. 
Fifth Maine Regiment 364 

Dedication of Monument and Historical Address, by Brevet Brig.-Gen. Clark S. 

Edwards,— Poem by Helen S. Packard. 

Sixth Maine Regiment 395 

At Gettysburg, letter from Brevet Lt.-Col. Charles A. Clark,— Historical Sketch, 
compiled by Charles Hamlin. 



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vni 

Seventh Maine Regiment 430 

Historical Sketch, by Brig.-Qen. Selden Connor. 

First Maine Cavalry 469 

Dedication of Monument: Address by Brevet Maj.-Gen. C. H. Smith. Poem by 
Edward P. Tobie.— Historical Sketch, by Lieut. Edward P. Tobie. 

Tenth Maine Battalion 517 

At Gettysburg, and Historical Sketch of 1-I0>29th Best, by Major John M. Gould. 
High Water Mark Monument 537 

Additional Participating Officers, compiled by the Editors 540 

Gettysburg Summaries, Maine Participants and Casualties 542 

Part II. 

Dedication of Monuments 545 

Order of the Day and exercises,— Gen. Chamberlain's Address, — ^Prayer 
by Rev. Theo. Gerrish,— Address by Gen. Charles Hamlin,— Address 
by Hon. Edwin C. Burleigh, Governor of Maine,— Address by Major 
John M. Krauth for the Battlefield Memorial Association,— Oration by 
Gen. Selden Connor, — Prayer and Benediction by Rev. G. R. Palmer. 

Soldiers National Cemetery and Monument, by G. W. Verrill 582 

Maine Gettysburg Connnission and its Work, by Charles Hamlin, 

chairman of the Executive Committee 586 

Index 597 



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PART I 



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THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 

BY BREVET BRIOADIEBf^ENEBAL OHABLES HAMLIN, 

LATB ASniTAVT AIKFUTAITT amSEAL, 
BBCOKD DinSIOir THXmD ASMT CORFI, AJUfT OF POTOMAC. 



A BRIEF sketch of this battle will enable the reader to under- 
stand the operations of both Union and Confederate 
troops given in detail, as they appear in the various 
accounts of the battle, hereafter in this volume. Such a sketch, 
indeed, is necessary for the general reader who desires a con- 
nected account, because the main purpose of this volume is to 
give a particular account of the various regiments and batteries 
of the State of Maine, rather than a single and connected view. 
An invasion of the North was determined upon by the Con- 
federate authorities soon after the battle of Chancellorsville in 
May, 1863. It seems evident now that the causes which led 
to this invasion were, that the term of many of the Union sol- 
diers was expiring; the late defeat at Chancellorsville; and 
the hope and expectation to capture Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and Washington, which might end the war through a recogni- 
tion of the Confederacy by foreign governments, followed by 
their intervention. 

On the second of June, Lee began his movement north 
with the withdrawal of his army from Fredericksburg. On 
the eighth, EweH and Longstreet arrived at Culpeper, to 
which place Stuart had already advanced his cavalry. General 
Hooker, on June 5th, ordered a reconnaissance below Freder- 
icksburg, suspecting some important movement by General 
Lee. On the eighth, Pleasonton's cavalry and two brigades 
of infantry were ordered across the Rappahannock. On the 
morning of the ninth these forces crossed the river and attacked 
Stuarfs cavalry at Brandy Station. Here occurred the first 



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2 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

successful fight by our cavalry when engaged in a large body. 

... ^..The JPiist.Makie Cavalry under Eilpatrick was engaged in 

*: * .4;his*blE(ttle*ih*desperate conflict and in which it bore itself with 

:. : : .rgtjajcb^tjwdit^ .vThi struggle at Brandy Station ended in defeat- 

;••.: :• •ftg^aiid* driving the Confederate cavalry from the field ; but on 

the arrival of EweWs infantry from Culpeper, Pleasonton 

withdrew his forces and recrossed the river. By the capture 

of Stuarfs headquarters Lee^s orders were found that showed 

his movement was north beyond the Union lines. 

On the tenth, EwelVs corps advanced beyond the Blue 
Bidge, passed north through Chester Oap, and marched rapidly 
up the Shenandoah Valley. StuarVs cavalry was directed east 
of the Blue Ridge, to guard the passes, mask Le(^s movements, 
and delay the advance of Hooker's army. On the fourteenth, 
Ewdl attacked Greneral Milroy at Winchester, who was 
hemmed in without definite information of the movement of 
Lee^s army up the valley. Milroy attempted early in the 
morning of the fifteenth to steal his way out, and although 
discovered by the Confederates, succeeded in breaking through 
and retreated in haste, with heavy losses in men and material. 

Hill and Longstreet hurried northward, the latter covering 
the mountain gaps in his movements. On the sixteenth, Jenr 
kins with two thousand Confederate cavalry penetrated into 
Pennsylvania as far as Chambersburg. 

June 13th, Hooker put the Union army in motion and 
kept his conmiand between the enemy and Washington. 
Pleasonton's cavalry encountered that of Stuarfs on the sev- 
enteenth at Aldie ; and on the nineteenth at Middleburg and 
on the twenty-first at Upperville. On each of these fields the 
First Maine Regiment of Cavalry won new honors. After a 
severe engagement at Upperville the Confederate cavalry fell 
back through Ashby's Gkip, and Pleasonton rejoined the 
in&mtry. Lee now seemed convinced that Hooker would not 
attack him south of the Potomac ; and on the twenty-second 
he ordered Ewell to cross the river into Maryland, where he 
came to the support of Jenkins^ who being reinforced 
advanced again to Chambersburg. Here Rodetf and Johnson^s 
divisions joined him on the twenty-third. Early's division, 



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lee's invasion of PENNSYLVANIA. 3 

in the meantime, moved via Gettysburg to York with instruc- 
tions to destroy the raiboads and secure the bridge across the 
Susquehanna, after which he moved north and undertook with 
Modes and Johnson to take possession of Harrisburg. On the 
twenty-third, Lee ordered HiU and Longstreet across the Poto- 
mac to unite at Hagerstown, and follow EweWs corps up the 
Cumberland valley. 

When Hooker learned that Lee was concentrating his forces 
north of the Potomac, he advanced the Union army on a line 
parallel with that of the enemy. On the twenty-fifth and 
twenty-sixth, the Union army having crossed the Potomac, 
was massed between Harper's Ferry and Frederick City. On 
the twenty-sixth, GordorCs brigade of Early's division passed 
through the town of Gettysburg, and on the twenty-eighth 
Early's division reached York and Wrightsville. GordovCs 
brigade was prevented from crossing the Susquehanna by the 
destruction of the bridge at Wrightsville. On the twenty- 
eighth. Gen. Greorge G. Meade was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Union army, to succeed Hooker, who had asked, 
in the meantime, to be relieved. The immediate cause of 
Hooker's resignation arose from the refusal of Halleck, Gen- 
eral-in-chief , to give Hooker the control of ten thousand men 
under French at Harper's Ferry. Meade at once ordered the 
Union forces northward, placed his left wing, consisting of the 
First, Third, and Eleventh corps, under Reynolds, directing 
him to Emmitsburg, and advanced his right wing to New 
Windsor. At this time the cavalry was disposed as foUows : 
Buford on the left, Eilpatrick in front, and Gregg on the 
right. Stuart had separated himself from Lee^s in&ntry in 
Virginia, and set off on a raid around the right of the Union 
army on the twenty-fourth. He crossed the Potomac on the 
twenty-seventh, in rear of Hooker, intending to rejoin Lee by 
marching through Maryland. On the thirtieth he encountered 
Eilpatrick's cavalry at Hanover, where a short and spirited 
struggle ensued, in which Stuart was forced to retreat north- 
ward, at the same time abandoning some of his trains contain- 
ing captured property. On the next day, July 1st, he reached 
Carlisle, where he learned that Ewell had moved south towards 



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4 MAINE AT OETTY8BUBO. 

Gettysburg. He bombarded Carlisle with shell, burned the 
government barracks, and then moved south, via Mount Holly 
Gap, and did not arrive on the battlefield until the afternoon 
of July 2d, having been separated seven days from General 
Lee. The absence of Stuarfs cavalry proved to be disadvan- 
tageous to General Lee, who did not know until the evening of 
the twenty-eighth, while at Chambersburg, that Hooker had 
crossed the Potomac into Maryland. Lee still believed that 
Hooker was in Virginia, held there in check by Stuart. 

Lee at once began to concentrate his army, sent Uwell 
orders to retire from Carlisle and to recall his troops near Har- 
risburg. Rodeff and Earljfs divisions were ordered to join 
HiWs corps in the vicinity of Grettysburg, while Johnson^ s divis- 
ion with the artillery and trains approached the Chambersburg 
Pike via Shippensburg and Fayetteville. HiWs and EwdVs 
corps, on the thirtieth, advanced towards Gettysburg. Petti-- 
grew's brigade, on the same day, was ordered with several 
wagons to Gettysburg to secure clothing and shoes. 

POSITION OF THE UNION ARMY, 

OH THX ■VBHINa OF JUKB 80, IMS, TO THX fOUTH AXB BAST. 
▲VD DIBTAKT FKOM OBTTTSBUEa. 

First Corps, Doubleday (Second and Fifth Maine Batteries 
and Sixteenth Maine Regiment with this Corps) , Marsh Creek, 

5 1-2 miles south. Second Corps, Hancock (Nineteenth Maine 
Begiment with this Corps) , Uniontown, 20 miles south. Third 
Corps, Sickles (Third, Fourth, and Seventeenth Maine Regi- 
ments with this Corps), Bridgeport, 12 miles south. Fifth 
Corps, Sykes (Twentieth Maine Regiment with this Corps), 
Union Mills, 16 miles southeast. Sixth Corps, Sedgwick 
(Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Maine Regiments with this Corps) , 
Manchester, 34 miles southeast. Eleventh Corps, Howard, 
Enmiitsburg, 10 miles south. Twelfth Corps, Slocum (Tenth 
Maine Battalion at Corps headquarters), Littlestown, 10 miles 
southeast. Buford's cavalry, two brigades. Gamble's and 
Devin's, at Grettysburg. Merritt's (Regular) Brigade, Mechan- 
icstown, 18 miles south. Gregg's cavalry (First Maine 
Regiment with Gregg), Westminster, 34 miles southeast. Kil- 
patrick's cavalry, Hanover, 14 miles east. 



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MOVING TOWARDS GETTYSBURG. 5 

Dow's Sixth Maine Battery was with the Fourth Brigade 
of the reserve artillery, at Taneytown, 12 miles south. Co. D, 
2d U. S. Sharpshooters was with the Third Corps. 

General Meade's orders for July 1st were, for the First and 
Eleventh corps to move to Gettysburg, the Third to Emmits- 
burg, the Second to Taneytown, the Fifth to Hanover, and the 
Twelfth to Two Taverns ; the Sixth was left at Manchester. 

POSmON OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY, 

OH THB ■YUfHra of JXTKB 80, 1868, NORTH AMD WB8T, AND 
DISTANT ntOM OBTTTBBUBa. 

First Corps, Longsti^eefSy at Chambersburg, 25 miles 
northwest. Second Corps, EwdVs: divisions, Earli/Sj near 
Heidlersburg, 12 miles northeast; Rodef?^ Heidlersburg, 10 
miles northeast; JohnaorCs^ vicinity of Fayetteville, 21 miles 
northwest. Third Corps, HiWs: divisions, Anderson's^ Fay- 
etteville, 18 miles northwest; Pendents ^ near Cashtown, 10 
miles northwest; HetKs^ at Cashtown, 8 miles northwest; 
Pettigrew'8 brigade, at Marsh Creek, 3 1-2 miles northwest; 
Stuart's cavalry, near Dover, 21 miles northeast. 

General Lee's orders to Hill and Longstreetj for July 1st, 
were, for HetKs division with eight batteries to occupy Gettys- 
burg, Pender^s division to move promptly to HetKs support. 
Longstreet was to follow this movement with McLaws' and 
Hood's divisions. 

Buford's cavalry division, on the left of the Union army, 
was approaching Gettysburg June 30th, on the Enunitsburg 
Road, and encountered Pettigrew's brigade entering the town 
from the west. Pettigrew fell back towards Cashtown to a 
position on Marsh Run, where he notified Heth^ to whose 
division he belonged, that Gettysburg was occupied by the 
Union forces. Buford's cavalry passed through the town of 
Gettysburg about half-past eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 
Halting west of Seminary ridge he went into camp, with 
Gamble's brigade south of the railroad to cover the approaches 
from Chambersburg and Hagerstown. Devin's brigade went 
to the north of the railroad, posting his videttes on all the 
roads north and northwest. Buford sent information to Rey- 
nolds of the presence of the enemy ; and Reynolds, who was 



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6 MAINE AT OETTY8BURG. 

instructed to occupy Gettysburg, advanced the First Corps 
from Emmitsburg to Marsh Creek, about five and one-half 
miles from Gettysburg. Meade moved his right vdng forward 
to Manchester. On the night of the thirtieth, Buford held a 
conference with Beynolds at Marsh Creek, and returned, during 
the night, to his headquarters in Gettysburg with one of Rey- 
nolds' staff, who was to report to his chief early in the morning 
of the next day. 

At this time, Lee appears to have been fearful that his 
communications might be interrupted, and he was troubled by 
the naked defenses of Richmond. Xee, therefore, determined 
to draw back and make a diversion east of the South Mountain 
range to engage Meade's attention. Although Lef^s plan of 
invasion had been thwarted, he determined to defeat Meade's 
army. On the other hand, Meade, having selected the general 
line of Pipe Creek for his defense, had thrown his left wing, 
preceded by Buford's cavahy, forward to Gettysburg as a 
mask. Both generals aimed to secure Gettysburg for the 
reason that it controUed the roads towards the Potomac. Its 
occupation by the Union army proved to be of great impor- 
tance when we consider the subsequent events. 

FIRST DAY. 

The first day's battle was fought on the west and north of 
Gettysburg. It began with Buford's cavalry holding back the 
enemy's infantry beyond and along Willoughby Run until the 
arrival of the First Corps, followed by the Eleventh Corps. 
A severe engagement, especially along the front of the First 
Corps, ensued, in which Reynolds lost his life ; and the Union 
forces, under Howard, were driven from the field after Ewdl 
came from the north. Hall's Second Maine Battery opened 
the infantry fight as soon as it arrived on the ground and was 
placed in position north of the Chambersburg Pike. The prin- 
cipal fighting by the Confederates along the front of the First 
Corps was by two divisions of HiWs corps, who did not 
succeed after several attacks until reinforced by Ewell. It 
was then that the Sixteenth Maine Regiment was ordered to 



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FIRST DAY OF BATTLE. 7 

take position on the extreme right of the First Corps, at the 
Mommasburg Road, and to hold the enemy in check so that 
the remnant of the division might fall back ; and thus, under 
imperative orders to stay there at all hazards, it was delivered 
to the enemy by relentless capture. 

Stevens' Fifth Maine Battery, which occupied a position 
near the Lutheran Seminary, was sharply engaged during HUPs 
final assault, and aided by its rapid and severe fire in checking 
the enemy. The two corps of the Union army feU back 
through the town of Grettysburg, with heavy loss, but were 
not vigorously pursued by the enemy. The check given to 
the enemy's advance by the hard and desperate fighting of the 
First Corps led to results worth all the sacrifice ; but to this 
day full credit has hardly been given to the great services 
rendered by that corps, familiar as we all are with the fearful 
losses inflicted upon it. The renmants of the two corps feU 
back upon Cemetery Hill, which lies to the south of the village 
of Gettysburg, and there awaited the arrival of the remainder 
of our army. 

The chief features of the ground occupied by the Union 
army during the remainder of the battle, July 2d and 3d, may 
be described briefly as follows : South of Gettysburg there is 
a chain of hills and bluffs shaped like a fish-hook. At the 
east, which we will call the barb of the hook, is Gulp's Hill ; 
and turning to the west is Cemetery Hill, which we will call 
the shank, running north and south until it terminates near a 
slope in a rocky, wooded peak called Round Top, having Little 
Bound Top as a spur. The credit of selecting this position 
has been equally claimed by both Hancock and Howard. At 
Btancock's suggestion Meade brought the army forward from 
Pipe Creek to secure it. 

X66, having arrived at Seminary Ridge with his troops near 
the close of the first day's battle, made an examination of the 
field and left Ewell to decide for himself how far he should 
follow up the attack upon the Union army at the east of the 
town at the close of the first day's battle. At this time Ewdly 
observing the strong position occupied by the Union forces 
upon Gulp's Hill by the arrival of the Twelfth Corps under 



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8 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBO. 

Slocum, decided not to make an attack. Cemetery Hill at the 
same time was well occupied by infantry and artillery. 

On the second day Lee determined to assmne the offensive 
and resolved to give battle, although it seems that when he 
opened his campaign he had declared that it should be an 
offensive-defensive one. Probably his success on the first day 
may have induced the belief that a change from his original 
plan was well warranted. He was also influenced by the belief 
that the attacking party has the moral advantage, and in the 
light of his experience at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville 
he thought he could succeed. Longstreet urged him to move 
around the Union left, and manoeuvre Meade out of his posi- 
tion by threatening his communications with Washington ; but 
he declined to accept the advice. 

SECOND DAY. 

On the morning of the second, Le^s general line was in 
concave order of battle, fronting the Union army, parallel to 
Cemetery Hill, and about a mile distant, with his left thrown 
to the east and through the town to a point opposite Culp's 
Hill. Longatreet was on his right, occupying Seminary Ridge, 
and about a mile distant from Cemetery Hill, with Hill in the 
centre and EweU on the left. 

The Union position was in the following order, beginning 
on the right : Slocum on Culp's Hill ; Howard on Cemetery 
Hill ; Newton, who succeeded Doubleday, commanding the 
First Corps ; Hancock ; and Sickles ; the latter occupying the 
low ground between Hancock on his right and Little Round 
Top on his left. The Twelfth Corps had come upon the 
ground after the fighting of the first day. The Second Corps 
arrived on the morning of the second day. Graham's and 
Ward's brigades of the First Division of the Third Corps came 
upon the ground about seven o'clock on the night of the first 
day, followed by two brigades of the Second Division late in 
the night. One brigade from each division, left at Emmits- 
burg with artillery to guard the mountain pass, came up to 
Gettysburg in the forenoon of the second. The Fifth and 
and Sixth corps, by a hard night's march, arrived upon the 



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SEOOND DAY OV BATTLE. 9 

ground the second day. The morning of the second day was 
occupied by Meade in strengthening his position and watching 
for Lee^s attack. He believed that Lee would attack him on 
the right of our line, and prepared to move against Lee from 
that point. He finally decided to remain on the defensive. 

Lee having perfected his plans, directed Longstreet^ with 
his two divisions, then upon the field, consisting of more than 
15,000 men, to attack a salient thrown out by Sickles from the 
general line on our left at the Emmitsburg Road. Neither army 
then occupied Round Top and Longstreet endeavored to capture 
it by extending his right in that direction. Sickles' thin line, 
of less than 10,000 men, resisted Longstreet for three hours 
along the front of the Third Corps position ; the main fighting 
of the First Division being from 4 : 15 to 6 : 30 p. m., and of the 
Second Division from 6 to 8 p. m. Towards the last of it, on 
both fronts, other troops came to the assistance of the Third 
Corps. A portion of the Fifth Corps, thrown into the support 
of Sickles, after a desperate struggle, secured Round Top ; and 
though Longstreet forced Sickles back from his salient rein- 
forced by troops from the Second, Fifth, Sixth, and Twelfth 
corps, he secured only a small benefit commensurate with his 
loss after a long and bloody engagement lasting from 4 o'clock 
p. M. until it was dark and late in the night. 

The centre of the Union line was occupied by the Second 
Corps, under Hancock, who assumed conmiand of the left soon 
after Sickles was wounded. The Nineteenth Maine Regiment, 
under Colonel Heath, assisted in repulsing the attack of HiU 
at the close of the day, and made a charge driving the enemy 
beyond the Emmitsburg Road, recapturing the guns of one of 
our batteries which had been abandoned. The casualties of the 
regunent in killed and wounded exceed those of any other 
Maine regiment on this field. 

In the Third Corps position between Round Top and the 
Peach Orchard on the Emmitsburg Road, the' Fourth Maine 
Regiment, Col. Elijah Walker, was in the Devil's Den ; the 
Seventeenth, Lieut.-Col. Charles B. Merrill, was in the Wheat- 
field ; and the Third Maine, Col. Moses B. Lakeman, was in 
the angle of the salient at the Peach Orchard. 



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10 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

The Fourth Maine, with great sacrifice, successfully repelled 
a determined attempt of Law to gain the rear of Birney, and 
by counter charges was largely instrumental in holding back 
the overwhelming forces brought ngainst Devil's Den until our 
lines were established farther back. The Seventeenth Maine, 
substantially alone, held the Wheatfield against successive 
onslaughts of thrice its numbers of the veterans of Longstreet 
until it was relieved by Hancock's troops, after more than two 
hours of fighting, in which it sustained a loss of one-third of 
its strength in killed and wounded. The Third Maine with 
two other regiments in the Peach Orchard defeated the fierce 
attacks of Kershavfs South Carolinians upon the south front 
of that position, and held the ground until the enemy gained 
the rear of the Orchard, nearly surrounding the small remnant 
of the command. 

When Longstreet^ late in the day, was forcing the Union 
troops back upon our main line with the help of Hilly who 
aided to dislodge the Second Division of the Third Corps from 
the Emmitsburg Road, the reserve artillery under Major 
McGilvery assisted in repelling the enemy's final attack. The 
Sixth Battery, under Lieut. E. B. Dow, took part in the stand 
then made and enabled our infantry to re-form. 

On the extreme left of the Union line was the Twentieth 
Maine Regiment^ under Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain. His 
regiment was on the left of the Fifth Corps troops that took 
possession of Little Round Top and prevented the enemy, after 
desperate fighting, from turning our left. After expending all 
his ammunition. Colonel Chamberlain, by a timely charge, 
drove his opponents down the west side of the hill and capt- 
ured many prisoners. After dark the regiment seized and held 
Big Round Top. 

The Seventh Maine Regiment, Lieut.-Col. Selden Connor, 
took position on high ground east of Rock Creek, the extreme 
right of the Uhion infantry line, where it protected our flank, 
but was not severely engaged after having driven the enemy's 
skirmishers out along its front. 

Capt. Jacob McClure, Co. D, 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, was 
out on the skirmish line in front of the First Division of the 



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THIRD DAY OF BATTLE. 11 

Third Corps, between Round Top and the Emmitsburg Road, 
and was under constant fire from morning until the general 
advance of Longstreet in the afternoon. When the company 
fell back, some of the men remained in line of battle and filled 
vacant places in the thin line of the division. Others came 
under the command of Colonel Chamberlain on Little Round 
Top and assisted his company under Captain Morrill, who had 
command of a skirmish line on the left, where both delivered a 
flank fire upon the enemy at a critical moment. 

On the right of the Union army Uwdl gained after dark a 
foothold on Culp's Hill, where a portion of the Twelfth Corps 
had vacated its ground when ordered near night to other parts 
of the Union army. 

During the movement against Culp's Hill, Early*s division 
was directed to carry Cemetery Hill by a charge, preceded by 
an artillery fire from Benner's Hill from four Confederate 
batteries. These batteries, however, were silenced by our bat- 
teries on Cemetery Hill and Stevens' Fifth Maine Battery in 
position between Cemetery and Culp's Hill. Then Earlj^s 
infantry moved out, but were handsomely repulsed, suffering 
severe loss, especially from the enfilading fire on their left 
flank by the Fifth Maine Battery. 

THHID DAY. 

At the close of the second day, Lee believed that he had 
effected a lodgment in both flanks of the Union army. Meade 
called a council of his corps commanders and decided to remain 
and hold his position, and at daylight attacked Ewell in force 
and compelled him to give up the ground that he had occupied 
the night before that had been left vacant by a portion of the 
Twelfth Corps. Then Lee determined to attack the centre of 
the Union line held by the Second Corps. He accordingly 
ordered Longstreet^ who was opposed to the movement, to 
make this assault which is generally called ** Pickett's Charge." 
Lee massed nearly one hundred and fifty guns of his artillery 
along Seminary Ridge and the Emmitsburg Road and opened 
fire against the Union line. Barely eighty guns from our side 



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12 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

could be put in position to reply, and a tremendous artillery 
duel followed that lasted for two hours. Then Pickett^ Petti- 
grewy and Trimble^ under order of General Longstreet, with a 
column of about fifteen thousand men, made a charge into the 
centre of the Union line ; but the charge failed, although some 
of Picketfa men broke through a portion of Hancock's first 
line, where they were met, in front and flank, by other forces 
of the Second Corps, including the Nineteenth Maine Regiment, 
and some of the First Corps, which rolled them back with 
great losses in killed, wounded, and prisoners. This ended 
the fighting along the infantry line of the Union army. The 
farthest point reached by the Confederates in this charge is 
marked by the "High-Water Mark" monument. 

After the repulse of Pickett Eolpatrick made a charge from 
the extreme Union left without accomplishing much success. 
This was succeeded by an infantry reconnaissance composed of 
portions of the Fifth and Sixth corps — in the latter a part 
of the Fifth Maine Regiment participated — in the direction of 
the Peach Orchard, which resulted in the retirement of the 
enemy from nearly the entire front of the left of the Union 
lines to and beyond the Emmitsburg Road, the capture of a 
batch of prisoners, and the re-capture of a piece of artillery 
from the enemy. This successful and promising movement, 
however, was not followed up. There was a sharp and hard 
cavalry battle between Gregg, in conjunction with Custer, and 
8tuarty when the latter endeavored with his cavalry to pass 
around the Union right flank on the third day. Charges and 
counter charges were made there, and the Confederates, being 
defeated, withdrew from the field. 

Lee spent all of the fourth day and until daylight on the 
fifth preparing for retreat, but in the meantime intrenching for 
any attack that might be made. But Meade did not attack ; 
nor would he adventure anything. He permitted Lee to fall 
back to the Potomac without following up the advantage that 
he had gained. Lee crossed the Potomac at Williamsport and 
was followed some days after by Meade. 

Of the forces actually engaged, the Union loss in the battle 
of Gettysburg was twenty-three thousand out of seventy-eight 



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MAINE TROOPS ENGAGED. 18 

thousand; the Confederate was twenty-three thousand out of 
seventy thousand, — about one-third of the entire number 
engaged. 

In the following chapters will be found the accounts of the 
Maine troops at Gettysburg arranged in chronological order as 
follows : — 

Second Maine Battery, Capt. James A. Hall. 

Sixteenth Maine Regiment, Col. Charles W. TDden. 

Fifth Maine Battery, Capt. Greenlief T. Stevens. 

Third Maine Regiment, Col. Moses B. Lakeman. 

Fourth Maine Regiment, Col. Elijah Walker. 

Seventeenth Maine Regiment, Lieut.-Col. Charles B. Merrill. 

Twentieth Maine Raiment, Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain. 

Nineteenth Maine Regiment, Col. Francis E. Heath. 

Sixth Maine Battery, Lieut. Edwin B. Dow. 

Co. D, 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, Capt. Jacob McClure. 

Fifth Maine Reghnent, Col. Clark S. Edwards. 

Sixth Maine Regiment, Col. Hiram Bumham. 

Seventh Maine Regiment, Lieut.-Col. Selden Connor. 

First Maine Cavalry, Col. Charles H. Smith. 

Tenth Maine Battalion, Capt. John D. Beardsley. 



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14 MAINE AT OETTYSBUBO. 



MONUMENT 

OF 

HALL'S SECOND MAINE BATTERY. 



The monument, of white Hallowell granite, stands upon the spot 
selected for the Battery by General Reynolds on the morning of July 
1st. It stands a few feet from the Chambersburg Pike on the north side. 
Upon one face of the shaft there is countersunk in relief the head of a vol- 
unteer artillerist On the summit are five balls of black Addison granite; 
four of which rest on projecting comers of the cap, and the fifth, of larger 
size, crowns the central apex. 

ADMBilSUltBllBNTS. 

Base: six feet, by six feet, by two feet; plinth: four feet, by four feet, 
by two feet two inches; die: three feet, by three feet, by six feet; cap: two 
feet eleven inches, by two feet eleven inches, by one foot nine inches; ball: 
one foot four inches diameter; four balls, each one foot diameter. Total 
height, thirteen feet and thiree inches. 

INSCRIPTIONS. 

Hall's 

2nd Maine Battery. 

IST Brio. 

2nd Div. 

IsT Corps. 

July 1, 1863. 

On the other side fisuing the Chambersburg Pike is inscribed: 

Casualties 

2 Men Killed 

18 Wounded. 

Beside the monument stands a cannon mounted upon an iron carriage, 
which has been purchased and placed there by the survivors of the Battery. 



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HALL'S SECOND MAINE BATTERY, 

ABTILLERY BRIGADE, FIRST ARBfY CX>RFS, 
AT THS BATTLK OF OSTTTtBVBO. 



HALL'S Second Maine Battery went into action first of all 
the Maine troops. It was attached to the artillery brigade 
of the First Corps (a) ; and was the battery selected^in 
accordance with the practice of the army of the Potomac at that 
time, to accompany the leading division of the Corps upon its 
inarch. This arrangement brought it upon the field in the very 
van of the First Corps. Calef s battery of horse artillery, which 
had been assisting Buford, retired as the Second Maine came up 
to take its place ; and the latter battery at once opened upon the 
enemy the first cannonade after the arrival of the Union infantry 
and the action of General Reynolds had committed the army 
definitely to a battle for the possession of Gettysburg. 

The men who brought the six three-inch guns of the Battery 
into position to join in the deepening roar of the great battle 
were volunteers principaUy from Knox County,, but there were 
also men from Lincoln, Cumberland, York, Kennebec, Frank- 
lin, Androscoggin, and Oxford. Thirty-eight infantry-men, 
detailed from the Sixteenth Maine Begiment, also did duty 
with the Battery on this day. Captain James A. Hall, of 
Damariscotta, a young soldier whose conduct in other cam- 
paigns had earned his promotion from the first lieutenantcy, 
commanded the Battery. 

General Rejrnolds in person selected the position for the 
Battery, on the right of and near the Chambersburg Pike, on 
the left of and several yards (b) from the deep cut of an unfin- 

(a) The inscription upon the monument assigns the Second Battery to 
the First Brigade, Second Division. First Corps. General Hall states, how- 
ever, that after January, 1863, all batteries ceased to be attached to brigades 
and divisions of in^Emtry, and constituted an artillerv brigade, their com- 
manders reporting directly to corps headquarters. This rule did not apply 
to the reserve artillery, which was under an independent commander. 

(b) In 1S87 General Hall visited the field and found the position occu- 
pied by the rig[nt guns of the Battery. By a measurement made by him, the 
distance from it to the cut was found to be only twenty-one yards. 



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16 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

ished railroad which extended from Gettysburg in a direction 
nearly parallel with the Chambersburg Pike. The position 
which General Beynolds selected is the spot upon which the 
State of Maine has erected its monument of the Battery. It 
conunanded the approaches along the Chambersburg Pike, and 
overlooked, as it does to-day, a broad and beautiful expanse of 
country, which rises and falls in gentle slopes of fields, past- 
ures and forests as far as the blue South Mountain range to 
the west and north. 

As General Beynolds and Captain Hall rode up to this 
position on the morning of July 1, 1863, the nearest of those 
slopes was already occupied by the deploying columns of 
Heth's division of Hill's corps, the van of Lee's army. At the 
same time, from a ridge to the westward, nearly twenty Con- 
federate cannon were cannonading the ground upon which the 
infantry of the First Corps was forming. ''Pay your atten- 
tion to those guns," said General Beynolds to Captain Hall, 
"and draw their fire from our infantry while it is forming." 
And to General Wadsworth, commander of the First Division 
of the Corps, who rode up at that moment, he said : **Put a 
strong support on the right of this battery ; I will look out for 
the left." With these words (a) General Beynolds rode away 
to the left, where he was soon after killed in the thick of the 
fight. To this position, hastily chosen amid the crash of the 
rapidly increasing battle, the Second Maine Battery moved up at 
once. It was then between 10 and 11 o'clock in the forenoon. 

The Second Maine, galloping up to the position designated 
by General Beynolds, formed, '' by piece, to the left into bat^ 
tery" and opened fire, enfilading the Chambersburg Pike and 
playing with effect upon the Confederate batteries that were 
annoying General Beynolds' infantry. It was a critical 
moment when the Battery came upon the field, and its com- 
mander had no time to examine closely the ground about him, — 
apparently the field extending away to his right, and covered 
with un-mown grass, was smooth and unbroken. Of the deep 
railroad cut along the right of his position he saw no sign 

(a) Gen. J. A. Hall remembers these orders, which were given in his 
presence. 



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hall's batteby opens. 17 

whatever ; and as he naturally took position on the left of his 
Battery and nearer the CJhambersburg Pike, he received no 
intimation of the existence of the cut until the Battery had 
been firing some time (a) . He was suddenly undeceived when 
Lieutenant Carr reported that a body of the enemy were within 
twenty yards of the right gun of the Battery. 

The movement which had taken place was most menacing 
to the Second Maine. About the time the Battery came into 
position, or a little before, Gen. Joseph R. Davis' Confederate 
brigade, of Heth's division, was also deploying on the same 
side of the Chambersburg Pike, fronting the Battery, but 
masked by an intervening ridge. Davis' brigade brought into 
line that morning three regiments, the 42d Mississippi on the 
right, 55th North Carolina on the left, and 2d Mississippi in 
the centre (b) . These regiments advanced against Gen. Lysan- 
der Cutler's (c) brigade, of the First Division, the greater 
part of which General Wadsworth had stationed to the right of 
the Second Maine's position in compliance with General Rey- 
nolds' directions. 

Cutler's troops, however, did not withstand the advance 
of Davis, which struck their right flank with force and com- 
pelled a large portion of the brigade to retire. This left the 
Battery exposed to the enemy, who could advance upon its 
right flank or annoy it from the shelter of the railroad cut. 
Captain Hall did not at first believe it possible that the enemy 
could be in the position described by Lieutenant Carr; but 
riding to the right he was convinced at once that the line of 
soldiers levelling their muskets at his men were the enemy. 
Lieutenant Ulmer, who was commanding the guns of the right 
section, with great coolness and judgment had anticipated the 
orders of Captain Hall, and, turning two pieces towards the 
advancing line, opened upon them with double-shotted canister. 
This discharge sent the Confederates tumbling back into the 
cut; but the Confederate skirmishers, shielding themselves 

(a) Statement of Captain Hall in 1889. 

(b) Official report of Confederate General J. R. Davis, Aug. 26, 1863. 
Confederate corps, divisions, and brigades were respectively larger than the 
corresponding organizations in the Union army. 

(c) General Cutler was long a resident or Maine ; moved west in 1857; 
his bngade was composed of N. Y., Penn. and Ind. r^:ts. 



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18 MAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 

behind such natural protections as the ground afforded, were 
able to pick off the gunners who had just repelled the battle 
line so gallantly. For obvious reasons a battery, though 
effective against troops in a body, is at the mercy of scattered 
skirmishers unless it is protected by an infantry support. 
Having no such support, the Second Battery found it necessary 
to retire at once, before the enemjr's skirmishers should succeed 
in disabling it by killing men and horses. Lieutenant Ulmer 
was directed to take his two guns of the right section, retire 
with them two hundred and fifty or three hundred yards, and 
take position to enfilade the railroad cut, which was affording 
shelter to the Confederates. The other four guns were kept at 
work in the old position by Captain Hall, who intended to 
remain there until Lieutenant Ulmer could open fire from the 
new position. But Lieutenant Ulmer was not allowed to carry 
out his part of this plan. As he retired the Confederates fol- 
lowed in the cut ; and before he could fire a shot they charged 
upon him. They shot down horses and men, and he succeeded 
in getting his guns beyond their reach with the greatest diffi- 
culty. One gun was dragged off by hand, all the horses 
attached to it having been shot. 

Meanwhile the other guns of the Battery were in the great- 
est jeopardy. The Confederate infantry were forming in the 
cut for another charge. Not a moment could be lost. A high 
fence and an enfilading fire from Confederate batteries rendered 
a movement into the Chambersburg Pike impracticable. The 
only way open for a retreat was through the field between the 
pike and railroad cut. The order was given at once ; and the 
intrepid artillery-men began the movement obediently, under 
a heavy fire. The Confederates shot all the horses attached to 
one gun, and the artillery-men were obliged to leave it tem- 
porarily (a) ; but the remainder were brought to a place of 
safety on the Chambersburg Pike. Captain Hall was about to 
return to take off his unhorsed and abandoned gun, when 
General Wadsworth gave him a peremptory order to lose no 
time in getting his battery into position on the heights near 

(a) The Confederate troops were I>avi8' brigade. Davis was shortly 
after driven out of his advanced position with a large loss of prisoners, 
caught like mice in the railroad cut by a gallant charge of Union regiments. 



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haul's battbby engaged. 19 

the town to oover the retiring of the First Corps. So that 
gun remained upon the field until, later. Captain Hall with his 
own men and horses took it off. 

The conduct of the Battery during the half hour in which 
it had been engaged had been conspicuously gallant. It had 
maintained itself against the concentrated fire of the Confed- 
erate guns massed against its position, returning their fire with 
such effect that several of the enemy's pieces were disabled ; 
and had, without the assistance of infantry, repulsed one Con- 
federate charge (a). But the little conunand had suffered 
severely. Two men had been killed outright and eighteen had 
been wounded. Twenty-eight horses had been killed, and 
Captain Hall's horse had been severely wounded under its 
rider. Three of the six guns had been temporarily disabled, 
one gun carriage and two axles being broken. Of this part of 
the battle General Hall has written (in 1889) as follows : — 

" For one, who, under the blessings of a kind Providence, has been car- 
ried through a trying ordeal on the field of battle, to write the story which is 
in a limited degree the chronicle of his own acts is not agreeable to me. A 
generous country has given the Second Maine Battery full credit for what it 
performed on the field of Gettysburg July x, 1863, while eminent soldiers, 
high in military renown, have been more than generous in commendation 
of the condact of the company on that day. It was one of those moments 
when fortune seems to come to men beyond expectation, and by dealing 
kindly with tried humanity permits mortals to accomplish results which 
they could not hope for. If I should be asked if I could again take the 
Second Maine Battery as it was July i, 1863, into that action, do what we 
then did, and get away with so little loss, I should answer, ' I do not think 
I could.' If repeated a thousand times I would have no hope of once being 
so highly favored as we were then. It was one of those rare occasions in 
warfiu'e when unexpected favors were at hand, and when some invisible 
protection was very kind. Hence the command was rescued, while another 
company, in the same position and equally as well commanded, might have 
been destroyed, with no one at fault. I am sure that no mistakes were 
made by my officers and men,— not one. Every man did his full duty and 
fiu* more. My Lieutenants, William N. Ulmer, of Rockland, Me., afterwards 
Captain of the Battery, Albert F.Thomas and Frank Carr,both of Thomaston 



he is of the opinion that the Maine ffnnners would have come off with the honors 
of the duel. Before the Confedentes appeared on the risht flank the Second Maine 
had silenced three or four of the Ckm federate guns and was in good CQnditi<»i for a 
iMig cannonade. Bnt the Union right had been overlapped, and without infantry 
snpport the Battery could not remain. 



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20 MAINE AT OETTYSBUBG. 

and both now dead, with all the non-conunissioned officers and men, 
were possessed with bnt one mind on that field; namely, to save the guns 
or die in the attempt I have always given Ulmer great credit for his 
prompt, soldierly, and heroic work in meeting the first appearance of the 
enemy on our right 

" One ridiculous thing in some of the histories of the battle has caused 
me annoyance, namely: as our last gun was retiring into the pike from the 
second ridge to the rear, all the horses on it were killed, and that gun 
remained on the field in Jeopardy for some time, until with a pair of horses, 
a sergeant, and two men I was able to take it off safely. It has been 
claimed by several other commands that they fired that gun with telling 
effect upon the enemy. As the gun while standing upon the field without 
horses was not moved, and was not even unlimbered, of course it was not 
fired and could not have been fired during that time." 

It was between 11 and 12 o'clock in the forenoon when the 
Battery was brought to a safe position near the town on the 
Chambersburg Piie (a) . The First Corps, until this time the 
only Union troops upon the field, were hard pressed ; and it 
was to prepare for their retirement to the strong position of 
Cemetery Hill that General Wadsworth ordered the Second 
Maine to move through the town and take that position in 
advance. Tlie Battery retired according to orders and took a 
commanding position in the old cemetery. But meanwhile 
General Howard with the Eleventh Corps had appeared ; and 
the Battery was scarcely in position before an aide came from 
General Wadsworth saying that the front line was to be held 
and directing the Battery to return. 

The Battery at once moved down the hill, through the 
streets of the town, and, taking the line of the unfinished rail- 
road, proceeded to Seminary Ridge. The enemy's artillery 
were at that time enfilading this cut, but the movement was 
made without casualties. At Seminary Ridge the Battery 
received the order to move by a wood road along the ridge 
towards the Union right and ''go into battery" on the open 
ground beyond. But before the movement was completed it 
was found that the enemy were in possession in that direction ; 
and the Battery was forced to return to the Chambersburg 

(a) In his official report of the battle Gen. Abner Doubleday, who 
commanded the First Corps, says: " The dispositions made by Captain 
Hall to meet the emergency were both able and resolute." This refers, 
of course, to the repulse of the charge from the railroad cut. 



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hall's batteby engaged. 21 

Pike. There it was met by Colonel Wainwright, chief of 
artillery of the First Corps, who, seeing that the Battery had 
but three guns left for work, ordered it to return to the posi- 
tion upon Cemetery Hill (a) . Before obeying the order Cap- 
tain Hall was allowed to recover the gun left in the forenoon, 
which had been kept from the Confederates by an opportune 
advance of the Union infantry soon after it had been abandoned. 

On July 2d, the second day of the battle, the three effective 
guns of the Battery were stationed on the extreme left of the 
line of artillery in the cemetery. Here at 4.15 p. m. the Bat- 
tery opened fire in reply to the enemy's guns, and continued 
in action until the latter ceased firing for the day. In this 
action one of the gun carriages was disabled by the force of a 
recoil, and the Battery was retired that night for repairs (b)« 
During the battles of the two days it had fired six hundred 
and thirty-five rounds of ammunition. 

The monument erected by the State of Maine stands, as 
has already beeu stated, upon the spot selected for the Battery 
by Greneral Reynolds on the morning of the first day. Cut 
from the granite of Maine it is, both in size and design, an 
appropriate memorial. 

In the Evergreen Cemetery, at Gettysburg, a granite tablet has been 
erected to mark the position of the Battery on the second day of the battle^ 
bearing this inscription: 

Hall's 

Batteby. 

2nd Maine. 

July 2, 1863. 



(a) In retiring through the town the second time the Battery was 
unmolested, as the Union lines had not begun to give way extensively 
enough to allow the enemy to advance to the town. General Doubleday, 
in his historv of the battle, says of the retreat of the First Corps: " I remem* 
ber seeing Hall's Battery and the 6th Wisconsin R^;iment halt from time 
to time to (ace the enemy and fire down the streets." Captain Hall says 
that some other battery must have been mistaken for his, as the Second 
Maine passed through the streets before the general retreat. 

(b) In the afternoon of the second day Captain Hall had command of 
several batteries of reserve artillery. On the third day he was on duty with 
General Hunt, Chief of Artillery <» the army of the Potomac. 



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MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF CAPT. JAMES A. HALL. 

Near Berlin, Md., July i6, 1863. 

Colonel: — I have the honor to submit the following as my report of 
the part taken by my Battery at the battle of Gettysburg, on July ist, 2d, 
and 3d: — 

We were in camp on the morning of July ist at Marsh Creek, four miles 
from Gettysburg. At 9 a. m. marched, following the advance brigade of 
the First Division, First Army Corps, to the battlefield, about a half a mile 
south and west of town, where we were ordered into position by General 
Re3molds on the right of the Cashtown Road, some 400 yards beyond Sem- 
inary Hill. The «iemy had previously opened a battery of six guns directly 
in our front at 1,300 yards distance, which they concentrated upon me as I 
went into position, but with very little effect. 

We opened upon this battery with shot and shell at 10.45 a. m., our 
first six shots causing the enemy to change the position of two of his guns 
and place them imder cover behind a bam. In twenty-five minutes from 
the time we opened fire a column of the enemy's infantry charged up a 
ravine on our right fiank within sixty yards of my right piece, when they 
commenced shooting down my horses and wounding my men. I ordered 
the right and centre sections to open upon this column with canister, and 
kept the left firing upon the enemy's artillery. This canister fire was very 
effective and broke die charge of the enemy, when, just at this moment, to 
my surprise I saw my support falling back without any order having been 
given me to retire. Feeling that if the position was too advanced for 
infantry it was equally so for artillery, I ordered the Battery to retire by 
sections, although having no order to do so. The support falling back rap- 
idly, the right section of the Battery, which I ordered to take position some 
seventy-five yards to the rear, to cover the retiring of the other four pieces, 
was charged upon by the enemy's skirmishers and four of the horses from 
one of the guns shot. The men of the section dragged this gun off by hand. 

As the last piece of the Battery was coming away, all its horses were 
shot, and I was about to return for it myself, when General Wadsworth 
gave me a peremptory order to lose no time, but get my Battery in position 
near the town, on the heights, to cover the retiring of the troops. 

I sent a sergeant with five men after the piece, all of whom were 
wounded or taken prisoners. I had got near to the position I had been 
ordered to take, when I received another order from General Wadsworth to 
bring my gims immediately back; the officer bringing the order saying he 
would show me the road to take, which was the railroad grading leading 
out from town, which was swept at the time by two of the enemy's guns 
from the hills beyond, through the excavations at Seminary Hill. 

Having gotten on to this road, from its construction I could not turn 
from it on either side, and was obliged to advance 1,200 yards under this 
raking fire. Arriving at Seminary Hill, I found no one to show me the 
position I was to occupy, and placed my Battery in park under cover of the 
hill, and went forward to see where to take position, wh^i I again met an 



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hall's official report. 23 

aide of General Wadsworth, who ordered me to go to the right along the 
woods, pass over the crest and over a ravine, and there take position. 

Obeying this order, I moved towards the right until met by an orderly, 
who informed me I was going directly into the enemy's lines, which were 
advancing from this direction. I halted my command and rode forward, 
but before reaching the described position was fired upon by the enemy's 
skirmishers. I then countermarched my Battery and moved to near the 
seminary, and was going forward to ascertain, if possible, where to go, 
when I met Colonel Wainwright, who informed me my abandoned gun was 
still on the field, and that he had refused to put the Battery into the position 
desired by General Wadsworth. I then took a limber and went back upon 
the field with one sergeant, and recovered the abandoned gun with parts of 
all the harness, and immediately moved back through the town, putting my 
only three guns which were not disabled in position, by order of General 
Howard, on the left of the cemetery. 

On the second we opened fire in reply to the enemy's guns /it 4.15 p. m., 
and continued in action until the enemy's artillery ceased for the day, dur- 
ing which time another gun was disabled by its axle breaking by the recoil, 
when I was relieved by a battery from the reserve artillery, and, by order of 
General Newton, went to the rear to repair damages, and the Battery took 
no further part in the engagement. 

Casualties, first day, eighteen men wounded and four taken prisoners; 
twenty -eight horses killed and six wounded; one gun-carriage rendered 
useless, two axles broken. Second day, one axle broken. Fired during 
engagement, 635 rounds of ammunition. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James A. Hall, 
Captain^ Commanding Second Maine Battery, 
Col. C. S. Wainwright, 

Commanding Artillery Brigade ^ First Army Corps, 

— Rebellion Records, Series /, Vol. xxvii^ p. j^p. 



PARTICIPANTS. 

At the battle of Gettysburg the Second Maine Battery carried the 
names of one hundred and fifty officers and men on its rolls, thirty-five of 
whom were detailed from the Sixteenth Maine Infantry, two from the 13th 
Mass. Infantry, and two from the 97th New York Infantry, thus leaving but 
one hundred and eleven of its own men. The present for duty (including 
three on daily duty and seven present sick) is made up from ninety-two 
names of the battery men proper, thirty-one from the Sixteenth Maine, two 
firom the 13th Mass., and two from the 97th New York, a total of one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven. The six on detached service are all battery men, 
while the seventeen absent sick are made up of thirteen battery men and 
four fh>m the Sixteenth Maine. A large portion of this detail from the Six- 
teenth Maine was later transferred permanently to the Fifth Maine Battery. 



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24 



MAINE AT GETTY8BUBO. 



(iNCLUDiiro 



Prbsbnt for Duty, 
ov daii.t dutt ajtd umymk 



SICK.) 



COMMIS8IONSD OPFICBRS. 

Captain, James A« Hall, Damariscotta. 
First Lieutenant, William N. Ulmer, Rockland. 
Second Lieutenant, Albert F. Thomas, Thomaston. 
Second Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Carr, Thomaston. 

SBRGBANTS. 

John Montgomery, Boothbay, Austin Reed, Boothbay, 

Asia F. Arnold, Damariscotta, William A. Davis, Damariscotta, 

Charles E. Stubbs, New Gloucester, Anthony N. Greely, Rockland, 

Thomas £. Barry, Cape Elizabeth, Oscar Spear, Warren. 



CORPORALS. 



Nathan Batchelder, St. George, 
John W. Turner, Camden, 
Asbury Staples, Cape Elizabeth, 
Cyrus T. Parker, Windham, 
Franklin Tolman, Rockland, 
Cyrus N. Mills, Rockland, 



George F. Thomas, Rockland, 
Charles Allen, Rockland, 
James Ward, Philadelphia, Pa., 
Warren Ott, Camden, 
John Marsh, Portland. 



Alexander Burgess, Warren, 



MUSICIANS. 

Ezekiel F. Demuth. Thomaston. 



ARTIFICERS. 

Percy Mon^omery, Rockland, Thomas G. Huntington, Richmond. 



PRIVATES. 



Achom, Washington, Rockland, 
Barnard, Alvin, Waldoboro, 
Barrington, John, Rockland, 
Brackley, Orrin, Freeman, 
Bums, George W., Vinalhaven, 
Coriiaulen, Cornelius, Camden, 
Davis, Alpheus S., Warren, 
Derby, Samuel, Rockland, 
Farrington, Jacob U., Rockland, 
Gardiner, Benjamin B., Rockland, 
Green, Alva F., Rockland, 
Harding, Samuel J., Camden, 
Hewitt, Anson, Rockland, 



Ames, Charles E., Damariscotta, 
Barnes, George E., Camden, 
Blackington, Leland, Camden, 
Bunker, George, Rockland, 
Colby, James, Fox Island, 
Crie, Reuben F., Matinicus Isle PI., 
Davis, Harrison H., Liberty, 
Fales, Abner A., Thomaston, 
Fletcher, Charles D., Camden, 
Greely, Almond, Rockland, 
Hall, Henry E., Matinicus Isle PI., 
Harrington, Thomas J., St George, 
Hysom, George W., Jr., Bristol, 



Ingraham, Clarence, So. Thomaston, Ingraham, Elbridge G. S., Camden, 
Jameson, Charles A., Rockland, . Jones, Charles, Athens, 



Jones, Samuel E., Camden, 
Kellar, Moses J., Camden, 
Knowles, Joseph P., Rockland, 
McCollum, James D., Warren, 
Marsh, Robert N., Rockland, 
Meservey, Morrill J., Camden, 
Nichols, Henry, Thomaston, 
Orbeton, William N., Camden, 
Parks, George T., Damariscotta, 



Kellar, John M., Rockland, 
Kirkpatrick, Benjamin, Rockland, 
Linnekin, Alonzo D., Warren, 
McDonald, Ambrose, Portland, 
Melvin, Hartwell, Camden, 
Nash, John B., Warren, 
Nutter, John F., Wellington, 
Ott, William H., Camden, 
Pinkham, Orrin G., Strong, 



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hall's battebt pabtigipants. 25 

PUisted, Orin, Seanmont, Ray, Myron, Camden, 

Rhines, Isaiah, Damariscotta, Ripley, Frederick, Appleton, 

Soowdeal, Joseph, South Thomaston, Spaulding, Charles H., Rockland, 
Spaulding, Robert, Rockland, Starrett, Augustus, Warren, 

Thompson, James L., Rockland, Thomdike, Richard N., Camden, 
Uhner, Frank H., Rockland, Ulmer, Frederick H., Rockland, 

Vining, James, Avon, Walsh, Spencer C, Rockland, 

Witham, Franklin P., Rockland, Witham, Odbrey, Rockland, 
Wood, Jerome B., Rockland. 

Dbtachkd Sixtbbnth Mainb Mbn Prksbmt with thb Battery. 
Allen, Lorenzo D., Canton, Baker, Amos, Hartland, 

Brann, Charles P.. Gardiner, Brown, William, Newcastle, 

Christophers, Christopher, Washburn, Cross, Charles E., Waterville, 
Davis, Charles F., Gardiner, Dodge, Frank, Newcastle, 

Gardiner, George W., Gardiner, Gowell, John B., Calais, 
Gray, Enoch P., Lovell, Hathom, Charles, Veazie, 

Hilton, Smith, Lewiston, Jennings, RoUin F., Leeds, 

Kingdon, John, Maysville, Lane, Newman B., Augusta, 

Leavitt, James, Patten, Little, Amo, Vienna, 

McCoUum, John, Ellsworth, McGinley, John, Biddeford, 

McGrath, Charles E., Brownfield, McKeen, John H., Patten, 
Murphy, Jeremiah, Augusta, Priest, James S., Vassalboro, 

Roberts, Matthew, Lewiston, Savage, William K., Gardiner, 

Sawyer, John L., Passadumkeag, Smith, Charles, Philadelphia, Pa., 
Spear, Nahum, Gardiner, Turner, Henry, Rome, 

Waterhouse, John W., Farmingdale. 

On Dbtachbd Sbrvicb. 
Privatbs: Gleason, George R., Thomaston; Oliver, Joseph, Thomas- 
ton; in Hospital Dept Art Brigade. 



REVISED REPOBT OF CASUALTIES. 

Sbrgbamt: Thomas E. Barry, wounded July ist 
Cobporal: James Ward, Pennsylvania, wounded July ist. 

PRIVATBS. 

Knowles, Joseph P., wounded July ist. 

Orbeton, William N., wounded July ist 

Thomdike, Richard N., wounded July ist 

Ulmer, Frederick H., killed July xst; reported missing or prisoner. 

Dbtachbd Mbn of Sixtbbnth Maii^b Rbgimbnt, 
Sbrving with thb Battbrv. 
privatbs. 
Brann, Charles P., Co. B, wounded July ist. 
Hathom, Charles, Co. H, wounded July ist. 
McGinley, John, Co. H, wounded July ist. 
Smith, Charles, Pennsylvania, Co. D, wounded July ist. 



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26 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Note coTvceming the foregoing report of casualties. 

Captain Hall in his official report states that eighteen men 
were wounded. An explanation between his report and the 
above will be found in the fact that those who were wounded 
slightly returned to duty, and their names do not thus appear 
in the official reports subsequently returned to the adjutant 
general. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH OF SECOND MAINE BATTERY. 

COMPILED BY CHARLES HAMLIN 
FBOM OmOIAL AKD OTHSB 8OUB0B8. 

This battery was raised at large, and was mustered into the 
United States service November 30, 1861, organized as follows : 

Captain: I>avis Tillson, Rockland. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

James A. Hall, Damariscotta, Samuel Paine, Portland. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Samuel Fessenden, Portland, William A. Perry, Rockland. 

SERGEANTS. 

William P. Simonton, Camden, Albert F. Thomas, Thomaston, 

William N. Ulmer, Rockland, Benjamin F. Carr, Thomaston, 

Benjamin Kirkpatrick, Rockland, Homer Richmond, Warren, 

John Montgomery, Boothbay, Charles D. Jones, Waldoboro. 

CORPORALS. 

William Brown, Deer Isle, Lewis L. Smith, Rockland, 

Monroe Durgin, Thomaston, Thomas E. Barry, Cape Elizabeth, 

Charles E. Stubbs, New Gloucester, Thatcher Burbank, Strong, 

Charles H. Gloyd, Thomaston, Charles L. Fletcher, Rockport, 

Calvin P. Lincoln, Searsmont, Asia F. Arnold, Damariscotta, 

Timothy F. Goudy, Bristol, Samuel Wier, Rockland. 

MUSICIANS. 

Alexander Burgess, Warren, Ezekiel F. Demuth, Thomaston. 

ARTIFICEl^S. 

William Russell, Camden, James £. Thomdike, Rockland, 

Percy Montgomery, Rockland, Anson Hewett, Rockland. 

James H. Seely, Strong, 

Wagoner: Isaac Young, Damariscotta. 



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hall's battery mSTORICAL SKETCH. 27 

BATTLES. 

1863. Cross Keys, June 8; Cedar Mountain, August 9; Rappahannock 
Station, August 21, 22, 23; Thoroughfare Gap, August 29; Second Bull Run, 
August 50; Chantilly, September i; Fredericksburg, December 13. 

1863. Chancellorsville, May 1-6; Gettysburg, July i, 2, 3. 

1864. Wilderness, May 6; Spotsylvania, May 10-17; North Anna, May 
24, 25; Bethesda Church, June i, 2, 3; Cold Harbor, June 12; Petersburg, 
June 17-30; ]^y y> (550 rounds this day). 

SKIRMISHES. 

1862. Strasburg, June i; Woodstock, June 2; Mount Jackson, June 4; 
New Market, June 5; Harrisburg, June 6; Port Republic, June 9. 

The battery was organized in the winter of 1861-62 ; the 
first squad being mustered at Augusta for three years, Novem- 
ber 30, 1861, and on December 14th and 28th others were 
mustered in ; and from that time to March 28, 1862, the ranks 
were being fiUed and the battery drilled by its captain. Later 
they went to Portland, where the battery remained stationed 
at Fort Preble until April 2d, when it left for Washington, 
and went into camp on Capitol Hill to prepare for active ser- 
vice in the field. April 2 2d Captain Tillson was promoted to 
Major of Maine Light Artillery, and assigned as chief of 
artiUery to Ord's (afterwards Ricketts') division. He was 
succeeded by Captain Hall, who was promoted to the captaincy 
of the battery. 

April 25th the batteiy, equipped with six 3-inch ordnance 
guns, took up its line of march, and four days after arrived at 
Manassas. Prom thence it went to Front Royal, Cross Keys, 
and Port Republic in the Shenandoah Valley. Its first engage- 
ment was at Cross Keys. On June 1st the right and left 
sections of the battery were sent forward to report to Greneral 
Bayard, then on the road to Strasburg. On the 16th the 
detached portion returned to Front Royal, after which the 
army fell back and the battery encamped at Manassas, where 
it remained until the 5th of July. On that day it took up its 
line of march and, passing through Buckland and New Balti- 
more, it arrived at Warrenton on the afternoon of the next day. 

On July 20th Lieutenant Fessenden was appointed aide- 
de-camp on the staff of Greneral Tower. Three days after, 
the battery moved and went to Waterloo, where it remained 



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28 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

encamped until August 5th, when it went to Culpeper Court 
House. Four days after, the battery engaged the enemy five 
miles beyond Culpeper, at Cedar Mountain, for about half an 
hour and silenced their batteries. During this battle at Cedar 
Mountain the battery came up gallantly to the fire, and opened 
upon the flank of the rebel camp near morning. The principal 
engagement with the enemy here was in a midnight attack 
August 9th. The splendid service of the battery was evidenced 
the next morning by the enemy's losses seen in front of its 
position. This was the beginning of the engagements with the 
enemy in the Pope campaign. On the fifteenth the battery 
moved from its encampment, at Cedar Mountain, and after 
marching eight or nine miles, went into camp on the plantation 
formerly owned by the rebel general Ewell. Two days later 
it marched to Mitchell's Station, on the Bapidan River. The 
bridges across this river having been destroyed, the Battery 
proceeded to the Bappahannock Biver, where August 21st it 
engaged the enemy all day, holding its position until the twen- 
ty-third, when it was sent to guard a bridge which was burned 
by our army before its retreat. August 22d the battery was 
reinforced by thirteen recruits. These recuits were enlisted by 
Lieut. W. N. Ulmer, who was sent to Maine for that purpose. 
They were mustered at Augusta, August 16th, and sent to the 
front as fast as steam could take them. One of their survivors, 
B. Fred Crie, speaks thus of this incident: "We were wel- 
comed as f raw recruits ' and provided with coffee and hard tack. 
Then each was assigned to his future place in the ranks, and 
given the best possible place for a night's rest. You know by 
experience what the bed was and how far it was from the floor 
to the ceiling of our new apartment, as the only thing to be 
seen above us was the stars, and beneath us, mother earth. 
We had heard that a soldier's duty was to obey orders and that 
we did. Before we had taken rations the next morning, the 
* Johnnies' sent their compliments over to us and we were not 
slow to reply ; and for a few hours the artillery duel went on, 
our loss being two horses killed." 

The battery having proceeded to Thoroughfere Grap, it 
engaged the enemy on the twenty-ninth, having one piece dis- 



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hall's battbbt historical sketch. 29 

abled. On the thirtieth it engaged the enemy on the old battle- 
field of Bull Run, where it took an active part. In this ^ht 
Lieut. Samuel Fessenden lost his life, two men were wounded 
and one missing — probably killed in action. Lieutenant Fes- 
senden, acting as aide-de-camp to General Tower, was mortally 
wounded the afternoon of August 30th, having his horse killed 
under him at the same instant, while in the advance of his 
conmiand in immediate proximity to the enemy, and leading a 
regiment of his brigade under a murderous fire of musketry 
into close action, during one of the most critical and sanguinary 
periods of the disastrous engagements of that day. He died 
September 1st at Centreville. 

From an unpublished paper by Brevet Maj. A. B. Twitchell, 
who was at the time mentioned connected with the Fifth Maine 
Battery (Leppien's), we extract the following to show the 
desperate situation and hot work : 

" The Fifth Battery on the afteraoon of August 30th followed Tower's 
brigade towards Bald Hill and went into position some considerable dis- 
tance in rear and a little to the right of the hill, and the battery opened fire 
leisurely to get range of the enemy's position. Very shortly we became 
aware of the seriousness of the engagement on our left and at Bald Hill; 
Tower's troops seemed to be yielding; a battery that had been in position 
at the hill limbered up and went to the rear, and inunediately thereafter 
Maj. Davis Tillson, Chief of Artillery, galloped up to our battery and gave 
the order: ' Limber up and follow me! ' and we complied in hot haste. 
As we moved rapidly to the front he ordered us into position at Bald Hill, a 
little to the front and left of Tower's troops. We succeeded in placing our 
guns in position and attempted to open fire, but it was an abortive attempt, 
as the Confederate infantry were already close upon us, firing as they 
advanced, shooting down our cannoneers and horses in a moment and tak- 
ing possession of our guns (all but one)." 

The next engagement was at Chantilly, September 1st, 
after which the battery was ordered to turn over its guns and 
horses to Capt. James Thompson, battery C, Penn. artillery, 
and proceed to Washington for a new outfit. 

Arriving in Washington on September 11th, the battery 
remained in the defenses of that city until October 13th, when 
it crossed over into Maryland and marched to Sharpsburg. 
During its stay in Washington, the battery received a new 
supply of guns, horses, and equipments, also a few recruits. 
It arrived at 'the front during the battle of Antietam, but did 



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30 BiAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

not reach that battlefield in time to take part in the battle. 
Bemainlng at Sharpsburg about a week, it then moved again 
into Virginia, going into camp at Brook Station, November 
23d, after having been on the move nearly four weeks. 
Here a detail of about thirty men from the Siicteenth Maine 
Regiment joined the battery, which by sickness and otherwise 
had lost a number of its men. These men proved to be of the 
best quality ; two of whom were killed and many wounded. 
After a year's service with this battery the remnant of this 
detail was transferred permanently to the Fifth Maine Battery. 

On the 9th of December it took up the line of march in the 
movement upon Fredericksburg under General Burnside. It 
took its first position on the north side of the Rappahannock 
River under direction of Captain De Russy, U. S. A. On the 
night of the eleventh it fired a few shots at the enemy, and 
the next day crossed the river. 

On the following day, December 13th, on which the crisis 
of the battle of Fredericksburg took place, the battery was 
ordered into position at nine o'clock in the forenoon in a 
cornfield on the south side of the pike road, and on the left of 
General Gibbon's division to support its left flank, where 
it opened fire upon a rebel battery, sixteen hundred yards 
diagonally on the right flank, which was playing on it, and 
which soon turned its fire in another direction. As the heavy 
mist which hung over the battlefield cleared away. Captain 
Hall found he was exposed to a cross-fire from a battery of 
the enemy, seven hundred yards directly on his left flank, 
which opened with a well-directed and rapid fire of solid shot, 
that was very galling. The battery maintained its position 
nearly thirty minutes, when, by order of General Gibbon, 
Captain Hall sent his caissons back across the road under 
cover ; not however until a limber chest of one of them was 
blown up. The guns were kept in position, firing only occa- 
sionally into the woods, until two o'clock in the afternoon, 
when the battery commenced shelling the woods in their front, 
where our infantry were about to advance. On the advance of 
General Gibbon's line the battery was posted within two 
hundred yards of the woods, into which they directed a rapid 



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hall's battery mSTOBICAL SKETCH. 31 

fire of shell, which was continued until Gibbon's division fell 
back, retiring some distance in the rear. Captain Hall now 
discovered a body of the enemy advancing from the woods in 
front of his left, upon which at a distance of two hundred 
yards he opened with case shot and canister, cutting down 
men and colors, until his last round was expended, when he 
was obliged to retire. Qn the morning of the fourteenth the 
Battery took a position on the extreme left of the line assigned 
by General Beynolds' chief of artillery. Late in the after- 
noon of the fifteenth it recrossed the river and took position 
on the heights, covering the bridge over which General Frank- 
lin's troops were crossing. The casualties during the battle 
were two men killed, fourteen wounded; twenty-five horses 
killed and six wounded. In this hard-fought and severe battle 
the survivors of this battery claim to have blown up one of 
the enemy's caissons and to have completely silenced the bat- 
tery to which it belonged. The battery occupied, as will easily 
be seen, a most trying position. A charge was made by the 
enemy against the battery across the field from the woods at 
the foot of the heights in front of the battery. They came on 
with a determination to take the battery, but in this they were 
mistaken, though they succeeded in shooting the horses of the 
left gun of the left section ; but a counter charge by the infantry 
supporting the battery drove the enemy back and the gun was 
replaced in its former position. The battery expended 1,100 
rounds of ammunition in this battle, which is known as the 
Fredericksburg campaign under Bumside. 

Under cover of the darkness during Monday night, the fif- 
teenth, it silently recrossed the river and not long after went 
into temporary winter quarters at Fletcher's Chapel, where it 
drew a supply of horses to replace those killed in battle, and 
also received a detail of men from the 136th Pa. Regiment. 
The next movement was what is called ^'Burnside's mud 
march." The survivor before quoted says of this move : "No 
doubt we did our part of the growling, as we tried to keep 
from freezing during the storms by getting so near our camp 
fires as to scorch our clothes and curl our cap visors. Well, 
we got back into the camp and voted this move a failure." 



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32 MAINE AT GBTTTSBUBO. 

The battery sustained an untarnished reputation for promptness, 
discipline, and courage during all these campaigns. 

In the reorganization of the army of the Potomac under 
General Hooker, who had succeeded General Bumside, the 
battery was assigned to the Artillery Brigade of the First 
Corps. Col. C. S. Wainwright was chief of artillery of this 
corps commanded by General Reynolds. 

On the 3d of May it took part in the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, holding the extreme right of the lines of the army, and 
making a reconnoissance the next day with General Robinson 
towards Ely's Ford, where they had a short but brisk fight. 
After the battle it went into camp near White Oak Church. 

On the 12th of June commenced the Pennsylvania cam- 
paign. Broke camp and marched northward, crossing the 
Potomac on the twenty-third and keeping in the advance until 
on the morning of July 1st it engaged the enemy about two 
miles beyond Gettysburg, on the westerly side of the town, in 
conjunction with tiie First Division of the First Army Corps. 
The march for that day had been so arranged that it was nearly 
two hours after it became engaged before other batteries arrived, 
during which time its guns were under a heavy fire of artillery, 
which they were gradually silencing when they were charged by 
the enemy's infantry in column. This charge they repulsed, but 
their infantry support failing them they were left with their 
right flank exposed to the sharpshooters who had taken cover 
in a ravine, and were obliged to retire, when the rebel in&ntry 
rallied, and a hand-to-hand encounter took place over two of 
the guns, the combatants mingling together in their struggle 
for the prize. The guns were all brought safely off. Later 
in the day, being so reduced in men and horses, and the gun 
carriages having been smashed, but three pieces could be 
manceuvred, which were the first placed in position in the 
graveyard on Cemetery Hill, sweeping the road leading up 
through the town where the enemy were advancing. On the 
second day they fought the enemy's artillery from this position 
with great success. Near night of the second day the battery, 
having been relieved by another one, was ordered into the 
reserve, where it remained through the third day. 



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hall's BATTBBY mSTORIOAL SKETCH. 33 

Betuming to Virginia through Maryland, following Greneral 
Lee's retreat from Gettysburg, the Battery, August 2d, went 
into camp at Kelly's Ford, where it remained until September 
16th, then marching near to Culpeper and thence to the Rapi- 
dan River. Later in the fall the battery was ordered into 
Camp Barry, artillery depot, Washington, where it arrived 
on the 8th of November. 

Soon after the Gettysburg campaign Captain Hall, having 
been promoted to Major of Maine Light ArtiUery, was placed 
in command of Camp Barry under Gen. A. P. Howe, an artil- 
lerist of the regular army and who had conunanded previously 
a division in the Sixth Army Corps. Lieut. W. N. Ulmer, 
having been promoted to Captain in the meantime, resigned 
November 18th and Lieut. Albert F. Thomas became the Cap- 
tain of the battery. During the remainder of the year and 
until April 25, 1864, the battery remained at Camp Barry, 
recruiting and refitting for the field. Under the immediate 
conunand of Captain Thomas, seconded and aided by Major 
Hall, the battery was brought to a very creditable condition of 
drill and discipline. The battery having been assigned to the 
Ninth Army Corps, under General Bumside, left Camp Barry 
April 25, 1864, to join in the 1864 campaign of the Army of 
the Potomac under General Grant. On this last named day it 
marched to Alexandria, thence to Fairfax Court House, Bristoe 
Station, Warrenton Junction, and Bealeton Station, at which 
place it remained in camp until May 4th, when they marched 
to Germanna Ford, on the Rapidan River, crossing the river 
the next day and taking position on the south bank. May 6th 
it marched to the left about one mile and again went into posi- 
tion; on the seventh, in compliance with orders, joined the 
division of the Ninth Corps on the Brock Road ; on the ninth, 
reached St. Mary's bridge on the Ny River ; on the tenth and 
eleventh, engaged the enemy about four miles from Spot- 
sylvania Court House ; on the twelfth, participated in a severe 
engagement with the enemy, in which two guns were disabled, 
two men wounded, and one horse killed ; on the thirteenth, 
remained in position ; on the fourteenth, engaged the enemy 
for about three hours ; on the seventeenth, erected earthworks ; 



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34 ICAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

on the eighteenth, again fought the enemy during the greater 
part of the day ; on the twenty-eighth, moved in the direction 
of the Pamunkey, which it crossed and encamped; on the 
twenty-ninth, marched three miles toward the front and halted 
in line of battle ; and on the thirtieth marched and took posi- 
tion on the right. 

On June 1st the battery engaged the enemy about five miles 
south of the Pamunkey ; on the second, marched two miles to 
the right and went into position ; on the third, engaged the 
enemy at short intervals ; on the fifth, took position in a new 
line of battle then forming near Cold Harbor, remaining until 
the twelfth when the battery marched in the direction of the 
White House, on the Chickahominy , crossing the James River at 
Wilcox Landing on the fifteenth, and on the sixteenth marched 
towards Petersburg, encamping within three miles of the city ; 
on the seventeenth marched to the front and took position in 
the line of battle then forming in front of Petersburg ; on the 
twentieth changed position to relieve the 27th N. Y. Battery. 

The battery being relieved by the 11th Mass. on the fifth 
of July, moved on the sixth two miles to the rear and went 
into camp, remaining until the twenty-fourth, when its guns 
were ordered into position; and on the twenty-sixth had a 
short engagement with the enemy. It remained in position 
in front of Petersburg at this time from July 24th to the 
31st. At daylight on July 30th it opened fire on the enemy's 
works, keeping up a brisk fire nearly all day and firing 550 
rounds, — ^this being the occasion of the explosion of the mine. 
On September 17th the battery was ordered to report to Colonel 
Gtites at City Point, Va., where it went into position in the 
fort on the left of the road leading to Petersburg, and where it 
remained until the 13th of October, when it moved about two 
miles to the front, occupying the outer defenses of City Point. 
This battery did not participate in any subsequent engagements. 

During Grant's campaign Lieutenant Carr, one sergeant, 
and two privates were wounded at Spotsylvania ; June 25th 
one man was killed and one wounded. Private Thomas F. 
Simpson was mortally wounded by a sharpshooter on June 
30th. Six men were wounded and some horses were lost 



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ROSTEB OF SECOND MAINE BATTERY. 35 

between June 25th and July 5th. Lieutenant Montgomery 
was discharged for disability June 18th, leaving the Battery 
with only two officers present for duty ; but on June 30th Ser- 
geant Reed was promoted and mustered Second Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant Perry was on the staff of General Tillson. 

On the 3d of May, 1865, orders were received to march 
for Alexandria via Fredericksburg and Fairfax. On the thirty- 
first of the same month the battery was further ordered to 
proceed to Augusta, Maine, where it arrived on the 6th of 
June, and was mustered out of service June 16, 1865. 

Lieut. Charles E. Stubbs was promoted Captain, succeed- 
ing Capt. Albert F. Thomas, who had resigned ; and Lieut. 
Anthony N. Greely conmnanded the battery after Lee's sur- 
render until mustered out, Captain Stubbs in the meantime 
being absent on leave. 

Major Hall remained on duty at the artillery depot. Camp 
Barry, Washington, during the remainder of the war. His 
commission as Major bears date June 23, 1863. On Septem- 
ber 9, 1864, he was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, and on 
March 7, 1865, he was breveted Brigadier-General. 

The last promotions in the battery were those of Anthony 
N. Greely, May 8, 1865, and Asia F. Arnold, May 24, 1865, 
to be First Lieutenants. 



ROSTER OF SECOND MAINE BATTERY. 

CAPTAINS. 
Dat* of CoBunisMoo. Naoie. Reautflcs. 



Nov. 39, 1861, Davis Tillson, 



{promoted M^or and Lieut. -Col. 
First R^. Maine Mtd. Artillery 
and Brig.-Gen'l of Vols. 



{promoted Major and Lieut-Col. 
and brevet Brig.-Gen'l to date 
March 7, 1865. 
Aug. 15, 1863, William N. Ulmer, resigned Nov. 18, 1863. 
Dec. I, 1863, Albert F. Thomas, discharged Jan. 22, 1865. 

Jan. 31, 1865, Charles E. Stubbs, mustered out June 16, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Nov. 39, 1861, James A. Hall, promoted Captain. 

Nov. 30, 1861, Samuel Paine, resigned March 7, 1863. 



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36 



IfAINE AT OETTTSBUBO. 



Oct 17, 1862, 
liar. 96, 1863, 
Aug. 15, 1863, 
Dec. I, 1863, 
Jan. II, 1865, 
Jan. 31, 1865, 
May 8, 1865, 
Biay 24, 1865, 

Nov. 30, 1861, 
Nov. 39, 1861, 
June 3, 1862, 
Oct. 17, 1862, 
March 26, 1863, 
Aug. 15, 1863, 
Dec I, 1863, 
Jan. 25, 1864, 
Jan. iiy 1865, 
Jan. 31, 1865, 



WiUiam A. Perry, 
WiUiam N. Ulmer, 
Albert F. Thomas, 
Benjamin F. Carr, 
Charles E. Stubbs, 
Austin Reed, 
Anthony N. Greely, 
Asia F. Arnold, 



discharged May 13, 1865. 
promoted Captain, 
promoted Captain. ^ 

discharged Feb. 7, 1865. 
promoted Captain, 
discharged Biay i, 1865. 
mustered out June 16, 1865. 
mustered out June 16, 1865. 



SECOND LIBUTBNANTS. 

Samuel Fessenden, promoted First Lieutenant, 
promoted First Lieutenant, 
promoted First Lieutenant, 
promoted First Lieutenant, 
promoted First Lieutenant 
resigned July 18, 1864. 
promoted First Lieutenant, 
promoted First Lieutenant, 
promoted First Lieutenant 
promoted First Lieutenant 



William A. Perry, 
WUliam N. Ulmer, 
Albert F. Thomas, 
Benjamin F. Carr, 
John Montgomery, 
Charles E. Stubbs, 
Austin Reed, 
Anthony N. Greely, 
Asia F. Arnold, 



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* •• • • 

• •• 



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SIXTEENTH MAINE REGIMENT. 37 



MONUMENT. 

The monnment of the Sixteenth Maine Regiment, a simple granite 
obelisk twenty-four feet high, stands on Seminary Ridge north of the 
Chambersborg Pike, on the ground where the regiment fought for nearly 
three hours in the afternoon before it was ordered up to the Mmnmasburg 
Road, and where it met with its principal loss in killed and wounded. 
Upon one face of the obelisk is the coat of arms of the State of Maine, upon 
another draped flags, and upon a thu'd side the badge of the First Corps 
with this inscription: 

16th Me. Inf'y. 

IsT Bbig. 2d. Div. 

IST Corps. 

July Ist, 1863 fought here 

FROM 1 o'clock until 4 P. M. 

when the division was forced 

TO retire, by COMMAND OF 
GEN. llOBINSON TO COL. TILDEN 
THE REGIMENT WAS MOVED TO 

THE RIGHT, NEAR THE MUMMA8- 
BURG ROAD, AS INDICATED BY 

A MARKER THERE, WITH ORDERS 

"to hold the position at 

ANY COST." 

July 2d & 3d in position with 

the division on CEICETERY HILL 

Casualties. 
EoLLED 2 Officers, 9 Men 
Wounded 8 ** 54 ** 

Captured 11 ** 148 ** 

Strength of Regiment 

25 Officers, 250 Men. 



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SUTEENTfl MAINE REGIMENT. 

FmST BRIGADE, SECOND DIYIBION, FIRST ARMY CORPS, 



AT THX BATTLB OF GETTTSBUBO. 



FOM 10 to 11.30 o'clock on the forenoon of this first day 
of July, while ELall's Second Maine Battery was haying its 
perilous experience at its position north of the Chambers- 
burg Pike, the battle was sustained by Wadsworth's division 
alone. Meredith's brigade, extending between the Hagerstown 
Road and the Chambersburg Pike, had succeeded in worsting 
the Confederate brigade of General Archer, which had utterly 
failed to establish itself on the eastern bank of Willoughby 
Run, capturing Archer with part of his command. North of 
the Chambersburg Pike the fortunes of the forenoon had been 
less favorable. Hall's battery had been left unsupported and 
in great peril by the breaking of the line which should have 
held back Davis' Confederate brigade. But prompt action had 
checked Davis and re-established the Union line, so that at 
11.30 Wadsworth's men were still holding the line which they 
had received from Buf ord in the morning. 

At this hour the two other divisions of the First Corps, 
under Generals Rowley and Robinson, arrived from Emmits- 
burg. General Rowley's men were distributed to strengthen 
the line already formed. General Robinson's division took 
position in reserve around the seminary, fortifying itself with 
hastily-dug trenches. With this division, in General Paul's 
brigade, was the Sixteenth Maine Regiment, under Col. Charles 
W. Tilden. Men and officers, the regiment numbered about 
two hundred and seventy-five, remaining with the colors, of 
one thousand strong who left Maine on the 19th of August, 
1862. In the preceding campaigns of the army of the Potomac 
the regiment had seen arduous service; but it had never 
made a march so difficult as the march up to Gettysburg. 
From White Oak Church, in Virginia, whence it had moved 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 39 

on the 12th of June, the regunent had marched by way of 
Bealeton Station, Bristoe Station, and Centreville Heights to 
Middletown, Md., where it was assigned to picket duty on 
the afternoon of June 27th. The army was hurrying north- 
ward in pursuit of Lee. On the afternoon of the twenty-eighth 
the Sixteenth was ordered on the hardest forced march they 
had ever made. As the column pressed northward through 
the long hours of a damp and foggy night, many of the men 
became so exhausted that they would fall to the ground the 
instant the word was given for a brief halt. At about 2 a. m. 
of the twenty-ninth it reached Frederick City, where it rejoined 
the brigade. Resuming the forced march at 5 o'clock a. m., it 
pushed on all day, passing through Emmitsburg at 6 p. m., and 
camped near the town. Every man knew that some great 
action was pending. As they had moved northward rumors 
came through every mountain gap that in the valley beyond 
Lee was marching towards Harrisburg and the north. In 
twenty-five hours the regiment had marched forty miles, 
encumbered with all the arms and accoutrements of the sol- 
dier, and over muddy roads crowded with the columns of the 
division. More fortunate than several other Maine regiments 
which moved in the forced marches of the great concentration 
at Gettysburg, the Sixteenth was allowed a breathing space 
before plunging into battle. Encamping at Emmitsburg dur- 
ing the night of June 29th, it marched on the next morning 
only two miles to Marsh Run on the road to Gettysburg. 
There it encamped during the day and night of June 30th. 

On the morning of July Ist the regiment marched towards 
Gettysburg. Arriving at the seminary, which is upon a slight 
ridge, the Sixteenth occupied the oak-covered campus and 
there threw up breast works about west-southwest. Reynolds 
had been killed and Doubleday was in charge of the field at 
that front ; three-fourths of a mile westward, down by the 
banks of Willoughby Run, the men of Wadsworth's and 
Rowley's divisions were engaged with the Confederates of 
Heth's division. At the same time heavy Confederate rein- 
forcements were moving down by the northern roads, changing 
all the conditions of the battle and forcing the commander of 



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40 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

the First Corps to summon all his reserves to the front. About 
1 o'clock p. M. the Sixteenth received the order to go into battle. 

At this time the conditions of the battle had changed greatly 
from what they were when studied last in connection with the 
exploits of the Second Maine Battery. The First Corps had 
been reinforced by the Eleventh Corps under General Howard, 
who had assumed command of the field by right of seniority. 
But the Confederates had at the same time received still heavier 
reinforcements, which were appearing not only from the west- 
ward along the Chambersburg Pike, but also from the north. 
Along the Mummasburg and Harrisburg roads the heads of 
columns of Swell's corps, which had been recalled in haste 
from Harrisburg, were approaching, threatening the First 
Corps line in right flank and rear. The Eleventh Corps were 
hurried into position between the Mummasburg Road and the 
Harrisburg Road to meet Ewell's men, while the First Corps 
continued to face Hill on the west, its line extending from the 
Hagerstown Boad across the Chambersburg Pike to the Mum- 
masburg Road. The extreme right of this line was formed by 
Baxter's brigade of Robinson's division, which had been taken 
from the reserve at the seminary. Baxter had formed on the 
right of Cutler's men, who were fighting like heroes in nearly 
the same place where they had met their reverse of the morn- 
ing. Baxter was at once actively engaged with the right of 
Rodes' division of Ewell's corps. Soon it became necessary to 
relieve him, and Paul's brigade, which was still in reserve at 
the seminary, was sent. The Sixteenth, with the brigade, 
responded to the order at once. 

The regiment moved towards the northwest, over the ridge 
upon which the seminary stands, and, going about a quarter of 
a mile, advanced on the west side of the ridge in full view of 
the enemy. It was about one o'clock. The regiment at once 
deployed, its left facing nearly west while its right was swerved 
to meet a fire from a Confederate battery posted on Oak Hill 
to the northwest. The two hundred and seventy-five officers 
and men of the Sixteenth extended a battle line about four 
hundred and fifty feet, and were at once made the target of a 
deadly fire from the enemy. The Colonel's horse was shot 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 41 

from under him, Captain Whitehouse of Company K was 
killed instantly, Captain Waldron of Company I was wounded, 
and the rank and file suffered severely. For three hours, as 
nearly as hours could be measured in such a conflict (a) , this 
battle was maintained with the superior forces which the 
Confederate General Rodes launched against this portion of 
the First Corps line. Finally a bayonet charge, gallantly par- 
ticipated in by the Sixteenth, cleared the Confederates from 
the immediate front of this part of the line. 

This success was merely incidental and temporary, however. 
The battle of the afternoon had been going sadly against the 
16,500 men of the First and Eleventh corps, who were con- 
tending against at least 25,000 Confederates ; and about half- 
past three o'clock the Eleventh Corps line was broken and 
swept back to the town in disorder. This fatal disaster left 
the rear of the First Corps line exposed ; and that portion of 
it north of the Chambersburg Pike was in immediate jeopardy. 
Paul's brigade, being upon the extreme right of this line, was 
most exposed to the overwhelming assaults launched by Ewell 
upon the staggering remnant of the First Corps. 

Already the First Corps had prolonged its gallant resistance 
beyond the limit of prudence; and it could be saved from 
destruction only by heroic sacrifices. It fell to the lot of the 
Sixteenth Maine to make one of these sacrifices. In the last 
moments of the defense an aide of General Robinson rode up 
to the regiment bearing an order for it to move to the right 
along the ridge and take position by the Mummasburg Road. 
Immediately General Robinson himself rode up and repeated 
the order. The Sixteenth Maine was to advance alone when 
brigades and divisions, even two army corps, were retiring ! 
Colonel Tilden stated to General Robinson the strength of the 
enemy and expressed the opinion, which was the opinion of 
every beholder, that it would be impossible to hold the position. 
"Take the position and hold it at any cost," was the answer of 



(a) This is the length of time recorded on the monument It corre- 
^KMids with General TUden's recollection. Maj. S. C. Belcher judged the 
tune to be two hours and a half. The reports of general officers show that 
neither of these estimates is far out of the way. 



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42 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

General Robinson (a). "You know what that means," was 
the comment of the Maine Colonel as he turned to his brother 
o£Scers and gave the command to move forward. 

It was at the crisis of this battle of July 1st when the Six- 
teenth Maine advanced. The lines of the First Corps, until 
now held with desperate tenacity, were crumbling before the 
crushing weight of superior numbers. Brigades were shrink- 
ing into regiments and reguuents were withering into compa- 
nies. It was an hour when bands of brave men did heroic 
things which have been obscured in history by the turmoils and 
confusion of the general agony of the army (b) . 



MARKER OF SIXTEENTH MAINE REGIMENT. 

A massive granite marker, designating the final position of the Six- 
teenth Maine Regiment, stands near the Mummasburg Road and bears the 
following inscription: 

Position Held July 1, 1863, 

AT 4 o'clock p. m., by the 

16th Maine Infantry, 

1st Brio. 2nd Div. Ist Corps, 

WHILE THE REST OF THE DIVISION WAS 

RETIRING, THE REGIMENT HAVING MOVED 

FROM THE POSITION AT THE LEFT WHERE 

ITS MONUMENT STANDS, UNDER ORDERS 

TO HOLD THIS POSITION AT ANY COST. 

It lost on THIS field, 

KILLED 11, WOUNDED 62, CAPTURED 159 
OUT OF 275 ENGAGED. 



(a) The exact expression of General Robinson in giving this remark- 
able order was ''at any cost,'' as is well remembered by General Tilden, 
who received it 

(b) General Paul, conmiander of the bris[ade, was shot through both 
eyes, so no adequate report of the part of his brigade was ever made. 
Neitner the division conmiander nor the corps commander mentioned this 
action of the Sixteenth. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 43 

It was about four o'clock in the afternoon when the Six- 
teenth Maine was ordered to advance (a). It obeyed at once, 
and took position in line of battle facing the Mummasburg 
Road. On the left and rear of its position the long lines of 
Hill's brigades, so often repulsed during the day, were advanc- 
ing for their final and successful effort, reinforced by the fresh 
one of Ramseur. And as the soldiers of the Sixteenth anx- 
iously scanned the low ground which stretches for a mile north 
and east of the Mummasburg Road, they saw a heavy column 
of Ewell's infantry move across their front to deploy against 
them. But when they turned from the spectacle of the hosts 
advancing against them and looked anxiously to the rear, 
whence support and encouragement should be expected, they 
saw only the retiring columns of their companions in arms. It 
is remembered to the lasting glory of the officers and enlisted 
men of the Sixteenth that in this bitter moment not one of 
them wavered. The two Confederate lines were approaching 
steadily, that from the west cutting off their line of retreat, 
that from the north and east about to strike them in front* 
The volleys of the little regiment detained Ewell's line not 
long. In a short time, perhaps twenty minutes — no one 
measured time then — ^the enemy were upon them in irresistible 
force. As EwelFs line came within close range, the regiment 
retired gradually along the ridge until it reached the railroad 
cut and grade. 

In this last stand the Sixteenth's forlorn hope ended with a 
deed worthy of remembrance among the gallant deeds crowded 
so thickly into this day of battle. The two long lines of gray 
were closing upon the handful of men from Maine. The anni- 
hilation of the regiment as an organization seemed inevitable 
and immediate. Yet in that moment of the most trying expe- 
rience that can come to any soldiers, the men of the Sixteenth 
performed an act which may convey to this generation some of 
the spirit animating the volunteers who repelled Lee's invasion 
of 1863. The two flags of the regiment, the stars and stripes 

(a) General Robinson says in his report that his division withdrew 
about five o'clock. General Meade, in his report, says that General How- 
trd, who conunanded the field in the afternoon, gave the order for the First 
Corps to retire about four o'clock. 



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44 MAINE AT OBTTTSBURG. 

and the flag of Maine, the old pine tree on the golden shield 
in the field of blue, were taken from their staves, torn into 
pieces and secreted about the persons of the officers and men. 
These fragments were carried through Southern prisons and 
finally home to Maine, where they are still treasured as pre- 
cious relics more than a quarter of a century after Gettysburg, 

The two Confederate battle lines, closing together, struck 
the regiment simultaneously. Swell's men appeared upon the 
north side of the cut and Hill's upon the south side so nearly 
at the same time that both lines, with levelled muskets, claimed 
the prisoners. 

Colonel Tilden fell to Swell's share (a). In all, twelve 
officers and ninety-two enlisted men, nearly the entire regi- 
ment as it had survived the day, were captured. A few men, 
thirty-five in all, and four officers succeeded in evading the 
Confederates and made their way to the rest of the army on 
Cemetery Hill (b) . The thin lines of the weary soldiers of 
the First Corps had already filed off the field which they had 
contested so long and so gallantly, and where they had left 
nearly four thousand of their comrades dead or wounded. Of 
the two hundred and seventy-five men and officers who com- 
posed the Sixteenth Maine in the morning, less than forty 
represented the regiment in the ranks of the First Corps on 
Cemetery Hill, where it was arrayed in line of battle in the 
evening. This remnant of the regiment was in action July 2d 
under conmiand of Capt. Daniel Marston. In the movements 
on this day, one officer and seven enlisted men were wounded* 
July 4th Major A. D. Leavitt succeeded in rejoining the 
regiment and it was afterwards led back to Virginia by Lieut.- 
Col. A. B. Famham, who was absent sick during the battle (c) • 

(a) A tall skinnisher from Alabama, seeing Colonel Tilden standing 
with his sword drawn, drew up his musket and, at a distance of not over 
one hundred feet, shouted: '* Throw down that sword or I will blow your 
brainy out" Sticking his sword into the ground, Colonel Tilden passed to 
the rear, a prisoner. He was taken South to Libby Prison and there 
became one of Uie daring band who escaped through the famous tunnel. 

(b) Thirty-six men of this Regiment, previously detailed into the 
Second Maine Battery, served with that battery this day. 

(c) The Sixteenth Maine is among the " three hundred fighting regi- 
ments" enumerated by Fox in his statistics of R^mental Leases in the 
Civil War. Those were the r^ments that durine their term of service 
suffered a loss of killed in battle or died from wounds of 130 or more. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT POSITIONS. 



45 




eUOCESSlve positions or Um MA|N£ INFY. JULY Ur. lUS. 

li TN MAlMt. flBlB UmON TltoW. MOB CoMfnCKATCt. 



Mli.C- SCALC. 



iMttWB by 0. K. TUdMi. 



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46 MAINE AT GETTY8BUKG. 



INCroENTS OF THE BATTLE 

AND REMARKS THBRBON 

BT ADJUTANT ABNER R. SMALL, 

LATB MAJOB OF THB BIZTBBNTH MAIMB BBOm KNT. 

By command of General Robinson, the First Brigade hastily 
threw up a redoubt of earth and fence rails, in a circular form, 
just in front of the seminary. About one o'clock rang out the 
conunand : " Fall in I Forward Sixteenth I " " Good-by , Adju- 
tant, this is my last fight," cried Captain Whitehouse. He 
turned, repeated the command to his company, and I never 
saw him afterward. We double-quicked to the right, and took 
position behind a rail fence, in a piece of woods and nearly 
parallel with the Chambersburg Pike, and were at once engaged 
with the enemy, who were also in rear of a fence and some two 
hundred yards distant. Corporal Yeaton, of the color guard, 
was the first man killed. While cautioning his men to keep 
cool and aim low, Captain Waldron, of Company I, was struck, 
a ball entering just back of the jugular vein and penetrating to 
the lung. Colonel Tilden, the only mounted regimental officer 
in the brigade, had his horse shot from under him. Now came 
the order to charge bayonets. Color-sergeant Mower was the 
first to jump the fence, and the regiment followed with a ring- 
ing cheer, and in the face of a galling fire went double-quick, 
scattering the rebel line pell-mell to the rear into the woods. 
Our boys would have followed them, but were recalled, and 
moved with the division still further to the right, fighting until 
overpowered by numbers pressing upon our right flank. 

Now two frowning war clouds were rolling upon the First 
Corps with thunders and lightnings. Shot and shell opened 
great gaps ; musket balls cut like comb-teeth ; and victorious 
rebel cheers gave irresistible impetus to their charging columns. 

When our whole force was falling back it was necessary to 
save as much of the Second Division as possible. General 
Robinson rode up to Colonel Tilden. ^Advance and hold that 
hill at any cost," was the order of the Division conmtiander. 
"Boys, you know what that means," shouted Colonel Tilden. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT INCIDENTS. 47 

It meant the saving of the rest of the division. It meant death 
to many, and a captivity worse than death to the survivors of 
that little band of already exhausted troops, forced by an 
imperative order to the foot of a sacrificial altar. 

There was no thought of wavering, but with compressed 
lips and tense nerves these manly boys silently obeyed their 
loved commander. They looked to him for inspiration ; they 
prayed to God for support, as they received the command : 
''About face 1 Forward Sixteenth 1 " 

The regiment advanced, took position behind the stone 
wall, and broke the right wing to the right, parallel to the 
Mummasburg Road, the color company holding the apex, — ^the 
identical spot where the 88th Penn. have since placed a tablet. 
They held the position bravely against fearful odds. 

Every moment was precious to the retiring division, more 
than precious to the troops going into position on Cemetery 
Hill. The deep, hoarse growl of the battle storm grew into a 
lion-like roar. The rebels fired upon us from all sides, — ^from 
behind the wall, from the fences, from the Mummasburg Road. 
They swarmed down upon us, they engulfed us, and swept 
away the last semblance of organization which marked us as a 
separate command. To fight longer was useless, was wicked. 
For this little battalion of heroes, hemmed in by thousands of 
rebels, there was no succor, no hope. Summoned to surrender. 
Colonel Tilden plunged his sword into the ground and broke it 
short off at the hilt, and directed the destruction of the colors. 
A rebel o£Scer sprang to seize the flag, when the men, once 
more and for the last time, closed around the priceless emblems, 
and in a moment of fury rent the staves in twain and threw the 
pieces at the officer's feet. Eager hands from every direction 
seized the banners and tore them piece by piece beyond reclaim 
or recognition, — but now to be held doubly dear. To-day, all 
over Maine, can be found in albums and frames and breast- 
pocket-books gold stars and shreds of silk, cherished mementos 
of that heroic and awful hour. 

And so the Sixteenth Maine was the last regiment that left 
the extreme front on the 1st of July, — if four officers and 
thirty-six men can be called a regiment. 



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48 MAINE AT GETTY6BURO. 

What if the enemy took our swords, seized our guns, and 
confiscated our persons with whatever they bore? They left 
our honor untarnished and in our hearts a consciousness of 
duty faithfully done, too dearly testified by the bleeding and 
broken forms stretched upon the crimson field. 

The contest was almost absurd in its great one-sided press- 
ure. We were crushed as between the upper and nether mill- 
stones of fate, but not humiliated. General Robinson's order 
made of the Sixteenth Maine a forlorn hope, as it were. The 
irresistible force of circumstances dashed the hope to atoms, 
but not until after the Second Division of the First Army Corps 
was saved. 

On the 2d of July, Ewell occupied the town, posting his 
line within half a mile of the cemetery. General Newton, 
assigned to command of the First Corps, placed it in reserve 
in rear of the cemetery, and within thirty minutes' march of 
any part of the Union line. Early in the morning the brigade 
was reorganized. Col. Richard Coulter commanding, with Adjt. 
A. R. Small detailed as acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 
The regiment under Captain Marston changed position from 
time to time as ordered, and with the brigade was ordered to 
the left centre of our general line late in the afternoon (a) . 
While it was moving by the right flank past General Meade's 
headquarters, a rebel shell exploded in the regiment, severely 
wounding Lieut. Fred H. Beecher and seven enlisted men. 
Moving eight hundred yards, the conmiand was given, ''By the 
right flank I March ! " and in line of battle the brigade dashed 
on through the smoke, over the bowlders, but only to find that 
the enemy had already been driven back. 

In terrible suspense, on the 3d of July, moments crept by 
until one o'clock, when the stillness of the air was suddenly 
broken by a signal gun. Instantly one hundred and fifty guns 
were discharged as if by electricity, answered on the Union 
side by about one hundred more, and tons of metal parted the 
air, which closed with a roar, making acres of earth groan and 
tremble. The hills and the huge bowlders take up the sound 



(a) Ck>l<m6l Coulter, oommaadinff the brigade on Jaly 9d, spealu of this : 
m% at oocnrrinff " aboat seyen o'clock in the eyeninff.'^ Vide his Official B 
ibellion Records, Serial No. 48, p. 2M. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT THERD DAY. 49 

and hurl it back, to add its broken tones to the long roll of 
sound that strikes upon ears thirty miles away. For two hours 
the air was filled with a horrible concordance of sounds. The 
air, thick with sulphurous vapor and smoke, through which 
came the sharp cry of agony, the hoarse command, and the 
screaming shell, almost suffocated those supporting the bat- 
teries. Guns are dismounted and rest their metallic weight 
upon quivering flesh. Caissons explode, and wheels and boxes 
strew the ground in every direction. Horses by the score are 
blown down by the terrible hurricane and lie moaning in agony 
almost human in its expression. One battery at our immediate 
front lost forty horses in twenty minutes. In the vicinity of 
Meade's headquarters shells exploded at the rate of sixty per 
minute. Solid shot would strike the ground in front, cover a 
battalion with sand and dirt, ricochet, and demon-like go 
plunging through the ranks of massed men in the rear. For a 
mile or more a lurid flame of fire streams out over the heads of 
our men in long jets, as if to follow the tons of metal thrown 
through the murky air, which parts to receive it and shudders 
as if tortured by screaming furies. 

Our artillery ammunition was reduced to a few rounds, and 
there came a signal from Little Round Top that the enemy was 
rapidly massing for a charge behind the dense smoke which 
afforded them a screen. Notwithstanding our infantry would 
become more exposed if our batteries were silent, the order 
was issued and the firing ceased. The rebels jumped at con- 
clusions and sent up a wild yell. We had heard it too often to 
lose heart or courage ; but nerves were at their extreme tension 
as we watched the splendid lines of Confederate infantry which 
stretched in our front, as if for parade ; and a second and yet 
in the rear a third debouch from the woods into view. Such a 
sight is given only once in a life-time, and once seen never to 
be forgotten. Pickett's division leads the front on the right 
with Pettigrew's on the left. In their rear moved Anderson's 
and Trimble's commands ; the right was covered by Perry and 
Wilcox, and the left by McGowan and Thomas. Down the 
slope into the valley they come ; and now it is our turn, and 
from the black muzzles of more than eighty cannon pour round 



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50 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

shot, spherical case and canister, in an incessant torrent which 
cuts great swaths of living grain. Men go down by scores, 
but others fill the gaps, and the undaunted tide sweeps on in 
perfect order fairly across the Emmitsburg Road, when from 
behind the stone-wall the Union line pours in a shower of hiss- 
ing bullets, carrying death and destruction to those brave but 
mistaken men. They go down like jackstraws; they lie in 
windrows. With a desperation bom of madness, they force 
their way through a shower of leaden hail. Hot with passion 
bom of war, stained and blinded with blood, the living fail to 
see the terrible harvest of death in their rear, and, utterly reck- 
less of personal results, they press on and on, and with a yell 
of victory plant their tattered flags of rebellion upon the Union 
stone-wall. They turn to beckon on the next line. The next 
line! Where is it? Exultation is drowned in despair and 
defeat, for from both flanks the Union boys are giving a deadly 
fire, while shot and shell enfilade their rear. Thousands fall to 
the ground and hold up their hands in token of surrender, and 
others flee through the storm of bullets, shell and canister that 
reaches the Emmitsburg Road. A brave man can but pity the 
victims of such a terrible disappointment. Looking down 
upon all this, I could see, shorn of all wordy description, 
simply a square mile of tophet. 

The renmant of the Sixteenth is sadly depressed. The 
loved colonel on his way to Richmond, to the prison-pens of 
the South; our valued surgeon, Alexander, wounded and a 
prisoner ; all the line officers but four either killed, wounded, 
or missing, and a fearful list of casualties among the men. 
We thought of the brave fellows started on a pilgrimage worse 
than death. There is said to be a time in every man's life 
when he learns to cry. I believe many of us graduated in this 
accomplishment that night. While we were in the slough of 
despond, and trying to assist as skirmishers in the front line, 
Major Leavitt joined the regiment and assumed command at 
ten o'clock p. m. The heavy rain pressing down our spirits 
could not dampen our joy at his coming. 

From "Benny" Worth, who escaped from the enemy's 
hands, we learned that Corporal Bradford with others rendered 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 51 

timely aid to many of the wounded inside the rebel lines. He 
found Captain Lowell, oi Company D, where he fell mortally 
wounded, a short distanoe from the Mummasburg Road and 
near the stone-wall. Although conscious, he was speechless. 
He was carried to a vacant room in the seminary on the first 
floor. Before Bradford could find a surgeon, he with others 
was marched to the rear some two miles. 



PARTICffANTS. 

PIBLD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONBD STAFF. 

Colonel, commanding, Charles W. Tilden, Castine. 

Major, Arch D. Leavitt, Turner (commanding on and after evening of 

July 4th). 
Acting Major, Capt Samuel Clifford Belcher, Farmington. 
Captain, Daniel Marston, Phillips, commanding July 2d-4th. 
Adjutant, Abner R. Small, Waterville (Acting Assistant Adjutant-General 

of brigade from morning of July 2d). 
Quartermaster, Isaac N. Tucker, Gardiner. 
Surgeon, Charles Alexander, Farmington. 

Assistant Surgeon, Joseph B. Baxter, Gorham (at brigade hospital). 
Assistant Surgeon, William W. Eaton, Brunswick. 
Chaplain, George Bullen, Skowhegan. 
Acting Sergeant-major, Cherbury F. Lothrop, Chesterville. 
Color Sergeant, Wilbur F. Mower, Greene (National flag). 
Color Corpora], Sampson A. Thomas, Turner (State flag). 
Quartermaster Sergeant, George W. Brown, Augusta. 
Coouniasary Sergeant, Charles H. Parlin. Skowhegan. 
Ordnance Sergeant, James P. Hamblen, Limington. 
Hospital Steward, Joseph B. Dow, Farmington. 

Company A. 
Captain, Isaac A. Peonell, New Portland. 
First Lieutenant, Nathan Fowler, Skowhegan. 
Second Lieutenant, Nathaniel W. Coston, Athens. « 

8BRGBANTS. 

Daniel A. Spearin, Blanchard, James S. Parsons, Lexington, 

Winslow A. Morrill, Patten. 

CORPORALS. 

John W. Watson, New Portland, Aretas H. West, New Portland, 

Henry E. Dexter, Vienna, Bray Wilkins, Fahiield, 

Phineas McCollar, Madison, Clement C. Williams, New Portland. 

PRIVATES. 

Achom, Jacob, Rockland, Brackett, Hiram, Detroit, 



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52 MAINE AT OETTT8BUBG. 

Butts, Isaac H., New Portland, Carvill, Benjamin, New Portland, 

Chamberlain, Stephen A., Mayfield, Clark, Henry R., Solon, 

Cook, Moses W., West Waterville, Fuller, Horatio G., New Portland, 

Furbish, Jairus H., Lexington, Goodwin, Lyman O., Detroit, 

Gould, George H., Lexington, Hackett, Alden T., Patten, 

Holbrook, Abel C, Embden, Hurd, Joel B., Harmony, 

Kealiher, John D., Moose River PI. Knowles, Freeman T., Skowh^;an, 

Morrill, Hiram A., New Portland, Murch, Albert J., Starks, 

Piper, Thomas B., Blanchard, Reed, William H., Stetson, 

Thompson, John F., New Portland, Whitcomb, Tilston T., Concord. 

On Detached Service: Levi Berry, Embden, hospital nurse; 
George A. Downing, Skowhegan, ambulance corps; Edward P. Snow, 
Skowhegan, hospital nurse; John Young, New Portland, division wagoner. 

Company B. 

^Captain, Eleazer W. Atwood, Gardiner. 
First Lieutenant, Fred H. Beecher, Gardiner. 
Second Lieutenant, Melvin C. Wadsworth, Pittston. 

SERGEANTS. 

Leander L. Taylor, Gardiner, Charles E. Deering, Gardiner, 

Reuben M. Farrington, China, Gustavus Moore, Gardiner. 

CORPORALS. 

Augustus W. McCausland, Gardiner, Charles O. Wadsworth, Gardiner. 

privates! 

Atkins, Alonzo C, Manchester, Austin, Henry D., Augusta, 

Britt, James, Augusta, Brookings, Edmund J., Farmingdale, 

Bruce, William W., Augusta, Campbell, Hiram W., Manchester, 

Chenery, George W., Gardiner, Doyle, Thomas. Augusta, 

Ewer, Henry A., Vassalboro, Hooker, George H., Gardiner, 
Huntington, William H., Gardiner, Maury, Joseph, Waterville, 

Palmer, Ambrose H., Winslow, Phillips, Charles M., Augusta, 

Phillips, Joseph P., Augusta, Palmer, John. Winslow, 

Pooler, Joseph, Waterville, Plummer, Evarts P., Augusta, 

PuUen, Elias, Winthrop, Richardson, Joseph W., Turner, 

Robie, John G., Litchfield, Robinson, William H., Gardiner, 

Smith, Charles D., Gardiner, Smith, Thomas E., Gardiner, 

Strong, George F., Gardiner, Tallow, Martin, Waterville, 

Thayer, Adin B., Waterville, Webber, Samuel L., Richmond, 

Welch, Joseph W., Gardiner, Welch, Warren E., Gardiner. 

Musician: Wesley Webber, Gardiner. 

On Detached Service: Sergeant George H. Stone, Farmingdale, 
ambulance corps; Albert H. Norcross, Augusta, quartermaster dept.; 
George F. Wentworth, Gardiner, quartermaster dept. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIBdENT PARTICIPANTS. 53 



Company C. 



Captain, Daniel Marston, Phillips. 

First Lieutenant, Marshall S. Smith, East Livermore. 

Second Lieutenant, George D. Bisbee, Peru. 



SERGEANTS. 



Charles M. Adams, Wilton, William Famham, Wilton, 

Henry D. Fisk, Presque Isle, Charles C. Small, Wilton. 



CORPORALS. 



Edwin C. Jones, Fayette, William N. Yeaton, Farmington, 

John M. Keene, Phillips, Dorillus Hobbs, East Livermore, 

George H. Famham, Wilton, Francis A. Crane, Fayette, 

Robinson Fairbanks, Sharon, Charles F. Soule, Mapleton. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, George G. B., Wilton, Bartlett, Nathan, Jr., Livermore, 

Bascomb, Thomas A., Wilton, Blackwell, William T., Jay, 

Blanchard, Charles M., Phillips, Brown, Orville, East Livermore, 

Brown, Rice, Vienna, Butterfield, Henry J., Bethel, 

Butterfield, Martin, Mapleton, Chaney, Farwell, Wilton, 

Chandler, Alphonso L., Mapleton, Davis, Colamore P., Freeman, 

Grindle, Madison J., Maysville, Hinds, David H., East Livermore, 

Lufkin, Loren, Phillips, Moulton, Joel D., Phillips, 

Newton, Abraham, Canton, Phinney, Archibald, Washburn, 

Reed, Elias, Wilton, Ridley, James, East Livermore, 

Sharp, Henry A., Lyndon, Stratton, Albion W., Washburn, 

Tuttle, John, Freeman, Witham, Sidney T., Chesterville. 

MUSICIANS. 

Hartson W. McKenney, Phillips, James A. Barrows, Peru, 
John B. Hall, Washburn. 

On Detached Service: Calvin Beals, East Livermore, cattle guard; 
Album C. King, Dixfield, cattle guard; Thomas S. Hopkins, Mt. Vemon, 
Adjutant's clerk; Israel S. Lovell, Fremont Plantation, ambulance corps; 
Winthrop A. Rowe, Phillips, Orderly, regimental headquarters; Jdtm H. 
Stickney, Phillips, cattle guard. 

Company D. 
Captain, Oliver H. Lowell, Gorham. 
Fust Lieutenant, Samuel H. Plummer, Waterford. 
Second Lieutenant, William H. Broughton, Portland. 

SERGEANTS. 

John M. Webster, Waterford, William F. Lombard, Peru, 

Joseph H. Hamilton, North Yarmouth. 

CORPORALS. 

Sanford M. Reed, Mexico, Benjamin F. Fuller, Brunswick, 

Laforest Kimball, Waterford, Charles H. Putnam, Bethel. 



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54 MAINE AT QETTTSBURG. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, Hosea, Stoneham, Andre ws» Henry F., Lovell, 

Bailey, Edwin, Lovell, Bean, Peter T., Bethel, 

Bancroft, Columbus, Litchfield, Butters, Timothy, Waterford, 

Bowie, Edwin R., Portland, Couture, Charles, Quebec, 
Downey, John, Windsor, Nova Scotia, Dunnells, Joseph, Newfield, 

Foster, John F., Gray, Gray, Samuel, Jr., Stoneham, 

Lane, Nebon A., Poland, Park, Silas H., Dixfield, 

Plunmier, Charles, Waterford, Richards, Prentiss M., Roxbury, 

Rider, Charles D., North Yarmouth, Roberts, Albert W., Falmouth, 

Small, William H., Dixfield, Smith, Charles, Philadelphia, P&., 

Stevens, Charles H., Waterford, Stone, Moody R., Waterford, 

Townsend, Horatio G., Newfield, Twitchell, Fordyce P., Bethel, 

Warren, Jonathan, Lovell, Whitman, Gilbot M., Woodstock, 
Wood, Isaac W., Waterford. 

MUSICIANS. 

George P. Hall, Bethel, Cyrus L. J. Cook, Madrid, 

Charles A. Locke, Bethel. 

On Dbtachbd Service: Stephen Cofiin, Lovell, hospital nurse; 
Abel H. Harriman, Lovell, r^;imental headquarters' guard; Edward E. 
Hayes, Mexico, division teamster; Erastus Hayes, Mexico, division 
teamster; Oliver H. McKeen, Waterford, wagoner. 

Company E. 
Captam, William A. Stevens, Waterville.* 
First Lieutenant, Lincoln K. Plunmier, Jefferson, 
Second Lieutenant, Aubrey Leavitt, Turner. 

SERGEANTS. 

Edwin C. Stevens, Waterville, Jones Whitman, Turner, 

Warren Seaward, Vassalboro, Joseph G. Lamb, Leeds, 

Martin B. Soule, Waterville. 

CORPORALS. 

William Ballantine, Waterville, Consider F. Blaisdell, Jay, 

Octavius H. Tubbs, Hebron, Harrison Merchant, Weld. 

Sampson A. Thomas, Turner, color bearer (State flag). 

PRIVATES. 

Abbott, Charles, Newport, Bates, William T., Waterville, 

Bradford, Luther, Turner, Fales, Curtis V., Turner, 

Foster, A^lliam G., Pittsfield, George, Francis, Leeds, 

Harmond, George C, Turner, Hoyt, Stephen A., Vassalboro, 

Knight, Joseph F., Newport, Lyford, James M., Waterville, 

Lyon, Charles C, Newport, Mills, Albion B., Vassalboro, 

Monk, Isaac J., Turner, Priest, Hiram T., Vassalboro, 

Puldfer, Alexander W., Weld, Thomas, David S., Carthage, 

Tibbetts, Andrew J., Newport, Trask, Ezra W., Belgrade, 

Webber, Gustavus V., Vassalboro, Webber, Virgil H., Vassalboro, 
^^^nship, Charles P., Turner, Worth, Benjamin F., Vassalboro. 

Musician: Benjamin W. Johnson, Jay. 

On Detached Service: Sergeant Robert C. Brann, Vassalboro, 
pioneer corps; Asel A. Littlefield, Belgrade, ambulance corps; Daniel A. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT PABTIOtPANTS. 55 

Soule, Waterville, Brigade commissary dept.; Granville Richmond, Leeds, 
brigade commissary dept; Mark Towle, Newport, guard at regimental 
headquarters; Roscoe B. Townsend, Jay, teamster Division train; Francis 
Worth, Vassalboro, ambulance corps; Otis Wood, Jr., Turner, wagoner. 

Company F. 
Captain, Thomas F. Wentworth, Gorham. 
First Lieutenant, George A. Deering, Saco. 
Second Lieutenant, Daniel L. Warren, Standish. 

SERGEANTS. 

Charles W. Ross, Biddeford, John McPhee, Gorham. 

CORPORALS. 

Edward L. Vamey, Brunswick, William Cannell, Gorham, 

William Manchester, Jr., Standish. 

PRIVATES. 

Andrews, Abram S., Gorham, Barker, Levi D., Sweden, 

Blair, Samuel, Gorham, Brocklebank, Nathan C, Bridgton, 

Bnmham, George R., Hollis, Fenderson, Benjamin, Saco, 

FoUett, William A., Scarboro, Greene, Joseph, Saco, 

Harding, John F., Dover, N. H., Harmon, Alph^us S., Standish, 
Hodgdon, Abram B., Hollis, Johnson, Albion, Gorham, 

Leavitt, Frank J., Buxton, March, John D., Bridgton, 

Palmer, George, Saco, ** Pierce, Charles R., Wareham, Mass., 

Powers, Albert, Windham, Reynolds, Charles, Saco, 

Rhodes, Frank, Dayton, Seavey, Charles L., Saco, 

Smith, George W., Saco, Smith, Melville B., Hollis, 

Tarbox, Frank L., Hollis, Thorpe, David H., Saco, 

Tibbetts, Sheldron H., Saco. 

Musician: Henry C. Crockett, Westbrook. 

On Detached Service: Sergeant James P. Hamblen, Limington, 
ordnance sergeant; Larkin E. Barker, Bridgton, hospital guard; John M. 
Bumham, Parsonsfield, cattle guard; Royal L. Cleaves, Bridgton, nurse 
in hospital; Aaron Cross, Bridgton, guard brigade headquarters; Thomas 
J. Dorset, Standish, division teamster; William F. Green, Gorham, divis- 
ion teamster; Granville B. Jordan, Sweden, guard regimental head- 
quarters; Lorenzo D. Libby, Windham, division teamster; William R. 
Loud, Denmark, ambulance corps; Eugene Savage, Anson, hospital 
guard; Gideon M. Tucker, Standish, wagoner. 

Company G. 
Capt Samuel Clifford Belcher, Farmington, acting Major; 
Second Lieutenant, Isaac H. Thompson, Anson, commanding Company. 

SERGEANTS. 

Thomas H. B. Lenfest, Palmyra, John H. Frain, Madison, 
Byron D. Babcock, Palmyra, Joseph R. Ricker, Chesterville, 

Joseph P. Austin, Skowh^^an. 



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56 



MAINE AT GBTTY8BUBG. 



Corporal: Gorham Lord, Detroit. 



PRIVATES. 



Blunt, David F., Skowhegan, 
Crocker, Sylvester, Strong, 
Cross, Josiah W., Detroit, 
Fairbrother, Frank, Palmyra, 
Gibbs, Thomas A., Skowh^^, 
Hodgkins, Jacob T., New Sharon, 
Mace, John W., Farmington, 
Moore, Levi M., New Sharon, 
Prince, Edward M., New Sharon, 
Quint, George R., Anson, 



Chamberlain, William H., Skowhegan, 
Crocker, Abner, Strong, 
Emery, Luke, Anson, 
Famham, Samuel T., Palmyra, 
Gleason, Sumner A., Farmington, 
Lake, John W., New Vineyard, 
Merrow, John E., Skowhegan, 
Neal, Andrew, New Sharon, 
Pullen, Harrison, Anson, 
Quint, William F., Anson, 
Wade, Gardner B., Farmington, 



Snow, Daniel B., Skowhegan, 

Williamson, Boardman, New Sharon, Wilson, Edward, Skowhegan, 

Works, Lewis, New Sharon. 

On Detached Service: First Lieut. Joseph H. Malbon, Skowhe- 
gan, commanding ambulance corps; Elisha G. Baker, New Sharon, 
wagoner. 

Company H. 

Captain, John D. Conley, Bangor. 

Second Lieutenant, Jdmes U. Childs, Farmington. 

SERGEANTS. 

John McDonald, Calais, Lewis C. Richards, Limerick, 

FrankWiggin, Limestone Plantation, George H. Fisher, Winterport. 



CORPORALS. 



Joel S. Stevens, Frankfort, 
Charles L. Favour, Limerick, 
William Fennelly, Mt. Desert. 



Atkins, Charies R., Pittsfield, 
Chick, Winfield S., Thomdike, 
Day, Calvin, Cornish, 
Dyer, George F., Biddeford, 
George, Timothy A., Holden, 
Gregory, Amasa, Montville, 
Hayes, Charles J., Limerick, 
Middleton, Thomas, Ellsworth, 
O'Connor, Patrick, Tremont, 
Patten, Jacob M., Pittsfield, 
Pierce, James S., Limerick, 
Pugsley* Francis, Scarboro, 
Rich, Tyler F., Tremont, 
Smith, William H., Portland, 
Wilson, George W., Parsonsfield, 



Nebon Hewey, Vcazie, 
Thomas D. Witherly, Bangor, 

PRIVATES. 

Bean, Dudley B., Passadumkeag, 
Clement, Samuel H., Winterport, 
Dearborn, George F., Monson, 
Foss, James C, Winterport, 
Goodwin, Charles, Cornish, 
Hagan, John, Calais, 
Lonely, Danforth, Mapleton, 
Neal, Adam J., Waite Plantation, 
Patten, George W.. Pittsfield, 
Phillips, David, Pittsfield, 
Potts, Thomas, Biddeford, 
Redding, George F., Calais, 
Rupert, Moses J., Passadumkeag, 



Whitten, Martin L., Etna, 

Yeaton, James P., Waite Plantation. 

Musician: Samuel R. Garey, Limerick. 

On Detached Service : William L. Moore, Princeton, cattle guard ; 
Joseph Simpson, Corinth, cattle guard. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



57 



Company I. 
Captain, William H. Waldron, Lewtston. 
First Lieutenant, Lewis C. Bisbee, Canton. 



Zelotes Rowe, Lisbon, * 
Jabez P. Parker, Greene. 



Hosea D. Manley, Auburn, 
George B. Haskell, Webster, 
John S. Brown, Augusta. 



SERGEANTS. 

Wilbur F. Mower, Greene, color 
bearer. 

CORPORALS 

George D. Marston, Auburn, 
William Davis, Durham, 



PRIVATES. 



Allen, William, Presque Isle, 
Anderson, George W., Byron, 
Blake, Isaac A., Lisbon, 
Churchill, Charles C, Buckfield, 
Estes, Jeremiah, Durham, 
Flugil, George B., Monmouth, 
Garcelon, Benjamin F., Webster, 
Gould, Thomas J., Lisbon, 
Howard, Elias, Manchester, 
Hutchins, George A., Canton, 
Littlefield, Thomas C, Hallowell, 
Patten, Lora S., Greene, 
Piper, George T.. Turner, 
Small, Daniel, Lisbon, 
Shurtleff, William D., Turner, 



Anderson, Charles R., Lewiston, 
Batchdder, William H., Wilton, 
Briggs, Arannah, Greene, 
Davis, Robert, Gardiner, 
Farris, Freeman H., Turner, 
Frost, George W., Greene, 
Gilbert, Roscoe, Greene, 
Holmes, Stewart, Turner, 
Howland, Enoch, Topsham, 
Jordan, Ephraim L., Webster, 
Mower, Eugene S., Greene, 
Peabody, Samuel, Canton, 
Powers, Roderick, Presque Isle, 
Stover, Oliver, Webster, 
Vose, Sabastian S., Lewiston. 



On Detached Service : Second Lieut Charles A. Garcelon, Lewis- 
ton, commanding brigade ambulance corp ; Charles W. Allen, Livermore, 
brigade commissary dept. ; Henry Hackett, Durham, ambulance corps ; 
M^lliam W. Marston, Buckfield, division teamster ; Dennis Sullivan, Port- 
land, cattle guard ; Charles H. Young, Peru, guard at corps headquarters. 



Company K. 
Captain, Stephen C. Whitehouse, Newcastle. 
First Lieutenant, Joseph O. Lord, Biddeford. 
Second Lieutenant, Edward F. Davies, Castine. 

SERGEANTS. 

M^mot H. Chapman, Nobleboro, Atwood Fitch, Bristol, 
Joseph B. Vamum, Castine, Walter Dunbar, Nobleboro, 

Francis C. Mayo, Bluehill. 



Reuel W. Higgins, Deer Isle, 
Albert C. Stevens, Bluehill, 
Frank Devereux, Castine, 



CORPORALS. 



John J. Blodgett, Castine, 
Charles A. Devereux, Penobscot, 
Charles T. Choate, Bluehill. 



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58 



MAINE AT OETTY8BURQ. 



PRIVATES. 



Allen, Charles P., Brooklin, 
Bickford, Isaac B., Pittsfield, 
Bowden, Lorenzo D., Castine, 
Cunningham, Edward, Jefferson, 
Hatch, Mark E., Castine, 
Gregory, Lambert, Bluehill, 
Morgrage, Andrew)., Castine, 
Peacock, Joseph, Bluehill, 
Savage, Hiram, Washington, 
Wescott, Henry D., Castine, 



fiickford, Elisha F., Castine, 
Bowden, Frank M., Castine, 
Butler, Henry B., Castine, 
Dow, Reuben A., Brooklin, 
Joyce, Moses S., Deer Isle, 
Marks, James B., Sedgwick, 
Page, Ira, Sedgwick, 
Sanborn, Alonzo B., Brooklin, 
Spaulding, Daniel, Pittsfield, 
Wilson, Thomas J., Sedgwidc. 



On Detached Service: Seth K. Chase, Bluehill, guard brigade 
headquarters; Daniel Coligan, Washington, division teamster; Daniel M. 
Curtis, Deer Isle, ambulance corps; Francis M. Willens, Bluehill, cattle 
guard; Walter J. Willens, Bluehill, guard at corps headquarters. 



Note to foregoing list of participants. 

It will be observed that the list above given presents a total 
of one hundred more men and six more officers than the num- 
bers given respectively in the inscription on the moniunents. 

It is to be said in regard to the officers that those of the 
field and staff were inadvertently omitted in making up the 
account for the inscription, attention being drawn to the com- 
panies and the officers of the line more than to the field and 
staff. Adding the latter, not including Lieut.-Col. Augustus 
B. Farnham absent sick, the accounts agree precisely. 

With regard to the discrepancy in the two reports of men 
present, it is to be said that the numbers given in the inscrip- 
tion are those reporting present for duty at the last roll-call 
before the battle. It is certain that men came up to the regi- 
ment wh^e it was in its first position, before its engagement. 
There can be little doubt that others came up in like manner at 
some time during the three days of the battle. It is quite pos- 
sible that there may be some named on this list who were not 
able to get up, and consequently were not engaged in the fight- 
ing. But it is believed to be more nearly just to run the risk 
of including in this list some who were not in the battle than 
to leave off some because there is no other proof of their being 
present than the presumption from their well-known soldierly 
and manly character. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 59 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

PIBLD AND STAFF. 

Colonel Charles W. Tilden, prisoner. 
Captain and Acting Major Samuel Clifford Belcher, prisoner. 
Surgeon Charles Alexander, wounded and prisoner; paroled. 
Assistant Surgeon William W. Eaton, prisoner; paroled. 
Acting Sergeant-Major Cherbury F. Lothrop, prisoner; paroled. 

Company A. 
Captain Isaac A. Pennell, wounded. 

sbrgbants. 
Daniel A. Spearin, wounded. 
Winslow A. Morrill, mortally wounded. 

CORPORALS. 

Bray Wilkins, prisoner. Clement C. Williams, prisoner. 

PRIVATES. 

Carville, Benjamin, prisoner. Clark, Henry R., wounded. 

Cook, Moses W., wounded. Downing, G«orge A., prisoner. 

Fuller, Horatio G., prisoner. Furbish, Jairus H., prisoner. 

Goodwin, Lyman O., prisoner. Gould, George H., prisoner. 

Holbrook, Abel C, wounded. Hurd, Joel B., wounded. 

Murch, Albert)., prisoner. Piper, Thomas B., 

Thompson, John F., wounded. ^i^' "•^•' ^"^ ^'^^ probably 

Company B. 
Captain Eleazer W. Atwood, prisoner. 
First Lieutenant Fred H. Beecher, wounded July 2d. 
Second Lieutenant Melvin C. Wadsworth, prisoner. 

sergeants. 
Charles E. Deering, prisoner. Gustavus Moore, prisoner. 

Corporal A. W. McCausland, wounded. 

privates. 
Austin, Henry D., missing. Bruce, William W., missing. 

Ewer, Henry A., wounded. Huntington, William H., killed. 

Palmer, John, prisoner; paroled. Phillips, Charles M., wounded. 

Robinson, William H., Thayer, Adin B., missing, 

woimded and prisoner. 

Company C. 

Second Lieutenant George D. Bisbee, prisoner. 
Sergeant Charles N. Adams, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

Francis A. Crane, George H. Famham, wounded, 

^■^^never heard tnm einoe, prob- j^^^n M. Keene, prisoner; paroled. 



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60 MAINE AT GETTT8BURO. 

DorillusHobbs, pris'r; died in prison. William N. Yeaton, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Bartlett, Nathan, Jr., Blackwell, Wlliam T., 

mrisoner ; died in prison. prisoner; paroled. 

Brown, Orville, wounded. Butterfield, HenryJ., killed. 
Butterfield, Martin, prisoner; paroled. Chaney, Farwell, prisoner; paroled. 

Chandler, Alphonso L., Davis, Colamore P., pris'r; escaped. 

prisoner; escaped. Newton, Abraham, prisoner. 

Hinds, David H., wounded. Stratton, Albion W., wounded. 
Reed, Ellas, wounded. 

Company D. 
Captain Oliver H. Lowell, killed. 
First Lieutenant Samuel H. Plummer, wounded. 
Serjeant John M. Webster, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

Benjamin F. Fuller, wounded. Laforest Kimball, wounded. 

Charles H. Putnam, Sanford M. Reed, missing, 

prisoner; died in prison. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams. Hosea, Bancroft, Columbus, killed. 

wounded ; prisoner ; died in prison. Downey John 

Bean, Peter T., prisoner. missing; not heard from^probably killed. 

Foster, John F., Gray, Jr., Samuel, killed, 
missing; not heard^. probably kiUed. Richards, Prentiss M., prisoner. 

Park, Silas A., killed. Roberts, Albert W., prisoner. 

Rider, Char es D., wounded. g^ ^^^^^^ „ 

Smith, Charles, wounded. missing ; not heard f iom,probably killed. 
Twitchell, Fordyce P., prisoner. 

Company E. 
Captain William A. Stevens, wounded, prisoner ; paroled. 
Second Lieutenant Aubrey Leavitt, wounded. 

SERGEANTS. 

Martin B. Soule, wounded. Luther Bradford, prisoner. 

Edwin C. Stevens, prisoner. Joseph G. Lamb, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

Consider F. Blaisdell, prisoner. Harrison Merchant, pris'er; paroled. 

Octavius H. Tubbs, prisoner. 

PRIVATES. 

Abbott, Charles, prisoner. Bates, William T., killed. 

Fales, Curtis T., prisoner. Foster, William G., wounded. 
Hammond, Geot]g:eC., pris'r; paroled. Hoyt, Stephen A., prisoner. 

Lyford, James M., prisoner. Lyon, Charles C, wounded. 

Mills, Albion B., wounded. Monk, Isaac J., prisoner; paroled. 

Priest, Hiram T., killed. Thomas, David S., prisoner; paroled. 

Tibbetts, Andrew J., prisoner. Webber, Gustavus V., wounded. 

Webber, Virgil H., killed. Winship, Charies P., wounded. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 61 

Company F. 
Captain Thomas F. Wentworth, prisoner. 
First Lieutenant George A. Deering, prisoner. 

SERGEANTS. 

Charles W. Ross, prisoner. John McPhee, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

William Cannell, killed. Edward L. Vamey, prisoner. 

PRIVATES. 

Andrews, Abram S., prisoner. Barker, Levi D., prisoner. 

Bumham, George R., wounded. Fenderson, Benjamin, wounded. 

Greene, Joseph, prisoner. Harding, John F., prisoner. 

Palmer, George, wounded. Powers, Albert, prisoner. 

Smith, George W., prisoner. Tibbetts, Sheldon H., wounded. 

Company G. 
Sergeant Byron D. Babcock, wounded and prisoner. 
Corporal Gorham Lord, prisoner. 

PRIVATES. 

Emery, Luke, prisoner. Fairbrother, Frank, killed. 

Famham, Samuel T., prisoner. Gibbs, Thomas A., prisoner. 

Hodgkins, Jacob T., wounded, pris'r. Pullen, Harrison, killed. 
Quint, George R., wounded. Quint, William F., prisoner. 

Snow, Daniel B., prisoner. Wade, Gardiner B., prisoner. 

Williamson, Boardman, wounded. Works, Lewb, prisoner; paroled. 

Company H. 
Second Lieutenant James U. Childs, prisoner. 
Corporal Charles L. Favour, wounded. 

PRIVATES. 

Chick, Wmfield S., wounded. Clement, Samuel H., prisoner. 

Day, Calvin, killed. Hayes, Charles J., missing. 

Neal, Adam J., wounded. Redding, George F., 

prisoner; died m prison. 

Company L 

Captain William H. Waldron, wounded. 

First Lieutenant Lewis C. Bisbee, wounded and prisoner. 

Sergeant Zelotes Rowe, prisoner; died in prison. 

CORPORALS. 

John S. Brown, pris'r; died in prison. William Davis, wounded. 

Hosea D. Manley, missing. George D. Marston, 

killed or died of woonds. 

PRIVATES. 

Anderson, George W., missing. Batchelder, William H., wounded. 

Blake, Isaac A., killed. Davis, Robert, wounded. 

Estes, Jeremiah, prisoner. Farris, Freeman H., wounded. 

Garcelon, Benjamin F., prisoner. Holmes, Stewart, missing. 
Patten, Lora S., missing. Piper, George S., missing. 

Stover, Oliver, pris'r; died in prison. 



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62 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Company K. 
CapUin Stephen C. Whitehouse, killed. 

SERGEANTS. 

Francis C. Mayo» prisoner. Joseph B. Vamum, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

Charles T. Choate, prisoner. Frank Devereaux, killed. 

Charles A. Devereaux, wounded. Albert C. Stevens, wounded. 

PRIVATES. 

Bickford, Elisha F.» killed. Bickford, Isaac B., prisoner. 

Bowden, Frank M., killed. Butler, Henry B., prisoner. 

Cunningham, Edward, prisoner. Low, Reuben A., wounded. 

Marks, James B., prisoner. Morgrage, Andrew J., prisoner. 

Sanborn, Alonzo B., wounded. Savage, Hiram, killed. 

Wescott, Henry B., prisoner. Wilson, Thomas J., prisoner. 



Note on the foregoing report of casualties. 

The foregoing list shows the following totals : 

Killed: officers, 2; men, 19; total, 21. Wounded: offi- 
cers, 8 ; men, 45 ; total, 53. Prisoners and missing: officers, 
9 ; men, 88 ; total, 97. Missing, never heard from : 5 men. 
Total loss, 176. Seven of the wounded were captured. 

This differs widely from the inscription upon the monu- 
ment and official report of casualties made shortly after the 
battle. The latter gives the losses as follows : 

Killed, 9 ; wounded, 59 ; captured, 164. Total loss, 232. 

This discrepancy is partly explained by the following con- 
siderations : 

1. The official report was based naturally on the results 
of the roll-call of the regiment after the disaster of the day on 
the evening of July 1st. It is undoubted that many then 
properly reported as prisoners or missing contrived to escape 
or find their way back on the next and following days ; and 
probable that many who were both wounded and captured were 
originally placed in both lists. 

2. As to the discrepancies in the lists of killed and 
wounded, it is to be said that many at first reported wounded 
proved to be mortally wounded, and when these died soon 
after, they are now properly placed on the lists of the killed, 
and deducted, of course, from the wounded. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 63 

3. There is a considerable number hitherto borne on the 
rolls of the Adjutant-General of Maine, and also of the Adju- 
tant-General of the U. S. Army, as missing in action, who 
were seen in the line of battle bearing themselves bravely, but 
not accounted for at its close. Some in the above list who 
were so seen and who have never been heard from since, now 
thirty-three years, have been placed above in a separate list, 
and several others are almost as clearly entitled to be so dis- 
criminated. In truth, these might properly and with a high 
degree of probable truth be borne on the lists of the killed. 

We cannot refrain from expressing the feeling that such a 
rule should be applied by authority of Congress to all cases of 
faithful and honorable record where men seen in their place in 
a disastrous battle of our war for the Union, and never heard 
from again, should no longer have their honorable title clouded 
by so ambiguous a final report as ^^ missing." 



ADDRESS OF GENERAL CHAMBERLAIN. 

General Chamberlain's response to the toast "Gettysburg" 
at a banquet in honor of the Sixteenth Maine Infantry and the 
Fifth Battery at the city of Gardiner. 

Comrades of the Sixteenth and of the Fifth Battery: 

It is an honor to be held worthy of your remembrance on an occasion 
like this. The reason of it is to be found in your own generous hearts. 
Something there may be in the suggestion that the flag of the Sixteenth in 
the field was finally furled within my own lines. In the closing days of our 
service, when all those varied experiences grouped under the wide and 
deep word, ** casualties," together with the gradual expiration of terms of 
enlistment, brought men of the same state nearer and nearer together, it 
happened that the men of the Sixteenth left in the field (as had been those 
of the Second and the Sharpshooters) were consolidated with those of my 
old regiment, the Twentieth, and so were mustered out of the service in 
the division of which I was the commanding officer. I have evidence of my 
ability at that time to recognize merit in that I, forthwith upon the opportu- 
nity, invited one of your gallant field officers to a place on my staff (a), 
(a) Major Abner R. Small. 



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64 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Another thing which periiaps gives me footing here is that queer " back 
action'' attraction by which "extremes meet." This is often from deep, 
underlying likeness, and not apparent antagonism. Here it is like service 
in opposite extremes of position. You were at one post of peril and respon- 
sibUity; I was at another, the most remote from you in place, but so similar 
in circumstance, that I can understand and appreciate all your experience. 
With you, on the first day, the army put her right foot forward; with us, on 
the second, she put her left foot forward. She changed steps, but she stood. 

You have given me a great theme. It is large enough to occupy our 
minds as many days as it held us, body and soul, breasting that tidal wave 
of July, 1863. I have not now, for this, so many minutes at my disposal. I 
pass it with a glance. 

Gettysburg was a great battle; — its action, its tension, its hazards, its 
consequences. In it were involved questions of gravest import, the decision 
of which makes history; interests social, political, moral, personal; of 
gravest import for ourselves, for others, for our Country, for man every- 
where; — for the present time, and for the future, for which also we hold a 
trust The pressing question before us was whether we had a Country; 
whether we were a people, or only a populace; whether we were a mere 
chance partnership holding only by human will, or a Nation, constituted in 
the purpose and calling of Divine Providence, bound together for the noblest 
ends of living by ties of mutual interest and honor,— bonds both of love and 
of law. All the great ruling sentiments which have their vital source in this 
idea,— patriotism, loyalty, self-devotion for the sake of others,— nay, what 
we consider the supreme of earthly blessings, — largest scope for individual 
life, endowments, powers, genius, character,— these were the prize for which 
we wrestled in tiiat terrible arena. More than thb. Involved here, too, 
were widest human interests. We fought for the worth of manhood; for 
law and liberty, which mean freedom for every man to make the most of 
himself, with good-will of all others, without oppression or depression. 

We had a deep, inward vision of this at the time, though unspoken and 
perhaps unclear; but no man even now can realize in thought, or recognize 
in fact, all the reach of good coming forth out of that struggle and that 
victory for the Country and for mankind. But I must leave that line of 
thought with you. 

Looked at in its outward aspect, this battle will be a great example in 
military history,— a study in military science;— the strong features of the 
ground affording great variety of offensive and defensive measures, of grand 
and minor tactics, in a sudden and unplanned great battle; not without 
exemplification, too, of the tactics of the moral forces and the desperate 
strategy of sacrifice. In its inward aspect, example, also, of the value of 
character in the stress and strain of battle, where mature experience and 
intelligent comprehenskm have enforced the lesson that manly fortitude, 
heroic valor, and pride of honor must be organized into the habit of disci- 
pline and unquesdoning obedience, without which all generalship is vain. 
But this thought, abo, leading so Ult and so deep, I must leave for you to finish. 

Many have claimed the honor of selecting the final standing-ground of 
our great defense. To thb sudden change of position, some participants 
were "accessory before the fact," and some "after the fact." But if there 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT CHAMBEBLAIN'S ADDRESS. 65 

was any selection here, it was a very "natural selection.'* Whetiier, in 
every instance, it led to the "survival of the fittest," there may be some 
question. The manner of its occupancy is not sug^gestive of deliberate pre- 
meditation, but our people certainly may be said to have chosen this ground 
and promptiy taken it, in decided preference to matters and things they had 
found at tiie further front. 

But who, let me ask, made it possible to select this ground but the 
men who on that first of July, all day long, held Lee*s advance at bay, until 
our scattered corps could come up by forced marches and take advantage 
of the field ? Who but John Buford with hb cavalry, and Reynolds with his 
First Corps,— you of his infantry and artillery, — with masterly skill, stub- 
bom courage, and unexampled devotion, wrought that marvelous opening 
by which it was Meade, and not Lee, who secured that heart of hills made 
awfiil in memory and inunortal in history ? That magnificent fighting of the 
First Corps, I do not know where it was ever surpassed! 

But my theme grows intense as it narrows and neafs. I know how you 
of the Fifth Battery, after holding your salient angle at the front until it was 
an island in the raging sea of foes, galloped straight through their envel- 
oping masses, through embarrassing masses of fugitives as well, and with 
your brazen throats calling a halt to the astonished enemy thinking to sweep 
away our right fiank, where for a sublime moment you alone gave check 
to the batUe tide. 

I know what you men of the Sixteenth did, when your General of 
Division, seeing that it must be a stricken field, and that he must save what 
he could of his command by the last resort of falling back with his main 
body while a few should hold the fighting front, and that this could be done 
only by men who would make a stand equal in every test of character to 
the desperate charge of a "forlorn hope,*' calling to Colonel Tilden, said: 
"Take that hill and hold it at any cost!*' I know how you stood, and 
where, and when, and at what cost! Your General knew what men you 
were. You knew perfectly well what your service was to be. It is a terrible 
duty, but a glorious honor. You saw what was coming, front and left and 
right You saw the last of the Union army leave the field. You saw the 
blades of the great shears coming down and down, and closing in and in- 
and you knew they must meet, and cut and crush' all that was between. 
But you stood; you fought it out to the last and " at any cost ** indeed. 
Environed, enveloped, crushed, overwhelmed, — as truly heroic, as much 
to be held in highest honor and dearest memory, as if you had died at your 
posts, every man of you! 

Some such example as yours, the great Apostie must have had in mind 
when he exhorts his followers to * * put on the whole armor of God, that ye 
may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, h stand,** 

So many of you were captured, — not because you were placed in a 
false position, with flank unguarded and rear cut off; not because you were 
not well handled; not because you were "caught napping" or "cooking 
coffee"; but because you would not yield your post, though disaster and 
death swirled and swept around and over you. 

Your colors, it was said, were lost. That word came to me when, on 
the morning of the second, I reached the crest far to the rear of that where 



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66 MAINE AT GETTT8BUBG. 

you had stood; and I felt a shock, but not of shame. For I knew something 
terrible must have befallen, and that there could have been no dishonor 
where you were. But when I came to know the truth of it all, I saw that 
instead of your colors being lost, they were eternally saved! Not laid 
down, but lifted up; not captured nor surrendered, but translated,— the 
shadow lost in substance! The flag, — it is the symbol of the Country's 
honor, power, law, and life. It is the ensign of loyalty, the bond of brother- 
hood for those who stand under it; a token and an inspiration. Hence it is 
held sacred by the soldier; as in great moments it is also by the citizen. 
All which that flag symbolized you had illustrated and impersonated; had 
absorbed into your thoughts and hearts— if I should not rather say, itself had 
absorbed your thoughts and hearts, — yoiu: service and suffering into its own 
deeper meaning and dearer honor. Now it had done all a symbol could do; 
you had stood for all it stood for. Now the supreme moment had come. Noth- 
ing could be averted; nothing could be resisted; nothing could be escaped. 
That was an awful moment; passing that of death, it seems to me. Then 
the soul is bom anew. No thought of yielding up the token of the Country's 
honor enters the heart of any one of you, though it has fulfilled its ends; 
though you are to go to prison and to death. Your Colonel, calm and 
dauntless,-— commander still,-— bids you break the staff that had borne it 
aloft, aild tear that symbol single as your souls into as many pieces as you 
had bosoms, and shelter them with your lives, lest that flag be touched by 
hostile hand, or triumphed over by living man! And they went with you to 
prison. And these bars and stars next your hearts helped you to endure 
those other bars, besetting you because you were true; helped you to look 
up to those other stars, where we dream all is serene and safe and free. 
[Here the long repressed feelings of the hearers broke into wildest demon- 
stration, in the midst of which a member of the regiment arose and took 
from his breast pocket a star of the old flag, at which the assembly lost all 
control of itself; and the General continued.] Yes, and through this tumult 
of cheers and tears, I see that you hold them still to your hearts, precious 
beyond words, radiant with the glory of service and suffering nobly borne; 
potent to transmit to other souls the power that has made them glorious! 

Lost ? There is a way of losing that is finding. When soul overmasters 
sense; when the noble and divine self overcomes the lower self; when duty 
and honor and love, — ^immortal things, — ^bid the mortal perish! It is only 
when a man supremely gives that he supremely finds. 

That was your sacrifice; that is your reward. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

BY LIEUTENANT FRANCIS WIG0IN. 

The Sixteenth Begunent of Infantry for three years' service 
was authorized by a call from the War Department of May 21, 
1862, for the enrolment of fifty thousand troops to be drilled 
and held in reserve, to be drawn upon as needed. At that 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORIOAL SKETCH. 67 

time it was supposed by those in authority, and by people gen- 
erally, that the six hundred thousand soldiers in the field would 
be amply sufficient for the putting down of the Rebellion. The 
seven days' battles in the vicinity of Richmond, and the falling 
back of McClellan's army to Harrison Landing, undeceived the 
country as to the magnitude of the task on hand, and a call for 
three hundred thousand additional troops was issued, the fifty 
thousand under the call of May 21st being included in the 
latter call. 

Although recruiting for the regiment commenced in May, 
it was not till August 13th that the complement was full. The 
regiment on that date consisted of 960 enlisted men and 39 
commissioned officers. The organization was as follows : 

FIELD, STAFF, AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Asa W. Wildes, Skowhegan. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles W. Tilden, Castine. 
Major, Augustus B. Farnham, Bangor. 
Adjutant, Abner R. Small, Waterville. 
Quartermaster, Isaac N. Tucker, Gardiner. 
Surgeon, Charles Alexander, Farmington. 
Assistant Surgeon, Joseph B. Baxter, Gorham. 
Chaplain, George Bullen, Skowhegan. 
Sergeant-Major, Francis A. Wildes, Skowhegan. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, George W. Brown, Augusta. 
Commissary-Sergeant, Charles H. Parlin, Skowhegan. 
Hospital Steward, William W. Eaton, Brunswick. 
Drum-Major, William H. Palmer, Calais. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, Charles A. Williams, Skowhegan. 

First Lieutenant, S. Forrest Robinson, Skowhegan. 

Second Lieutenant, Isaac A. Pennell, New Portland. 
Co. B. Captain, Charles K. Hutchins, Augusta. 

First Lieutenant, Eleazer W. Atwood, Gardiner. 

Second Lieutenant, George W. Edwards, Gorham. 
Co. C. Captain, Daniel Marston, Phillips. 

First Lieutenant, Hovey C. Austin, Presque Isle. 

Second Lieutenant, Marshall S. Smith, East Livermore. 
Co. D. Captain, Moses W. Rand, Waterford. 

First Lieutenant, Humphrey E. Eusds, Dixfield. 

Second Lieutenant, Henry P. Herrick, North Yarmouth. 
Co. E. Captain, Arch D. Leavitt, Turner. 

First Lieutenant, William E. Brooks, Skowhegan. 

Second Lieutenant, William A. Stevens, Waterville. 



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68 MAINE AT GETTT8BURG. 

Co. F. Captain, Thomas E. Wentworth, Gorham. 

First Lieutenant, Oliver H. Lowell, Gorham. 

Second Lieutenant, George A. Deering, Saco. 
Co. G. Captain, S. Clifford Belcher, Farmington. 

First Lieutenant, Joseph H. Malbon, Skowh^;an. 

Second Lieutenant, Isaac H. Thompson, Anson. 
Co. H. Captain, John Ayer, Bangor. 

First Lieutenant, Ira S. Libby, Limerick. 

Second Lieutenant, Israel H. Washburn, Orono. 
Co. I. Captain, William H. Waldron, Lewiston. 

First Lieutenant, William Bray, Turner. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles A. Garcelon, Lewiston. 
Co. K. Captain, Stephep C. Whitehouse, Newcastle. 

First Lieutenant, Augustus T. Somerby, Ellsworth. 

Second Lieutenant, Augustus C. Peters, Bluehill. 

Company A was raised in Somerset and Kennebec counties ; 
Company B in Kennebec county ; Company C in Franklin and 
Oxford counties; Company D in Oxford and Cumberland 
counties ; Company E in Androscoggin, Kennebec, and Penob- 
scot counties ; Company F in York and Cumberland counties ; 
Company G in Somerset and Franklin counties ; Company H 
in Waldo and Penobscot counties ; Company I in Kennebec 
and Androscoggin counties ; Company K in Hancock and Lin- 
coln counties ; and men from all parts of the state were scat- 
tered throughout the companies. 

The regiment was mustered into United States service at 
Augusta, August 14, 1862. August 19th it started for Wash- 
ington, where it arrived on the 21st, and on the 22d it marched 
across Long Bridge to Arlington Heights. Here the several 
companies were distributed among the forts on the Heights, 
for the purpose of being driUed in heavy artillery practice, under 
the instruction of the officers and sergeants of the 14th Mass. 

Three weeks were spent here, and the men were fast acquir- 
ing the bearing and skill of soldiers, when the defeat of General 
Pope's army at the Second Bull Run battle, and the invasion 
of Maryland by General Lee, called every available regiment 
to the field. On September 6th at eleven p.m. came the order 
to rendezvous at Fort Tillinghast, le^iving tents, knapsacks 
and overcoats behind, whence we took up the march towards 
the South Mountain in Maryland, under command of Colonel 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 69 

wades, who shortly afterward gave over the command to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Tilden, who remained at the head of the 
regiment and was promoted Colonel, January 8, 1863, Colonel 
Wildes having resigned. On September 9th the regiment was 
assigned to Hartsuffs brigade, Ricketts' division. Hooker's 
corps. The Sixteenth did not participate in the battle of 
Antietam, but marched over the battlefield the next day after 
the conflict, before the dead had been buried, and went into 
camp near Sharpsburg. The men had no shelter-tents ; knap- 
sacks and overcoats had been left at Arlington Heights and 
were now stored in Washington. The men were exposed 
to all the inclemencies of the weather by night and by day, 
with only such protection as could be made from boughs and 
fence rails. The services of many a noble and patriotic soldier 
were lost to the country by reason of the two months' severe 
and unnecessary exposure to which they were subjected. The 
army was at last put in motion for Virginia. To guard against 
cold, rain, sleet and snow we were accustomed to wrap our 
blankets around our shoulders; and our brother soldiers in 
other regiments, disregarding our pitiable condition, jeered at 
us and called us the ^Blanket Brigade." The men of this regi- 
ment were of that heroic temper which bears insult in silence. 
They resolved that when the proper time came they would 
show the army and the country of what stuff they were made. 
But in this pitiful plight they marched from Sharpsburg to 
Rappahannock Station, and from that place to Brooke's Station 
near Fredericksburg, where on Thanksgiving Day, November 
27, 1862, they received their knapsacks and overcoats from 
Washington. Never had men more cause for thankfulness 
than the patient, shivering men of the Sixteenth. 

Col. Adrian R. Root, of the 94th N. Y., had then the com- 
mand of the brigade to which the Sixteenth had lately been 
assigned, the other regiments being the 94th and 104th N. Y. 
and the 107th Penn. 

The battle of Fredericksburg, December 12-13, 1862, was 
a disastrous and overwhelming defeat for the Union army; 
but there never was a battle where greater bravery was shown 
than by the men of the North at Fredericksburg. The Six- 



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70 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

teenth Maine was in General Franklin's grand division, on the 
left of the Union position. At about two o'clock p. m. the 
brigade was ordered into action. The regiment numbered at 
this time 417 guns. The enemy were posted behind the Fred- 
ericksburg and Richmond railroad, which they were using for 
a breastwork. Under cover of a ridge our brigade removed 
knapsacks and fixed bayonets. It then advanced steadily over 
the ridge and at the order, "* Double quick 1 Charge 1 " the men 
went forward with a cheer, under a terrific and destructive fire, 
but with no wavering. The Sixteenth remembers the taunts 
and jeers of the last three months and feels that its opportunity 
has come. Ahead of all the others it rushes over the railroad 
embankment and springs down upon an astonished and terrified 
line of battle. The rebels throw down their arms and give 
themselves up. Over two hundred prisoners are taken and 
sent to the rear. Then the Sixteenth advanced to the edge of 
the woods and fired sixty rounds of anmiunition at a second 
line of battle, and would have charged a second time if it had 
not been restrained. Its loss in this battle in killed, wounded 
and missing was two hundred and thirty-one (a) — more than 
one-half the number engaged. The missing were mostly 
wounded and prisoners. The losses in the regiment amounted 
to one-half the losses in the whole brigade. Colonel Root, the 
brigade conomander, in his official report spoke in the highest 
terms of the conduct of the officers and men of the Sixteenth 
in this battle. He further says: "Previous to the action 
thirty-eight men of the regiment had volunteered to do duty 
with Hall's battery, and I am assured by Captain Hall that 
their conduct was creditable in the highest degree." The injus- 
tice of the past was overcome ; the voice of insult and reproach 
was forever silenced; the term ''Blanket Brigade" was never 
heard again. 

The monotony of camp life in winter quarters near Belle 
Plain was broken once by a forward movement of the army in 
what is known among soldiers as the ''Mud March" of January 
19-23, 1863, in which the severe experiences of cold, wet, 
mud and hunger were intensified by the sensation of a com- 
plete failure in our attempt. 

(a) 8eenomiiiAlliftinl882, A. G.R. Maine, page 877. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 71 

On April 29th the regiment took its place in the move- 
ments around Chancellor sville. During this battle Adjutant 
A. B. Small of the Sixteenth made a most daring and success- 
ful reconnaissance on the right of our army, and brought back 
important information concerning the withdrawal of the rebel 
forces and their movement toward Fredericksburg. The losses 
of the Sixteenth in this battle had not been great, but the 
results of exposure and fatigue had been fearful, and the whole 
army was disgusted at the result of a campaign that was so 
well begun. 

At the opening of the Gettysburg campaign the 94th and 
104th N. Y., the 107th Penn., the 13th Mass., and the Sixteenth 
Maine constituted the first brigade of the second division, 
First corps. On the morning of June 12th tents were struck 
and the regiment began its long march northward, with 281 
men and 32 officers. June 15th it reached Centreville ; on the 
19th Guilford, where it remained in camp till the 23d. The 
march from Fredericksburg had been most arduous ; the tem- 
perature 90 degrees above zero every day, and the terrors of 
sunstroke added to the fatigue and thirst. On the 29th of 
June our corps reached Emmitsburg. 

On the morning of July 1st we were suddenly marched in 
the direction of Gettysburg, the sound of cannonading quick- 
ening every step until the brigade was put into position near 
the seminary. Not long afterward it was ordered to "the 
front,*" where it commenced its action by a bayonet charge 
executed in such fashion as to drive the enemy entirely from 
their position. The brilliant but terrible chapter of the part of 
the Sixteenth in the battle of fiettysburg need not be recounted 
here, as it is set forth, faithfully and fully, in a preceding 
account. It is sufficient to say that its heroism and devotion 
make a conspicuous instance of service and suffering, which 
history has not failed to note. 

The little remnant — thirty-eight men and four officers — 
which managed to escape the terrible catastrophe of the after- 
noon of July 1st made its stand with its division on Cemetery 
Hill and rendered such service as it could in the second and 
third days' battle. 



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72 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

The regiment was for a time almost um*ecogiiizable as such. 
The Colonel and most of the officers were prisoners in the 
hands of the enemy; its Adjutant was detached as acting 
assistant adjutant-general of the brigade, and Major Leavitt 
exerted himself to bring together the broken fragments of the 
regiment as fast as circumstances would allow. On July 18th 
the First corps recrossed the Potomac and went into camp 
near Waterford, Va. By a special order from corps head- 
quarters a detail from the regiment was ordered to proceed to 
Maine, for the purpose of securing recruits and drafted men 
to fill up its depleted ranks. Men were now returning from 
prison and from hospitals, and with the 168 drafted men now 
assigned, the regiment began to assume a respectable appear- 
ance as to size. Lieutenant-Colonel Farnham had returned 
from severe illness at hospital and assumed command, and the 
regiment was ready for action early in September. It partici- 
pated in all the peculiar movements, known among soldiers as 
the " Culpeper and CentreviUe Express," over the old battle- 
fields about Bull Run. On the 20th of November the regiment 
numbered 650 men, and with its two new stands of colors sent 
by friends in Maine it had an appearance worthy of its early 
days and a heart proud of its later fame. 

In the Mine Bun campaign the regiment had something of 
its earlier experience. Exposure, fatigue and hunger, sowing 
more seeds of disease and death, began their terrible and long 
effect. But the prudence of General Meade doubtless saved 
us another great slaughter, even more disastrous than Freder- 
icksburg. On December 3d the regiment went into winter 
quarters at Kelly's Ford. 

In March, 1864, changes took place in the organization of 
the army. The First corps, to which the Sixteenth had been 
attached, was absorbed into the Fifth corps, our division con- 
stituting its Second division, under General Robinson. March 
28th Colonel Tilden returned to the regiment, having boldly 
and skilfully escaped from Libby Prison through the famous 
Rose Tunnel. On the day following, the men of the Sixteenth 
presented to him the magnificent black horse which he rode 
during the remainder of the war and brought home with him 
when the regiment went out of service. 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT HI8TORIGAL SKETCH. 73 

On May 4, 1864, commenced the campaign of the Wilder- 
ness. The regiment was actively engaged in the three battles ; 
its losses, however, were comparatively small. But in a des- 
perate chaise on the 8th of May it lost several of its officers 
and nearly a hundred men. In the battle of Laurel Hill at 
Spotsylvania, on the tenth, the regiment took a prominent part 
and lost four officers and fifty men in a charge upon the 
enemy's works. On the twelfth charged the enemy's works, 
but without success. No soldiers in the world could have car- 
ried those tiers of earthworks, yet our division was hurled 
against them again and again. Major Leavitt was mortally 
wounded and every company suffered great loss. From May 
5th to the 21st the regiment had lost nineteen men and two 
officers killed or mortally wounded ; one hundred and sixteen 
men and two officers wounded, and thirty-eight men and two 
officers missing, — doubtless taken prisoners. 

On May 23d the regiment took part in the brilliant engage- 
ment on the North Anna River, where the enemy were repulsed 
with great loss. In the severe battle of Bethesda Church — 
which was our part in the famous Cold Harbor battle — the 
regiment lost four men killed and fourteen wounded. 

On the 8th of June our brigade was transferred to the Third 
division of the Fifth corps, and took part in the movements 
and engagements about the Chickahominy River. On the 16th 
the brigade crossed the James River and moved up toward the 
outer defenses of Petersburg. It had part in the severe 
actions of June 17th and 18th ; in the latter the Fifth corps 
by desperate assault and with great loss gained a commanding 
advanced position across the Norfolk railroad, which was after- 
wards known among our soldiers as ''Fort Hell." Thereafter 
the regiment shared the fortunes of the Fifth corps in the 
entrenchments in front of Petersburg and the various opera- 
tions upon the enemy's right flank. It participated in the 
aggressive movement of the First corps, August 18th, to extend 
our lines to the left beyond the Weldon railroad. The enemy 
was on the alert, taking advantage of every disjunction of our 
troops in the formations for battle. Severe fighting occurred 
that day and the next, in a rather disconnected way but gener- 



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74 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

ally with an enemy upon one flank or the other. The Corps 
however planted itself firmly and for good astride the railroad. 
In repelling a front and flank attack too long on the 19th the 
Sixteenth, endeavoring to retire, found itself surrounded, and 
lost heavily. During the enterprise it lost two men killed, 
twenty-eight wounded, and a hundred and fifteen prisoners. 
Among these prisoners were Colonel Tilden, Adjutant Small, 
Captains Conley and Lord, Lieutenants Broughton, Fitch, 
Chipman and Davies. Colonel Tilden, however, wouldn't stay 
captured and Lieutenant Davies as well, although they were 
taken to Petersburg and started for Richmond. They managed 
at the risk of their lives to elude their guards and coolly return 
to the front with Confederates on all sides. Watching their 
opportunity they walked over into their own brigade picket 
line on the twenty-second. 

The regiment had now been assigned to the Second brigade, 
under General Baxter. The regiment was stationed in Fort 
Wadsworth and there remained until December 5th. Decem- 
ber 7th it took up the march with the Fifth corps to destroy 
the Weldon railroad to the North Carolina line. Li this expe- 
dition it lost four men. 

On January 1, 1865, there were present for duty in the 
Sixteenth sixteen oflicers and five hundred and twelve men. 
On the 5th of February it moved to the left and took part in 
the battle of Hatcher's Bun, losing one officer and seventy- 
three men killed and wounded, including two color bearers. 
On the 29th of March the last campaign of the war opened, in 
which the Fifth corps operated with General Sheridan's cav- 
alry; General Chamberlain's brigade opening the campaign 
with a decisive blow upon the enemy on the "Quaker Boad." 
On the White Oak Boad, on the Slst, the Sixteenth lost one 
man killed and four wounded, and one officer and twenty-three 
men missing. Li the brilliant action of Five Forks, — a cyclone 
attack on the enemy's position, one of the picturesque battles of 
the war, — ^the regiment was closely engaged, Lieut.-Col. Fam- 
ham being severely wounded through the lungs and one man 
killed and twelve wounded. In the rapid and brilliant move- 
ments which taxed our men to the utmost, but resulted in 



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SIXTEENTH REGIMENT HI8TORI0AL SKETCH. 75 

Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, the regiment took 
an active and earnest part and had the honor of being at Appo- 
mattox at the time of Lee's surrender. After about a month 
of occupation in taking possession of Confederate property 
and maintaining and administering peace and order along the 
line of the South Side railroad, the FUEth corps took up its 
march through Petersburg and Richmond and across almost all 
the great and terrible battlefields of the war toward Wash- 
ington, and encamped at Arlington Heights on the 12th of 
May. This return march over fields of such tremendous expe- 
riences was an incident never to be forgotten. The regiment 
took its part in that last grand review of the army in Wash- 
ington, where it laid down its own arms before the constituted 
authorities of the nation in the most magnificent spectacle ever 
beheld on this continent. On the 5th of June the regiment, as 
such, was mustered out of the service of the United States ; its 
later recruits, whose term of service had not expired, were 
assigned to the Twentieth Maine regiment. When leaving for 
the homeward journey, on June 6th, the regiment passing 
through Washington, inarched by the hospital where Colonel 
Famham lay, as was then supposed at the point of death, that 
he might take a last look at the command he loved so well. 
Reaching Augusta on the 10th of June the regiment was quar- 
tered in the cavalry barracks, where it was disbanded on the 
16th and its heroic men, having honored themselves and their 
country, modestly returned to their place and work as peaceful 
and worthy citizens. 

The Sixteenth Maine Regiment was emphatically a fighting 
regiment. On three several occasions it was almost extin- 
guished by deaths, wounds or capture. At Fredericksburg it 
lost more than half its number ; at Gettysburg it had at the 
close of the first day only thirty-eight men and four officers 
left ; at Laurel Hill it lost nearly one-third of its men ; at the 
Weldon Railroad it lost more than half the men engaged. First 
or last, every member of its color-guard was killed or wounded. 
The regiment left Augusta in 1862 with 960 enlisted men. It 
received in all 916 recruits. It lost in killed and mortally 
wounded 10 officers and 168 men. It had wounded in action 



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76 MAINE AT GETTYSBUKG. 

22 officers and 266 men. There died of disease one officer and 
240 men. It had discharged for disability 17 officers and 260 
men. Resigned and discharged for promotion, 25 officers; 
discharged by order and for promotion, 126 enlisted men; 
missing in action fate unknown, deserted, and transferred to 
other organizations in the service, 673 enlisted men. There 
belonged to it dming the three years of its existence 1,876 
enlisted men and 86 officers, and its total diminutions as above 
stated for the same period from all causes were 1,467 men and 
53 officers; the remainder — 33 officers and 409 men — were 
mustered out with the regiment or elsewhere (a) . It was 
fortunate in its field officers, whose ability and character com- 
manded respect and affection, and the mutual regard between 
officers and men of this regiment is something perhaps remark- 
able. It is not too much to say that this regiment will have 
place in history as one of the most intelligent, patriotic, reUa- 
ble and faithful regiments that went out from the State of 
Maine, and one whose part and office of fortitude and self- 
sacrifice on the first day of the battle of Gettysburg was to 
check the victorious advance of the rebel army and enable the 
shattered renmants of the First Corps to form a new line on 
Cemetery Ridge, thus having no small part in determining the 
final fortunes of that memorable field. 



REGIMENTAL ROSTER. 

COLONELS. 

Date of Commiflsioii. 

Aug. 9, 1862. • Asa W. Wildes, resigned Jan. 7, 1863. 
Feb. 5, 1863. Charles W. Tilden, brevet Brigadier-General March 13, 

1865; mustered out June 5, 1865. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONELS. 

June 23, 1862. Charles W. Tilden, promoted Colonel. 

Feb. 5, 1863. Augustus B. Famham, brevet Colonel April i, 1865; 

mustered out June 5, 1865. 

MAJORS. 

Aug. 9, 1862. Augustus B. Famham, promoted Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Feb. 5, 1863. ' Arch D. Leavitt, died May 31, 1864, of wounds received 
at Spotsylvania May 12th. 

(a) The fiffores are derived from IRgtcry cf the Sixteenth Maine by Major A. R. 
Small, pace 828. 



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B08TEB or SIXTEENTH REGIMENT. 77 

June I, 1864. S. Clifford Belcher, not mustered, absent wounded. 

Oct 31, 1864. Abner R. Small, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

ADJUTANTS. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Abner R. Small, promoted Major. 

Dec. 9, 1864. Cherbury F. Lothrop, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

QUARTERMASTERS. 

Aug. 16, 1862. » Isaac N. Tucker, discharged July 28, 1864. 
Aug. 13, 1864. George W. Brown, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

SURGEONS. 

June 3, 1862. ' Charles Alexander, discharged Nov. 8, 1864. 
Nov. 25, 1864. William W. Eaton, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

ASSISTANT SURGEONS. 

July 22, 1862. Joseph B. Baxter, mustered out May 23, 1865. 

Oct. 24, 1862. Warren Hunter, resigned Jan. 24, 1863. 

Feb. 5, 1863. William W. Eaton, promoted Surgeon. 

Feb. 10, 1865. David P. Bobter, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

CHAPLAINS. 

Aug. 2, 1862. George Bullen, resigned Oct 3, 1863. 

Dec. 8, 1863. ' Uriah Balkam, discharged Oct. 8, 1864. 
Feb. 8, 1865. . John Mitchell, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

CAPTAINS. 

July 29, 1862. Charles A. Williams, Co. A, died Nov. 10, 1862. 

Nov. 19, 1862. '. S. Forest Robinson, Co. A, resigned Jan. 24, 1863. 
Mar. 2, 1863. Isaac A. Pennell, Co. A, discharged for disability Oct 

14, 1864. 
Sept 15, 1864. Charles T. Hildreth, Co. A, mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1862. ' Charles K. Hutchins, Co. B, killed in battle Dec. 13, 1862. 
Dec. 31, 1862. Eleazer W. Atwood, Co. B, discharged Nov. 25, 1864. 
Dec. 9, 1864. . Joseph H. Malbon, Co. B, mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1862. . Daniel Marston, Co. C, discharged Dec. 22, 1864. 
Jan. 28, 1865. Edward F. Davies, Co. C, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Moses W. Rand, Co. D, died Dec. 8, 1862. 
Dec. 31, 1862. » Oliver H. Lowell, Co. D, killed in battle July i, 1863. 
Dec. I, 1863. Samuel H. Plummer, Co. D, discharged Oct 20, 1864, 

for disability. 
Nov. 9, 1864. ' William H. Broughton, Co. D, mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1862. Arch D. Leavitt, Co. E, promoted Major. 

Feb. 5, 1863. William E. Brooks, Co. E, resigned Feb. 26, 1863. 

Mar. 22, 1863. V William A. Stevens, Co. E, killed in battle June 17, 1864. 
Aug. 8, 1864. Lincoln K. Plummer, Co. E, brevet Major and Lieut- 

Colonel Mar. 13, 1865; mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1862, ^ Thomas E. Wentworth, Co. F, discharged July i, 1864. 
Aug. 8, 1864. > George A. Deering, Co. F, mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 16, 1862. S. Clifford Belcher, Co. G, discharged Sept 13, 1864, on 

account of wounds received in battle May 8, 1864. 
Dec. 26, 1864. Isaac H. Thompson, Co. G, mustered out June 5, 1865. 



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78 MAINE AT GETTTBBUBO. 

Aug. i6, 1862. John Ayer, Co. H, died Feb. 22, 1863, of wounds received 

in battle Dec. 13, 1862. 
May 22, 1863. John D. Conley, Co. H, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. William H. Waldron, Co. I, wounded and prisoner July 

I, 1863; discharged Sept. 27, 1863, for disability. 
Dec. I, 1863. Lewis C. Bisbee, Co. I, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Stephen C. Whitehouse,Co. K, killed in batde July i, 1863. 
Dec. I, 1863. Joseph O. Lord, Co. K, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

July 21, 1862. S. Forest Robinson, Co. A, promoted Captain Co. A. 

Nov. 19, 1862. Isaac A. Pennell, Co. A, promoted Captain Co. A. 

June 13, 1863. Nathan Fowler, Co. A, discharged Oct. 26, 1864, on 
account of wounds received May 8th. 

Sept. 5, 1864. S. P. Newman Smythe, Co. A, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 9, 1862. Eleazer W. Atwood, Co. B, promoted Captain Co. B. 

May 23, 1862. Abner R. Small, Co. B, promoted Adjutant. 

Mar. 26, 1863. Frederick H. Beecher, Co. B, wounded at Fredericks- 
burg and at Gettysburg; discharged Sept. 30, 1864; 
transferred to V. R. C. 

Dec. 9, 1864. Jones Whitman, Co. B, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Hovey Austin, Co. C, discharged March 30, 1863. 

Apr. 10, 1863. Marshall S. Smith, Co. C, prisoner May 5, 1864; dis- 
charged May 15, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Humphrey E. Eustis, Co. D, resigned Dec. 8, 1862. 

Dec. 31, 1862. Samuel H. Plummer, Co. D, promoted Captain Co. D. 

Dec. I, 1863. William H. Broughton, Co. D, promoted Captain Co. D. 

Nov. 9, 1864. Atwood Fitch, Co. D, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 9, 1862. William E. Brooks, Co. E, promoted Captain Co. E. 

Feb. 5, 1863. William A. Stevens, Co. E, promoted Captain Co. E. 

Mar. 16, 1863. Lincoln K. Plummer, Co. E, promoted Captain Co. E. 

Aug. 8, 1864. Aubrey Leavitt, Co. E, brevet Captain and Major to 
date March 13, 1865; mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Oliver H. Lowell, Co. F, promoted Captain Co. D. 

Dec. 31, 1862. George A. Deering, Co. F, promoted Captain Co. F. 

Aug. 8, 1864. Cherbury F. Lothrop, Co. F, promoted Adjutant. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Joseph H. Malbon, Co. G, promoted Captain Co. B. 

Dec. 9, 1864. Lewis G. Richards, Co. G, discharged Feb. 4, 1865. 

Mar. 15, 1865. Frank Wiggin, Co. G, mustered out June 5, I865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Ira S. Libby, Co. H, resigned Oct. 31, 1862. 

Dec. 13, 1862. Israel H. Washburn, Co. H, resigned June 12, 1863. 

Aug. 16, 1862. William Bray, Co. I, resigned Aug., 1862, not mustered. 

Aug. 23, 1862. Lewis C. Bisbee, Co. I, promoted Captain Co. I. 

Dec. 18, 1863. Isaac H. Thompson, Co. I, promoted Captain Co. G. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Augustus T. Somerby, Co. K, resigned March 12, 1863, 
for disability. 

May 23, 1863. Joseph O. Lord, Co. K, promoted Captain Co. K. 

Dec. I, 1863. Edward F. Davies, Co. K, promoted Captain Co. C. 

Jan. 28, 1865. Jabez P. Parker, Co. K, mustered out June 5, 1865. 



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B08TEB or SIXTEENTH BEGIMENT. 79 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

July 29, 1862. Isaac A. Pennell, Co. A, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. A. 

Dec. 3, 1862. Francis A. Wildes, Co. A, resigned Feb. 26, 1863. 

May 22, 1863. Nathan Fowler, Co. A, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. A. 

June 13, 1863. Nathaniel W. Coston, Co. A, died May 27, '64, of wounds. 

Sept 22, 1864. William T. Dodge, Co. A, brevet ist Lieutenant to date 

March 13, 1865; mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1862. George W. Edwards, Co. B, died in rebel prison. May 

27, 1863, of wounds received; commissioned ist 

Lieutenant Co. B, not mustered. 
Jan. 24, 1863. Frederick H. Beecher, Co. B, promoted ist Lieut Co. B. 

Mar. 26, 1863. Melvin C. Wadsworth, Co. B, mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 19, 1862. Marshall S. Smith, Co. C, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. C. 
Apr. 10, 1863. George D. Bisbee, Co. C, mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 16, 1862. Henry P. Herrick, Co. D, killed in battle Dec. 13, 1862. 
Dec. 31, 1862. William H. Broughton, Co. D, promoted ist Lieut. Co. D. 
Dec. I, 1863. Atwood Fitch, Co. D, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. D. 

Nov. 9, 1864. Charles H. Parlin, Co. D, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 9, 1862. William A. Stevens. Co. E, promoted ist Lieut. Co. E. 

Mar. 2, 1863. Lincoln K. Plummer, Co. E, promoted ist Lieut. Co. E. 

May 22, 1863. Aubrey Leavitt, Co. E, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. E. 

Nov. 25, 1864. Jones Whitman, Co. E, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. B. 
Dec. 9, 1864. Gustavus Moore, Co. E, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. George A. Deering, Co. F, promoted ist Lieut. Co. F. 
Mar. 17, 1863. Daniel L. Warren, Co. F, discharged Oct. 27, 1863, for 

disability. 
Dec. I, 1863. Cherbury F. Lothrop, Co. F, promoted ist Lieut Co. F. 

Dec. 9, 1864. Daniel A. Spearin, Co. F, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Aug. 16, 1862. Isaac H. Thompson, Co. G, promoted ist Lieut Co. L 
Dec. 18, 1863. Isaac R. Whitney, Co. G, discharged Dec. 17, 1864. 

Aug. 2, 1862. Israel H. Washburn, Co. H, promoted ist Lieut Co. H. 

Dec. 13, 1862. John D. Conley, Co. H, promoted Captain Co. H. 
May 22, 1863. James U. Childs, Co. H (promoted ist Lieutenant, not 

mustered), mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Aug. 16, 1862. Charles A. Garcelon, Co. I, discharged Feb. 5, 1864, for 

promotion. 
Nov. 25, 1864. Jabez P. Parker, Co. I, promoted ist Lieutenant Co. K. 
Jan. 28, 1865. Wilbur F. Mower, Co. I, discharged May 15, 1865, for 

disability from wounds. 
Aug. 16, 1862. Augustus C. Peters, Co. K, discharged March 30, 1863^ 

for disability from wounds. 
July 16, 1862. Charles A. Williams, Co. K, promoted Captain Co. A. 

May 22, 1863. Edward F. Davies, Co. K, promoted ist Lieut Co. K. 

Dec. I, 1863. Wilmot H. Chapman, Co. K, promoted ist Lieutenant 

Co. I, not mustered ; mustered out June 5, 1865. 



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80 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBO. 

MONUMENT 

ov 

STEVENS' FIFTH MAINE BATTERY. 



The monument of Stevens' Fifth Maine Battery stands on a knoll, a 
spur of Gulp's Hill east of the village of Gettysburg. Since the battle that 
knoll has been named Stevens' Knoll or Hill. (See Plate 95, Atlas to accom- 
pany Rebellion Records; Penn. at Gettysburg, Vol. i, p. 48.) The earth- 
works thrown up on the night of July first for the protection of the men and 
pieces have been preserved. In those earthworks cannon have been placed 
to mark their position. 

The monument is of the most substantial character. The first and 
second bases are of Hallowell granite. The die is of red granite, the color 
indicating artillery. The apex is a large cannon ball of black granite two 
and one-half feet in diameter; both die and ball are highly polished. 

Admeasurements: Base: five feet four inches, by five feet four 
inches, by one foot eight inches; plinth: four feet, by four feet, by two feet 
four inches, of Hallowell granite; die: three feet, by three feet, by six feet, 
of Red Beach granite; ball: two feet eight inches diameter, of black Addi- 
son granite. Total height, twelve feet eight inches. 

The monument on two faces (first view) bears the following inscriptions: 

Stevens' Battery 

5th Maine Ist Corps 

Fought here July 1, 2, 3, 1863. 

Also Engaged 

July Ist North or the Seminary. 

Ammunition Expended 

979 Rounds. 

Bull Run 2nd, 

Fredericksburg, 

Chancellors viLLE , 

Gettysburg, 

Wilderness, 

Spottsylvania, 

Cold Harbor, 

Petersburg, 

Opequan, 

Fisher's Hill, 

Cedar Creek. 

See page 81 for inscriptions on the other two faces, second view. 



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STEVENS' FIFTH MAINE BATTERY. 81 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MONUMENT. 
(Second view, shown at page 95.) 

Losses. 

Bull Run 2nd, 

1 Offices and 3 Men Killed 

8 Men Wounded 

6 Men Missing. 

Changellorsville, 

6 Men Knj.EP 

3 Officers and 19 Men Wounded. 

Gettysburg, 

3 Men Eolled 

2 Officers and 11 Men Wounded 

6 Men Missing. 

Opequan, 

6 Men Wounded. 

Cedar Creek, 

2 Men Killed 

16 Men Wounded. 

**In the assault upon 

East Cemetery Hill 

in the evening of 

July 2nd the Enemy 

(Hays' and Hoke's Brigades) 

exposed their left flank to 

Stevens' Battery 

WHICH POURED A TERRIBLE FIRE 

OF DOUBLE CANISTER INTO 

THEIR RANKS." 

DOUBLEDAY. 



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STEVENS' FIFTH MAINE BATTEET, 

AT THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 



THE Fifth Maine Battery, belonging to the artillery brigade. 
First Army Corps, was also in the first day's battle. This 
battery at Chancellorsyille two months before had passed 
through one of the most trying ordeals experienced by a battery 
in the war of the rebellion, when it lost six men killed, three 
officers and nineteen men wounded and forty-three horses killed. 

One officer. Captain George F. Leppien, whose wound 
proved mortal, died at Washington, D. C, May 24, 1863. 

The battery after that engagement was at once refitted and 
placed on a war footing by a detail of fifty-three men from the 
83d and 94th New York regiments. These men, more than 
one-third of its number, had never served in mounted artillery 
before. They however were drilled, disciplined and made effi- 
cient as light artillery-men before the battery arrived at Grettys- 
burg. This detachment, with the eighty men belonging to the 
battery proper, with three conmiissioned officers, present for 
duty, made the battery at Gettysburg on the morning of July 
1st, one hundred and thirty-six strong. 

The battery, six light 12-pounders, under Captain Greenlief 
T. Stevens, with Lieutenants Edward N. Whittier and Charles 
O. Hunt, made its way up through Virginia and Maryland with 
the First corps, of which it then formed a part, and at daylight 
on that eventful day was with the artillery brigade between 
Marsh Creek and Gettysburg. The corps that morning resumed 
its march in the following order : Wadsworth*s First division 
with Hall's Second Maine battery ; Rowley's Third division ; 
then the artillery brigade to which the Fifth battery belonged ; 
lastly Robinson's Second division with the Sixteenth Maine reg- 
iment. General Reynolds, in command of the left wing of the 
army, accompanied Wadsworth's division. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY FIRST DAY. 83 

Immediately west of the village of Gettysburg there are two 
parallel ridges of land extending in a northeriy and southeriy 
direction, the first about one-third of a mile from the outskirts 
of the village, on which the Theological Seminary is located ; 
and the other about one-third of a mile west of the Seminary, 
and sloping down gradually towards the west to Willoughby 
Bun. On the most westerly ridge and facing west Greneral 
Wadsworth's division was first formed, with Hall's Second 
Maine battery on his right. 

The Fifth Maine battery reached the vicinity of Gettysburg 
between ten and eleven o'clock a. m. It turned off the Enmiits- 
burg road to the west in the vicinity of the ** Peach Orchard," 
and marched across the fields in the direction of a furious con- 
flict then raging between the enemy and Wadsworth's division. 
On reaching a piece of lowland the carriages were cleared and 
the battery made ready for action. At this point orders were 
received by Captain Stevens from Colonel C. S. Wainwright, 
chief of artillery. First army corps, to take position in the south- 
erly part of a grove some two hundred yards south of the 
Seminary and relieve Lt. Stewart's battery B, Fourth U. S. 
artillery. 

At this hour the first Confederate advance down by Wil- 
loughby Run had been checked by Wadsworth's division, and 
there was a temporary lull in the battle. The battery unen- 
gaged remained in this position nearly two hours. Rowley's 
division, which had preceded the battery on the march, had been 
divided by General Doubleday, and Stone's brigade assigned to 
the open space between the woods where General Reynolds was 
killed and the Chambersburg pike, and Riddle's brigade to the 
left of our line near the Hagerstown road. 

By this time the battle was again raging to the front and 
right, and with the greater number of contestants had increased 
in the volume of its tumult and fury. General Doubleday, 
who succeeded General Reynolds in the command of the corps, 
was establishing with prudent forethought a fortified position 
on the ridge around the Seminary when orders were received by 
Captain Stevens from General Doubleday to change position 
from the south to the north of the Seminary, where he took his 



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84 IfAINB AT GETTTSBUBO. 

second position on the right of Cooper's battery B, First Penn. ; 
Cooper was next to the Seminary building and Stevens was 
next to Cooper. 

It was about two p. m. when this movement was made. At 
this hour the Sixteenth Maine had already moved from the 
entrenchments at the Seminary and was facing or about to face 
the onset of Bodes' right. The Eleventh corps was already 
engaged with Bodes' left and Early's division of Ewell's corps. 
The battle was now raging from Bock Creek and the Harrisbui^ 
road on the right around by Willoughby Bun to the Hagerstown 
road on the left. The hours from two until four o'clock were 
to be crowded with thrilling events in which the batteries at the 
Seminary were to play a prominent part. In all twelve guns 
were massed at this point so closely that they were hardly five 
yards apart ; four guns of Cooper's battery B, First Penn., six 
guns of Stevens' Fifth Maine battery and two guns of Beynolds* 
battery L, 1st N. Y., under command of Lt. Wilber. The 
other four guns of Beynolds* battery, under Lt. Breck, at this 
hour were on the same ridge south of the Seminary. 

Stewart's battery B, 4th U. S. artillery, was also on the 
same line but further to the north or right, one-half — three 
guns — being between the Chambersburg pike and the railroad 
cut, and the other half north of the railroad cut in the edge of 
the woods. 

Bobinson's division was on the right of Stewart's battery 
and formed the right of the line of the First corps. 

The Fifth Maine opened fire as soon as it was in position, 
throwing spherical case and shell at first over our infantry in 
the lower ground in front. 

The whole line of battle from right to left was then one 
continuous blaze of fire. The space between the two ridges 
was completely filled with the thin blue smoke of the infantry, 
making it difficult to distinguish friend from foe, while the 
artillery from their higher position belched forth a tremendous 
fire of shot and sheU, throwing their deadly missiles in rapid 
succession into the ranks of the enemy advancing on our direct 
front, covering themselves for the moment in dense clouds of 
white smoke. Our infantry, by the overwhelming numbers of 



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STEVENS' BATTEBT FIRST DAY. 85 

the enemy, five to one, were forced back upon a line with the 
artillery, some of them crouching under the very muzzles of 
the guns of the Fifth battery to avoid its fire. When our front 
was clear and within canister range, using double charges, the 
guns of the Fifth battery were turned to the right on the colunms 
of the enemy, and when their first line was within about one 
hundred yards of the Seminary it was brought to a halt by Stew- 
art's, Stevens', Beynolds' and Cooper's batteries, — Stevens' 
expending about fifty-seven rounds of canister (a) . 

But the enemy's second line, supported by a column deployed 
from the Cashtown or Chambersburg pike, pushed on, and in 
the face of the most destructive fire that could be put forth from 
all the troops in position succeeded in dislodging our infantry, 
driving in the cavalry and completely outflanking and enfilading 
our line both on the right and on the left. At this hour, nearly 
four o'clock, the Eleventh corps which had been facing north 
and forming nearly a right angle with the First corps line, and 
m full view of our position at the Seminary, was fast falling 
back toward the town, closely pressed by the enemy. 

Colonel Wainwright in his official report, referring to this 
hour, said : ^ An order was now received by Captain Stevens 
from Greneral Wadsworth to withdraw his battery. Not know- 
ing that he had received such an order, and still under the false 
impression as to the importance attached to holding Seminary 
Hill, I directed all the batteries to remain in position. A few . 
minutes, however, showe<^ me our infantry rapidly retreating 
to the town. All the batteries were at once limbered to the 
rear and moved at a walk down the Cashtown pike until the 
infiintryhadleftit''(b). ♦ ♦ ♦ 

By this- time the enemy's skirmishers had lapped our retreat- 
ing colunms and opened a severe fire within fifty yards of the 
road in which the artillery was obliged to pass. The pike 
being clear, the batteries now broke into a trot, but it was too 
late to save everything. Battery L, 1st N. Y., lost one gun 

(a) The batteiT expanded in the battle of Qettysbiuv 108 roonds of Oftniiter. See 
Bebelllon Becordi, Vol. 27, page 868. Lt. Whittier in his report of the ensaffement on 
the ereninff of July 9d aays : ** When within dz hundred yards I opened with oanis- 
ter and fired, before they were repnlied, upwards of 46 rounds.'' This leayes 07 rounds 
expended at the Seminary on July 1, as canister was osed at no other times. 

(b) Rebellion Beoords, Vol. 27, parti. page 807. 



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86 MAINE AT GETTY8BUKG. 

and five horses; three caissons of battery B, 4th U. S. 
artillery, broke down before they reached the town and had to 
be abandoned. Another caisson of the same battery was struck 
by a shell and destroyed. While at a trot-march a gun wheel 
of one of the guns of the Fifth battery came off, the axle drop* 
ping in the road ; the team was halted, the gun raised by the 
cannoneers and wheel replaced, Captain Stevens springing 
from his horse and seizing the gunner's pinchers, inserted the 
handle for a linch-pin, and the gun was saved from capture. 

At this point, near where a brook crosses the Chambersburg 
pike, not far from the westerly outskirts of the village, private 
William Widner, a driver, detached from the 94th N. Y. and 
serving with the battery, was killed, falling from his horse 
beside the road. Charles M. Bryant was killed near the Sem- 
inary as the battery was limbering to the rear, and Lieut. 
Charles O. Hunt was severely wounded in the thigh while at 
the same point. 

Privates Aaron Simpson, William Leonard, Sylvester L, 
Brown, John A. Paine, Warren B. Bailey and Edwin T. 
Witham were also wounded; and privates J. P. St. Clair, 
Charles Smith, Jno. Dwyer, Jno. Bessey and A. C. Marvin 
were taken prisoners, the last three being detached men from 
the 94th N. Y. regiment. 

Such were the losses in this battery up to this hour, four 
. o'clock in the afternoon. 



A MARKER 
stands in the road west of the Seminary buildings to indicate the position 
of the Battery at that point in the first day's battle. (See map of the First 
Day.) The marker, of Maine granite, is a large rectangular block, cut 
away on the upper half of one side in a slope, presenting a polished raised 
table inscribed with the following legend: 

Stevens* 
Battery, 

5th 

Maine. 

July 1, 1863. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY FIRST DAY. 87 

The First corps had lost heavily. General Reynolds had 
been killed. He was on horseback in the easterly edge of an 
open wood, surrounded by his staff. The enemy were in the 
wood. Without doubt he felt anxious in relation to the result 
and frequently turned his head to see if Robinson's and Row- 
ley's divisions, which had not then arrived, would be up in 
time to assist Wadsworth who was hotly engaged, and while 
he was looking back in that way a rebel sharp-shooter shot him 
through the back of the head, the bullet coming out near the 
eye. He feU dead in an instant without uttering a word. He 
had served in the 3d U. S. artillery with Generals Sherman, 
Thomas and Doubleday, and had fought in the same battles 
with the latter in the Mexican war. 

Our troops never fought with greater spirit, believing that 
Grettysburg was to be held at all hazards. ''We have come to 
stay" was the battle cry that passed along the line. As it 
proved, a great portion of them did come to stay, laying down 
their lives to save this country for the present and future gen- 
erations. When out of anmiunition many a soldier replenished 
his box from that of his killed or wounded comrade. 

When the left of the Eleventh corps nearest the First corps 
feU back, a force of nearly 20,000 Confederates was thrown 
upon the First corps, which in the beginning of the contest 
only numbered 8,200 and which was reduced at the close of 
the engagement to 2,450 (a). 

General Wadsworth in his official report said: ''The 
severity of the contest during the day will be indicated by the 
painful fact that at least half of the officers and men who went 
into the engagement were killed or wounded" (b). 

General Robinson, commanding the Second division, went 
into the battle with less than 2,500 officers and men and sus- 
tained a loss of 1,667, of which 124 were commissioned 
officers (c) . 

The Confederate general A. M. Scales, who advanced 
directly against our position at the Seminary, in his official 
report said: 

(a) RebeUion Records, Vol. 27, part 1, paire 861. 

(b) BebeUion Beoordi, Vol. 27, part 1, page 908. 
(0) n>id, page 291. 



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88 MAINE AT GETTY8BUBO. 

"We passed over them (the first Confederate line of battle) up the 
ascent across the ridge and conunenced the descent just opposite the Theo- 
logical Seminary. Here the brigade encountered a most terrific fire of 
grape and shell on our flank, and grape and musketry in our fioot £«eqr 
disdiarge made sad havoc in our line, but still we pressed on at a double 
quick and we reached the bottom, a distance of seventy-five yards firom the 
ridge we had crossed and about the same distance from the college in our 
front Here I received a painful wound from a piece of shell and was dis- 
abled. Our line had been broken up and only a squad here and there 
marked the place where regiments had stood. Every field officer in the 
brigade save one had been disabled; and the following list of casualties 
will attest sufficiently the terrible ordeal through which the brigade passed. 
Killed 4B, wounded 381, missing 116. Total 545 " (a). 

On the retreat the guns of the Fifth were intermingled with 
those of Captain Cooper's battery B, 1st Penn., and, passing 
through the town whose streets were crowded with the columns 
of the First corps and encumbered by stragglers from the 
Eleventh corps upon whose heels the Confederates were closely 
following, moved along Baltimore street and up the hill on the 
Baltimore pike to the Cemetery gate. This was the rallying 
point of broken and disordered regiments and batteries. Of 
the sixteen thousand five hundred men of the First and 
Eleventh corps who went into the battle, not more than five 
thousand five hundred were rallied on this hill in fighting condi- 
tion ; while stretching through the village of Gettysburg and 
to the right and left of the same were the heavier columns of 
the Confederate army. Nearly four thousand of their com- 
rades were lying upon the field in full view beyond the town. 
Five thousand more had been captured and two thousand dis- 
persed (b) . The annals of war present no instance of more 
desperate, stubborn, gallant and persistent fighting than that 
offered July 1, 1863, by the First corps. 

With several hours of sunlight the situation of the remain- 
ing Union forces was perilous indeed. ^But sometimes, at a 
critical moment," says the Comte de Paris, ^a single individual 
may bring a moral force on the battlefield worth a hundred 
battalions." Such a person was Greneral Hancock at this 
moment. He was sent by General Meade to take charge of 
the field. He arrived on Cemetery Hill about four o'clock, 
and was by the gate of the Cemetery as the Fifth Maine 

(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 37, part 2, pa^e 670. 

(b) Estimate made by the Comte de Paris, Hist. Clyil War, Vol. m, page 070. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY FIRST DAY. 89 

battery came up. He called for the captain of ^that brass bat- 
tery.'' Captain Stevens heard what he said and put himself in 
Hancock's presence ; he ordered Stevens to ^take (his) battery 
on to that hill," pointing to Gulp's Hill, and ^* stop the enemy 
from coming up that ravine." '*By whose order?" was the 
inquiry. ** General Hancock's," was the reply. 

When the order was given, "Fifth battery, forward ! " each 
gun and caisson separated from Cooper's battery and the 
infantry with which it had been retiring, and dropped into its 
proper place and marched easterly down the Baltimore pike 
until it reached a lane leading to a cottage in the direction of 
Culp's Hill. Passing through that lane and up the elevation, it 
reached the summit of a knoll at the westerly extremity of 
Culp's Hill. This position commanded completely the easterly 
slope of Cemetery Hill and the ravine at the north. As the 
battery reached this position the enemy was sweeping through 
the village and up across the lowlands in our front. The bat- 
tery was unsupported. No Union infantry was on the right, 
and none on the left nearer than Cemetery Hill where the 
other troops were turned off to the right and left by General 
Hancock and put into line of battle. The battery at once 
went into position and opened so vigorous a fire that the 
advance of the Confederates in that direction was stopped and 
the desire of General Hancock was fully achieved. The enemy 
took shelter by lying down behind any object that furnished 
protection. 

General Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, attracted no doubt by the rapidity and vigor of the bat- 
tery's fire at this hour, paid it a visit. On learning that the 
battery had no supports, and that a body of the enemy had 
gone so far to the right that their position and movements were 
covered by the woods on the northerly slope of Culp's Hill and 
that there was nothing to prevent their skirmishers irom 
approaching within one hundred yards of the battery without 
being observed, he said to Captain Stevens : " I don't like the 
look of this ; send some of your men and tear gaps in the 
fences between here and the Baltimore pike, and on the oppo- 
site side of the pike, so that you can reach the high land beyond 



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90 MAINE AT GETTY8BUBG. 

in case you're driven out." The order was promptly obeyed. 
The non-military reader should observe that while a battery can 
keep back or destroy masses of the enemy, it cannot success- 
fully contend with a line of skirmishers. To resist them would 
be like shooting mosquitoes with musket balls. But the battery 
was not forgotten by Hancock. In this connection General 
Doubleday in his report of the engagement says: "Major- 
General Hancock now rode up and informed me he had been 
placed in conunand of both corps. He at once directed me to 
send a force to support a battery which had been established on 
a lower range of hills some one hundred yards to the east of 
our position, protecting our flank in that direction. I com- 
plied with the order and sent the remainder of Wadsworth's 
division there. Immediately afterward orders came from Gen- 
eral Howard, who ranked Hancock, to send the troops in 
another direction. This occasioned at the time some little 
delay and confusion " (a) . 

General Wadsworth, however, with the remainder of his 
division did not go in another direction, but went directly to 
the battery, passing between the line of limbers and caissons 
of the battery and taking position on the right and a little in 
advance of the same where it remained during the remainder 
of the battle, planting his headquarter-colors near its right gun. 
At intervals the battery maintained its fire until dark to keep 
down the enemy that were in our front and prevent the move- 
ment of their troops as far as possible within its range. 

In this connection Colonel A. C. Godwin, commanding 
Hoke's Confederate brigade after Colonel Avery was mortally 
wounded, said : 

"The brigade continued to advance toward the town, but while yet in 
the outskirts was wheeled to the left and re-formed on the railroad. The 
enemy had now succeeded in planting a battery upon a high sloping spur 
on the moimtain side immediately in our front. Under cover of the railroad 
cut we were moved by the flank about 400 yards to the left and then moved 
forward. The shells from the enemy proving very effective, we were soon 
after halted in a depression on the hillside and the men ordered to lie down. 
Skirmishers were thrown forward and this position held through the night 
and until 8 p. m. on the next day, July 2, when the brigade moved forward 
to the attack" (b). 

(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 37, part l, pa^e 202. 

(b) Rebellion Records,lVol. 27, part 2, page 484 ; also see map of the first day. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY SECOND DAY. 91 

Between five and six o'clock p. m. the Union troops that 
were not in the first day's battle began to arrive. Slocum's 
Twelfth corps, between eight and nine thousand strong, was 
the first to appear. While yet in the distance the lone star 
upon their banners told us who they were, causing the Fifth 
battery boys to send up cheer after cheer. The First division 
of that corps was put in position on our right down by Rock 
Creek, while two brigades of the Second division wended their 
way up across the country in our rear and took position on the 
left of our line between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top (a) . 

But this is not a chronicle of the Twelfth corps. On that 
ground it was evident that the contest would be renewed the 
next day, and preparations were accordingly made for the 
same. During the night earthworks were constructed ^ under 
the direction of Captain Stevens, which on the two days follow- 
ing proved of the greatest service in covering and protecting 
the men and pieces " (b) . It will be observed elsewhere that 
the losses were largely sustained on the first day. When all 
was quiet except occasional picket firing, the teams having been 
cared for, the men, regaled with their usual allowance of 
hardtack and coffee, tired and exhausted, repulsed but not 
routed, beaten but not dismayed, wrapped their blankets about 
them and camped down beside their guns and horses for a little 
rest, with mother earth for a pillow, and the starry heavens 
above them for a sheHer. Thus passed one of our days and 
nights on this battlefield destined to become the Waterloo of 
the western world. 

The forenoon of the second day passed similarly to the clos- 
ing hours of the first day, — troops arriving, picket firing, sharp- 
shooting and artillery duelling at long range. From an early 
hour in the morning the enemy's sharp-shooters, posted behind 
walls and fences in the lowlands in front of the battery, were 
very annoying and were only partially dislodged by our skir- 
mishers sent out to oppose them. 

During the afternoon while observing movements of the 
enemy Captain Stevens was severely wounded, being shot 
through both legs below the knee, and was removed from the 

(a) See BebeUion Recordg, Vol. 37. part l, page 756. 

(b) See Official Report on file, Adjutant-General's office, Maine. 



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92 MAINE AT GBTTT8BUBG. 

field. Sergeants Lorrin E. Bandy and James W. White, per- 
forming the duty of oonmiissioned officers, evinced quite as 
plainly as on other oecasions courage and discretion of a high 
degree. Lieutenant A. B. Twitchell being absent, wounded, 
the conmiand of the battery then deyolved upon Lieutenant 
Whittier, who has recently furnished the foDowing account of 
the battery in the battle of Grettysburg while under his command. 
He writes in part as f oUows : 

^ To take up my topic, the part borne by the Fifth Maine 
battery in the battle after Captain Stevens was wounded. 
About one o'clock the enemy ran guns into position just oppo- 
site the end of East Cemetery Hill, to enfilade our lines which 
from that point ran in a southerly direction towards the Bound 
Tops. We could just reach the enemy, and joining fire with 
the rifled guns on East Cemetery ridge their batteries were soon 
silenced. Great annoyance was experienced later from sharp- 
shooters in our front concealed in bushes, behind fences and 
even in the trees along the course of Bock Creek. A company 
of riflemen was deployed and made its way out some distance, 
and after some difficulty dislodged the enemy and drove their 
men back towards their main skirmish line. And so the after- 
noon wore on, our anxiety increasing as we saw the fight raging 
with what seemed doubtful success on our part, way off on our 
left, in front of the Bound Tops and out on the Enunitsburg 
road, while troops were hurrying fron^ the right of our line 
across to the succor of the Third and Fifth corps, until it seemed 
as if the whole Twelfth corps was in motion, and it was, except- 
ing Greene's brigade, as we afterwards learned ; and the roar 
and crash of artillery, the rattle of musketry, the vast clouds 
of smoke rolling down from Little Bound Top and filling the 
valley, all joined to make us feel that the day was going against 
us. Li the urgent desire of reinforcing the Third corps 
(Sickles'), only Greene's brigade was left to hold the works 
protecting the extreme right of the line against any attempt of 
the enemy to gain a foothold on the Baltimore pike (a) . 

"About 4 p. M. those who were on the left of our position, 
where the view of Benner's Hill was unobstructed by the trees 

(a) The movement of Twelfth oorpe to reinforce other portions of the line 
ocoorred hetween 6 and 7 o'clock p. m. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY SECOND DAY. 93 

on the northerly slope of Gulp's, had presented to their gaze the 
almost unexampled spectacle of a Confederate battery in full 
view, thrown into ^action front' as deliberately as on parade. 
This was the initial movement of Andrews' battalion of artil- 
lery, commanded by Major Latimer, taking position, with four- 
teen guns closely crowded together on the crest of this small 
hill. Two guns, 20-pounder Parrotts, went in-battery on an 
elevation to the right and rear of the position chosen. From 
the high ground further to the enemy's right, rifled pieces 
opened simultaneously with Andrews' battalion a converging 
fire on our batteries on East Cemetery Hill, and enfilading our 
infantry lines and the artillery, which, further south in the 
cemetery, were facing Seminary ridge and the Enmutsburg 
road. I doubt if more than six or eight projectiles came to 
the ground on the knoU where we had been ordered by General 
Hancock. 

"^At once, as if directed by the conmiand of one man, our 
battery united with battery L, 1st N. Y., Lieut. Breck, with 
Cooper and Wiedrich on the hill, and with Taff s 20-pounders 
in the cemetery, and poured such destructive fire into the bat- 
teries on Benner's Hill that in less than half an hour four of 
their limbers or caissons exploded and their batteries were 
dlenced. Nowhere on the field of Grettysburg was such havoc 
wrought by artillery on artillery, and the wreck of Andrews' 
battalion, in horses and shattered gun- and anmiunition-carriages 
left on the field for months, was a noteworthy feature and was 
visited by throngs of eager sight-seers. Major Latimer died 
of wounds received here. One captain and one first lieutenant 
were severely wounded; two non-commissioned officers and 
eight men were killed; two non-commissioned officers and 
thirty-five men were wounded ; thirty horses were killed. 

^It was during this artillery duel that John F. Chase 
received the terrible wounds which so nearly cost him his life. 
Our guns grew so hot, in spite of using wet sponges, that it 
was quite an hour afterwards before one could bear his hand on 
the knob of the cascabel. Soon after General Howard, com- 
manding on East Cemetery Hill, sent an aide with the General's 
compliments and congratulations for the efficient work done by 



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94 MAINE AT OETTYSBURO. 

the battery on that occasion, and about this time Lieutenant 
Matthewson came over from CJolonel Wainwright, and finding 
that our anmiunition was running low, very kindly offered to 
see that our chests were refilled. In considerable haste, all 
that was left in the caissons was transferred to the limber-chests 
of the guns, and we soon saw our teams disappearing down the 
pike in the direction of the ammunition trains in the fields 
towards General Slocum's headquarters, a mile and a half or so 
in our rear, and we were left there with a scanty supply of 
shot and shell, a larger equipment of case shot and all the 
canister left over from the first day's fight. 

^ Our guns cooled all the more rapidly from the use of wet 
sponges which at the same time left the guns clean ; the sun 
dropped behind the western mountains, and all grew quiet save 
for the scattered fire of skirmishers, an occasional gun flashing 
from Little Eound Top and the distant sound of the exploding 
shells ; the dusk of evening was creeping down the valley of 
Rock Creek and shutting out the town from view, and there 
was abundant promise of a peaceful night in our immediate 
front, when suddenly one of our sergeants on the lookout 
shouted, ^Look I look at those men,' and he pointed to our left 
front in the edge of the town and between our position and 
the farm buildings of William Gulp, where, in line of battle 
extending nearly to Rock Creek at the base of Benner's Hill, 
the enemy could be seen climbiog the walls and fences and 
forming for the assault. The assaulting column was Hays' 
brigade ('Louisiana Tigers') and Hoke's brigade of North Car- 
olinians, with Gordon's brigade in the reserve. Time 7 :45 p. m. 

"It must be borne in mind that Johnson's division was 
already in possession of our works on the right of our line, 
directly in our rear and within a few hundred yards of the 
Baltimore pike, and that Rodes' division, struggling to free 
itself from the hindrances of the streets and houses of Gettys- 
burg, was taking position on the west of the town, in the fields 
fronting our infantry and artillery on Cemetery Hill. 

"All comrades of the old Fifth know how quickly and how 
well our guns opened the artillery fire that evening, for the 
order, 'Case, 2 1-2 degrees, 3 seconds time,' had hardly been 



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STEVENS' BATTERY SECOND DAY. 95 

heard before up went the lids of the limber-chests, the fuses 

were cut in another moment, and the guns were loaded as if 

on drill. Slap went the heads of the rammers against the faces 

of the pieces, a most welcome sound, for at the same moment 

came the order 'Fire by battery,' and at once there was the 

flash and roar of our six guns, the rush of the projectiles, and 

along the front of the enemy's charging line every case shot — 

' long range canister' — ^burst as if on measured ground, at the 

right time and in the right place above and in front of their 

advance. This was the first intimation given by artillery of 

the rebel attack on East Cemetery Hill. Greneral Underwood, 

at that time commanding the 33d Mass. regiment, wrote me 

afterwards: 

" ' I had just placed my regiment in line behind the stone wall at the 
head of the valley separating Gulp's from Cemetery Hill, and had no knowl- 
edge, the evening was so far advanced, of any artillery near me, when right 
over my head, it seemed to me, there was a flash of light, a roar and a crash 
as if a volcano had been let loose.' 

''It was the Fifth Maine battery turned loose on the enemy. 
In another moment the battery was ' firing at will,' while Breck, 
Bicketts and Wiedrich, on East Cemetery Hill, made the 
ground tremble with their volleys plowing through the lines of 
the enemy now in full movement and charging on their posi- 
tion. Two important causes contributed to delay the rebel 
advance : first, the front fire of fibfteen guns on East Cemetery 
Hill and the flank fire of the Fifth Maine on the northern slope 
of Culp's Hill ; second, the delay arising from firing and load- 
ing, for their lines opened fire in reply even to the feeble 
resistance offered by our skirmishers. 

'*Wheu the enemy started on this movement their lines 
nearly faced our position, but as they advanced they obeyed 
the order given at the outset, and, pivoting on their right 
which rested on and moved along the outskirts of the town, 
they so changed direction by an almost right half-wheel of their 
whole force, that at 8 : 30 we had an oblique fire on them ; and 
when they were under the steep acclivity of Cemetery Hill, 
where the guns on the crest couldn't touch them, the Fifth 
Maine had an enfilading fire on their whole left and centre. In 
this position no other artillery could reach them, and they were 



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96 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

delivered over to the hot, unsparing havoc of our canister, 
and it wrought their ruin. 

^One battery alone was placed so as to fire canister down 
the valley and to deliver a direct fire on the enemy's front from 
East Cemetery Hill. It was Breck with battery L, 1st N. Y., 
on the low ground on the side of the slope nearest our position ; 
but in his published report he says : ^I did not use canister 
for fear of the in&tntry in my front/ etc. (a) . 

^A few minutes before this it was found that the right guns 
of the battery were almost useless because of the position of 
the enemy's line rapidly changing and soon to be quite in rear 
of our left flank ; the left half of the battery was already firing 
at nearly right angles to the direction taken at the opening, 
the gunners having followed the enemy's advancing line by 
firing more and more left oblique. As soon as it was reported 
that the left half-battery only could be worked, the right half- 
battery was ^limbered up' and the guns placed in position on 
the slope to the left and rear of our earthworks and facing the 
town, and the whole battery was once more effective and this 
time with canister. 

^ It was now so dark that the enemy's line could be made out 
only by the fire from their rifles. The extreme left, bent back, 
nearly faced us, but their left and centre were still facing the 
slopes of Cemetery Hill, and a desperate effort was made by 
their ofBcers under this 'terrible enfilade fire of double canister' 
to rally a sufficient number of their men to enable them to 
secure foothold among the batteries. General Hays writes : — 

'* ' Here we came upon a considerable body of the enemy and a brisk 
musketry fire ensued. At the same time his artillery, of which we were 
now within canister range, opened upon us, but owing to the darkness of 
the evening now verging into night, and the deep obscurity afforded by the 
smoke of the firing, our exact locality could not be dL^rovered by the 
enemy's gunners, and we thus escaped what in the full light of day could 
have been nothing else than horrible slaugtiteT,*— Official Records, Vol, 
27, pari 2, page 4S0, 

** Colonel Godwin, commanding Hoke's brigade after Colonel 

Avery was wounded, writes : — 

** 'After the summit of a hill had been gained it was discovered that the 
batteries we had been ordered to take were considerably to the right of our 
(a) Rebellion Baoords, Vol. 87, parti. pp. 889-064. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY SECOND DAY. 97 

right flank and in front of Hays' brigade. We continued to advance, how- 
ever, under a terrific fire, climbed a rail fence and still farther beyond 
descended into a low bottom and dislodged a heavy line of infantry from a 
stone-wall running parallel with our front. The enemy's batteries now 
enfiladed us, and a destructive fire was poured into our ranks from a line of 
infantry, formed in rear of a stone-wall running at a right angle with our 
line of battle and immediately below the battery. Colonel Avery now 
ordered a change of front and succeeded in wheeling the brigade to the 
right, a movement which none but the steadiest veterans could have exe- 
cuted under such circumstances; three stone-walls had to be surmounted in 
swinging around; the ground was rocky and uneven. The men now chained 
up the hill with heroic determination; in this charge the command had 
become much separated, and in the darkness it was now found impossible 
to concentrate more than forty or fifty men at any point for a further 
advance. Major Tate with a portion of the 6th N. C. regiment, aided by a 
small number of the 9th La., succeeded in capturing a battery on the right' 

'* Major Tate, in a letter to the governor of North Carolina, 

writes : — 

"'Longstreet charged on the south face (of the heights) and was 
repulsed; A. P. Hill chained on the west face and had been repulsed; and 
our two brigades were, late in the evening, ordered to charge the north 
front, and after a struggle such as this war has furnished no parallel to, 
seventy-five North Carolinians of the sixth regiment and twelve Louisian- 
ians of Hays' brigade scaled the walls and planted the colors of the 6th 
N. C. and the 9th La. on the guns. It was now fully ^zxVi,*^ Rebellion 
Records^ Vol, 27, part 2, pp, 484-486, 

"That is, only eighty-seven men out of Hoke's and Hays' 
brigades succeeded in reaching the crest of East Cemetery Hill. 

" Colonel Wainwright states : 'Their centre and left never 
mounted the hill at all, but their right worked its way up 
under cover of the houses and pushed its way completely 
through Wiedrich's battery into Kicketts' ' (a) . 

" Our only loss of any importance this evening took place 
about this time ; a volley from that portion of their line nearest 
us killed four out of six horses on the left piece, the one most 
exposed to their fire, the piece which nearly touched the right 
of the 33d Mass. regiment, and was firing obliquely across 
their front. We had nearly or quite expended the contents of 
our chests, and some 46-49 rounds of canister had been hurled 
across the valley and up the slopes of the ridge, occupied by 
the enemy's left and centre, when the cry went up from one 
end of the battery to the other for more canister and for more 

(ft) BebelliOQ Records, Vol. 27, part 1, page 368. 



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98 MAINE AT GETTTSBURO. 

friction primers ; but our work had already been accomplished. 
Little by little, rapidly at first and then more slowly, their 
lines retreated, and we could see that they were falling back 
by their receding line of fire, and soon all was quiet in our 
immediate front. I gave the order to limber to the rear, and 
then, and before the battery moved, I crept down the slope on 
the right of the battery and found it to be true as reported, 
that the enemy was in full retreat from our front ; then, and 
only then, was the battery withdrawn to the Baltimore pike 
and halted while I went up to the cemetery gate, there found 
Colonel Wainwright, and reported to him what I had done and 
why. Infantry was at once placed in our works, and in obedi- 
ence to CJolonel Wainwright's orders, after finding Lieutenant 
Matthewson, then on his return to us with full chests, returned 
to our position, turned out the infantry sleeping there, and at 
10 : 30 everything was in the same condition as before the fight 
of the evening, only better, because our supply of ammunition 
was more nearly complete than it had been at any previous 
hour of that day. 

** While it is true that on this occasion the battery sustained 
no material loss, it should not be lost sight of that our position 
was not the enemy's objective point ; it is also true, that the 
enemy could not have comprehended the importance of the 
position we occupied with reference to the protection it afforded 
our troops on Cemetery Hill ; for we could enfilade any line 
advancing to the assault of that crest, and could cover with our 
canister the sharp acclivity of the hill and its immediate f ore- 
groimd, searching their advance with the most demoralizing 
and destructive of all that is possible from artillery, an enfilad- 
ing fire of double canister ; and more than all this, it is not 
what a battery loses, it is the loss it inflicts which is the true 
measure of its effectiveness. 

" Some rain during the night refreshed while it wet us thor- 
oughly, though many of the men slept through it all, so great 
was their fatigue. *Tbe last sound slumbers of the night held 
us in their soft but sure embrace' until early dawn, when we 
were violently aroused by an outburst from artillery posted on 
the hill where the Twelfth corps headquarters were, and on a 



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STEVENS' BATTERY THIRD DAY. 99 

small knoll a little nearer our position. Twenty guns in all (a) 
opened at 4 a. m., at the short range of 600-800 yards, on the 
enemy holding possession of that portion of our line vacated 
the evening before by the Twelfth corps. This cannonade was 
continued with but short intervals until 10 a. m. Meanwhile 
the enemy had pushed his lines, strongly reinforced, up to the 
base and along the slopes of Gulp's Hill for its whole length, 
and their bullets swept the crest of the knoll where we were, 
and at one time they seemed so near breaking through in our 
front that canister was brought up from the limbers and cais- 
sons, and piled up inside our works behind which our men 
sought protection. The nearness of the woods in our ri^t 
front, through which they would have come had they broken 
through, made this course with reference to ammunition 
imperative. An attempt was made in the morning to place 
one or two of our guns in the woods and behind the earthworks 
on the higher part of Gulp's Hill, where a flank fire could have 
been obtained, but the attempt was given up because of the 
impossibility of moving the guns through the woods without 
first cutting down many trees, — an undertaking considered by 
General Wadsworth's aide too hazardous. 

^The battery was not actively engaged during the 3d. 
Orders had been received early in the morning to fire at any 
and all considerable bodies of troops within range, and this was 
done with the good effect of forcing all troops moving to rein- 
force Johnson to make a long detour behind Benner's Hill and 
the high ground on the further side of Bock Greek. During 
the forenoon Gol. Wainwright came over to the battery and 
looked us over, and took note of our condition and ihe oppor- 
tunities our position gave us to command the open country from 
Gulp's Hill to the edge of the town, and the fields from Benner's 
Hill along the high ground towards what was afterwards known 
as Hospital Hill ; and he said to me that he hoped we realized 
that we held ' one of the most important, if not the most impor- 
tant position on the whole line.' 

" I need not refer to any other incident during the remaining 
portion of the 3d than the sad circumstance of the wounding 

(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 27, part l, pave 871. 



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100 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

and death of corporal Sullivan Luce. * * ♦ j ^an never 
forget that hour, for we were firing into the town, word having 
been sent us that the enemy was forming there for another 
assault on Cemetery Hill, and aide after aide galloped across 
to our position with orders for us to be watchful and active. 
When the prisoners of Pickett's division were brought over 
the slope of Cemetery Hill towards our position, and before we 
could tell that the enemy had been repulsed, it seemed as if our 
lines were broken, and that our way out was blocked. The 
battery was then thrown into position to fire to the rear, and in 
a moment more would have been in action, but then came the 
cheers and the fight was ended. 

" General Hunt, chief of artillery at Gettysburg, wrote me 
under date of June 13, 1887, concerning the part borne by the 
battery at Gettysburg in the evening of the second day : * Its 
splendid service in the repulse of Ewell's attack on Cemetery 
Hill was one of the marked features of the battle.' 

"In another letter written in 1887, General Hunt wrote: 
' The excellent service of the Fifth Maine battery, posted at the 
head of the ravine, was one of the prominent causes of the 
success.' 

" Concerning the battery and at an earlier date in its history 
than Gettysburg, General Hunt said : ' No better battery than 
Leppien's could be found in the United States service, either 
volunteer or regular.' (See A. G. R. Maine, 1863, pp. 
123-125.) 

"Maj.-Gen. Doubleday, commanding First corps at Gettys- 
burg, replying to a request that he would write some words of 
commendation of the work done by the battery while in his 
command and on the evening of July 2, 1863, wrote of * the 
brilliant service the battery performed at Gettysburg in repel- 
ling or rather crushing the attack of the Texan troops in their 
attempt to make a permanent lodgment among the Eleventh 
corps troops on Cemetery Hill, — the battery's enfilading fire 
was so destructive and so well directed that only a remnant of 
Avery's and Hays' brigades returned to their original positions 
in line. It gives me pleasure to testify to the very important 
part borne [by the battery] and to its great influence in decid- 
ing the victory in our favor.' 



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STEVENS' BATTERY PABTICIPANI'S: 101 

" The battery came into my charge, as it'^d*into the cat€rc£f 
Captain Stevens my immediate predecessor, A tettible engine 
of war, tried and proven, and in the highest degree perfected, 
fresh from the hands of a master in the science and art of war, 
one who was highly accomplished in all that pertained to a light 
artiUery organization ; for it was said of Leppien as early as 
November, 1861, by an authority no less distinguished than 
General Barry, chief of artillery of the defenses of Washington : 
' He knows all about artillery from the face of the piece to the 
tips of the leader's ears.' Well and nobly did he fulfill ttie 
promise of his earlier years ; how well, the record bears abun- 
dant and indisputable evidence." 

PARTICIPANTS. 

Officers and men of the Fifth Maine Battery present for 
duty in the battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 2, and 3, 1863. 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

Captain, Greenlief T. Stevens, Augusta. 

First Lieutenant, Edward N. Whittier, Gorham. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles O. Hunt, Gorham. 

SERGEANTS. 

Lorrin E. Bundy, Columbia, N. H., James L. Loomis, Colebrook, N. H., 
James C. Bartlett, Bethel, James W. White, Vassalboro. 

CORPORALS. 

Lemuel A. Cummings, Augusta, Edward P. Steams, Bethel, 
James H. Lebroke, Lewiston, David L Black, Hanover, N. H., 

Andrew J. Welch, Wells, Charles A. Hinckley, Belgrade, 

Roliston Woodbury, Sweden, Michael Hickey, Lewiston, 

Hiram M. Paul, Stewartstown, N. H. 
Musician: Calvin W. Richardson, Lewiston. 

ARTIFICERS. 

John Murphy, Portland, Alden S. Dudley, Augusta, 

William H. Huskins, Belgrade. Charles O. Kennard, Portland, 

Isaiah W. Spiller, Gilead. 

PRIVATES. 

Bailey, Warren B., Lisbon, Berry, William, Portland, 

Blackman, Joseph B., Augusta, Bradley, Michael, Portland, 

Brown, Charles E., Carratunk PL, Brown Rufus, Brighton,* 
Brown, Sylvester L., Colebrook, N. H. Brown, William C. A., Poland, 

Bryant, Charles M., Winslow, Cannon, Joseph B., Farmingdale, 

Casey, James, Portland, Chase, John F., Augusta, 

Clapp, Andrew J., Portland, Cook, Charles W., Athens, 

* Given as Bridffton on company rolls. 



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•;: ^2 •. / : ; .; J | iiaine at getty-sburg. 

:\ : :Pojl4^f;.»Jft<UicfeCX^ tVjEdward'sIs., Crane, Charles L., Fayette, 
• * *• • * *duimAMgs; iienry A'; :A.agusta, Dunton, David H., Pleasant Ridge PL, 

Dutton, Ruel W., Augusta, Greene, Patrick, Lewiston, 

Hamilton, Henry A., Vassalboro, Hanson, John H., Lewiston, 
Harmon, Algernon S., Portland, Harris, Horace, Stewartstown, N. H., 
Heath, Albert, Pittsburg, Hinkley, AJonzo, Lisbon, 

Hussey, John F., Augusta, Kelly, Patrick, Portland, 

Leonard, William, Lewiston, Lombard, James A., Belgrade, 

Luce, Sullivan, Auburn, Maxwell, Richard E., Minot, 

Mennealy, Thos. B.,Columbia, N. H., Mitchell, Stephen, Paris, 
Morse, Bennett, Grafton, Nevers, AA^lliam H., Sweden, 

Paine, John A., Hallowell, Pike, Charles E., Bridgton, 

Powers, Corydon, Hanover, Ryan, William, Augusta, 

St. Clair, Isaac P., Lisbon, Simpson, Aaron, Sheffield, Vt., 

Smith, Charles, Hallowell, Spiller, Francis J., Gilead, 

Sukeforth, James L., Washington, Thompson, Eben, Portland, 
Towne, William L, Vassalboro, Tuttle, Wilbert D., Athens, 

Vamey, Alden M., Houlton, Vamey, John H., Manchester, 

Warren, Edward, Lewiston, White, Henry, Stratford, N. H., 

Whittier, George W., Gorham, Witham, Charles C, Portland, 

Witham, Edwin F., Lovell, Withee, Charles A., Madison, 

Woods, John, Portland, Woods, Joseph, Portland, 

Worster, John, Belgrade. 

On Daily Duty and Detached Service. 
Sergeants: George W. Woodbury, Sweden, in quartermaster and 
conunissary department; John A. Brown, Portland. 

Wagoner: Joseph L. Marston, Portland, forage master. 
Privates: Henry H. Hunt, Gorham, acting hospital steward; Frank 
E. Pearson, Orono, and John P. Ryan, Augusta, in invalid detachment 

Not included in the above there were fifty-three men serving with the 
battery detached from the 83d and 94th N. Y. r^ments. 

REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

Captain: Greenlief T. Stevens, woimded July 2, both legs. 
Second Lieutenant: Charles O. Hunt, wounded July i, leg. 

privates. 
Bailey, Warren B., wotmded July i, leg. 
Brown, Sylvester L., wounded; died Sept. 13. 
Bryant, Charles M., killed July i. 
Chase, John F., wounded July 3, arm and eye. 
Leonard, William, wounded July i, chest 
Lombard, James A., wounded July 3, leg. 
Luce, Sullivan, killed July 3. 
Paine, John A., wounded July i, arm. 
St. Clair, Isaac P., prisoner July i. 
Simpson, Aaron, wounded July i» wrist. 
Smith, Charles, prisoner July i, 
Witham, Edwin F., wounded July i, ankle. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 103 

The f oUowing casualties occurred among the men from the 

94th N. Y. : 

Privates: John Berry, prisoner July i; John Dwyer, prisoner July i; 

Huntermark, prisoner July i; Hosea Kenyon, wounded July 3; A, 

C. Marvin, prisoner July i; Homer Nichols, wounded July 3; James F. Sea- 
coy, wounded July 3; William Widner, killed July i. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH OF FIFTH MAINE BATTERY. 

BY BREVET MAJOR OREENLIEF T. STEVENS. 

This battery was raised at large and entered the service 
under favorable auspices. It was mustered into the United 
States service December 4, 1861, officered as follows : 

Greorge F. Leppien, Portland, Captain ; William F. Twitch- 
ell, Portland, Greenlief T. Stevens, Augusta, First Lieutenants ; 
Adelbert B. TwitcheU, Bethel, Ezra Clark, Portland, Second 
Lieutenants. 

The battery was rendezvoused at Augusta until the tenth day 
of March, 1862, on which day it left for Portland, and remained 
quartered at Fort Preble until April 1st, when it proceeded to 
Washington. There it remained until the 19th of May, when 
it embarked for Acquia Creek, Va. Then field operations 
conmienced which continued to the close of the war. 

Gretty sburg was only one of the many engagements in which 
the battery bore an honorable part. During its entire term of 
service it was continually at the front excepting a brief period 
in the fall of 1862, refitting after being roughly treated by the 
enemy. It served in succession imder McDowell, Pope, Mc- 
Clellan, Bumside, Hooker, Meade, Grant and Sheridan. On 
August 9, 1862, at Cedar Mountain, Va., the battery was first 
under fire (a) . It took position at night during a heavy can- 
nonade but was not engaged, and sustained no losses. 

On the twentieth day of August, 1862, the battery was at 
Rappahannock Station in position on the northerly bank of the 
river covering and protecting the bridge at that place, and on 
the two days following engaged the enemy's artillery and assisted 

(ft) Bometimei oftlled Cedftr Ron ftnd Slaoffbter's Motmtain. 



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104 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

in dispersing a body of their infantry attempting to form near 
the bridge. 

On the 23d the battery covered the retreat to Warrenton 
during which one of the guns was disabled by recoil and was 
sent to the rear. On August 28th the battery fell back with 
the division to Thoroughfare Gap ; but the enemy was there in 
advance, holding possession, and were masters of the situation. 
In the afternoon the battery was engaged, taking position on 
a steep knoll and firing across the gorge. 

Three days previous to this " Stonewall " Jackson (Thomas 
J.) by a circuitous route had stolen quietly away under the 
direction of his chief and marched his entire corps around the 
right flank of our army by way of Amissville, Orleans and 
Salem, keeping thus far west of the Bull Run Mountains. He 
passed the main body of his corps through Thoroughfare Grap 
in these mountains two days before the Fifth battery was there, 
and on the night of the 26th was at Bristoe Station on the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad in rear of our army and between 
it and Washington, thus breaking General Pope's communica- 
tion by railroad with his base of supplies and compelling him 
to abandon his position on the Rappahannock and make a hasty 
retreat without a decisive battle being fought (a) . 

On August 30th the battery was on the battlefield of Bull 
Run. On the afternoon of that disastrous day, when the battle 
had become general and was raging with great violence along 
the whole line, our left was sorely pressed, and quickly Gen- 
eral Tower was sent with the Second and Third brigades of 
Ricketts' division and the Second and Fifth Maine batteries, for 
its relief. This position our troops endeavored most gallantly 
to maintain. But infantry and artillery alike were overwhelmed 
and the enemy were at once in the midst of the battery. Our 
troops suffered severely. Four guns of the Fifth battery were 
captured. One gun and the line of caissons were saved. Gen- 
eral Tower fell, seriously wounded. Lieutenant William F. 
Twitchell, who was in command of the battery, was killed and 
left on the field ; his body, however, was afterwards recovered 
and sent to his friends in Maine. He was mounted when shot. 

(ft) Bebellion Records, Vol. 12, part 2, page 181. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 105 

The fatal bullet struck him in the right side through the vest 
pocket. A buck-shot hole was also found through one of his 
gloves (a). Sergt. Orrison Woods and George W. Stone of 
Augusta and James Thompson of Houlton were also killed. 
Sergt. George E. Freeman of Portland and privates John Finley 
of Lewiston and Ezra T. Fletcher of Stewartstown, N. H., were 
mortally wounded. George T. Bishop and Horace Harris of 
Stewartstown, John McCormic of Vassalboro, Jonathan B. 
Wescott of Athens and Eli Whitney of Denmark were wounded. 

General Ricketts, in speaking of the artillery of his division 
in that engagement in his official report, said: ^^ Captains 
Mathews' and Thompson's Penn. batteries and Captains Lep- 
pien's and Hall's Maine batteries deserve to be mentioned not 
only for their uniform attention to their duties, but for their 
efficiency throughout the 30th of August." 

After this engagement the battery was ordered to Washing- 
ton to refit and rejoin the division at the earliest possible date. 

The battery next confronted the enemy at Fredericksburg. 
It crossed the Rappahannock December 12, 1862, on the lower 
pontoon bridge. It was in the left Grand Division which was 
commanded by General Franklin. After crossing, the battery 
parked some ten or twelve hundred yards southwest of a large 
stone mansion, where it remained until the morning of the 
13th. Then it moved with the division in a southeasterly 
direction along the enemy's front and took position in rear of 
an embankment at a sunken road, which furnished a partial 
protection for men, horses and pieces. 

About three o'clock and thirty minutes in the afternoon the 
battery under orders moved to the left of the division, crossed 
the road and took position in front of Bimey's division. At 
four o'clock p. M. or perhaps a little later the enemy opened a 
brisk cannonade from the woods in our direct front at a dis- 
tance of 900 yards, which the Fifth and the other batteries on 
that part of the line answered by a rapid and effective fire. 
The enemy's guns were silenced in less than twenty minutes. 
About five o'clock the enemy again opened from a position 

(a) Captain Leppien, diaabled by painful disease, was riding in an ambnlance on 
that occasion. Lieutenant Stevens was absent under special orders. The command 
of the battery thus devolyed upon Second Lieutenant A. B. Twitohell. 



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106 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

further to our left and were again readily silenced. The bat- 
tery maintained that position during the night of the 13th. 
On Sunday, the 14th, it threw several shots at the enemy with- 
out reply, after which it was withdrawn and resumed its former 
position in rear of the embankment at the sunken road. 

During the engagement Captain Leppien was also acting 
chief of artillery of Gibbon's division, and in his absence, 
which was a large portion of the time, the battery was under 
the inmiediate command of Lieutenant Stevens. 

Captain Randolph, chief of artillery of Bimey's division. 
Third corps, which was serving with the First corps, after 
complimenting the batteries under his own command in his 
official report said: "The batteries of Captains Cooper and 
Leppien on my left did good service. The practice of the 
Fifth Maine (Captain Leppien's) attracted my special notice 
and admiration " (a) . 

In this engagement the battery lost no men either killed or 
wounded, and from any data at hand we are unable to give the 
number of horses killed or anmiunition expended. 

After the battle at Fredericksburg the battery went into 
quarters near Fletcher's Chapel, Va., where it remained until 
the twentieth day of January of the following year, when it 
broke camp and marched to near Banks' Ford on the Rappa- 
hannock. The storms of winter had been heavy. The groimd 
had been frozen and thawed, and the roads, after a few thou- 
sand troops with their artillery and wagons had passed over 
.them, became beds of deep mire. They were next to impass- 
able, and the whole army was virtually stuck in the mud. 
This was known as " Burnside's Mud March." On the return of 
the army to its winter quarters the battery re-occupied its old 
camp. After General Hooker succeeded General Burnside, 
the battery was assigned to the artillery brigade of the First 
corps. On the twenty-eighth day of April the battery again 
broke camp and moved to the bank of the Rappahannock near 
General Franklin's crossing ; and on the second day of May 
marched up the river and crossed the same at United States 
Ford and encamped for the night between the river and Chan- 

(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 2l« paffe a66. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 107 

cellorsviUe. On Sunday, the third of May, about eight o'clock 
in the forenoon, orders were received by Captain Leppien from 
Colonel "Wainwright, chief of artillery of the First corps,, to 
move the battery to the front and report to General Reynolds,, 
commanding the coips. 

While on the way to the front, orders were received from 
General Hooker that the batteries in reserve should move along 
to Chancellorsville, which was near the centre of our line, and 
report to the chief of artillery there. On arriving and report- 
ing, the battery was ordered to take position in an open field 
just to the right of the Chancellor House, the left piece being 
near one of the outbuildings. The enemy's line extended along 
the southerly edge of the field and into the woods at an esti- 
mated distance of 450 or 500 yards. 

As soon as the battery emerged from the woods and made 
its appearance upon the open field their infantry was removed 
from our front, which disclosed their artillery posted in the 
rear and partially covered by a slight elevation. The enemy 
had our exact range. He immediately opened upon us the 
most galling and destructive fire that the battery ever experi- 
enced ; its location furnished not the slightest protection, and 
our men and horses began to fall before the battery was in 
position. The following communication to the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of Maine tells the sad story in brief : 

"Hbadquartbrs Fifth Battery Maine Vols., 

Camp Near White Oak Church, Va., May 8, 1863. 
General: — Enclosed I have the honor to hand you Monthly Returns 
for the month of April of the battery under my command, also a list of 
killed and wounded of the battery in the recent action of May 3, 1863. I 
shall as soon as possible transmit to you a detailed report of the part per- 
formed by the battery in that action. 

I remain, General, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

G. T. Stevens, Lieutenant, Commanding Battery, 
Brig. -Gen. John L. Hodsdon, Adjt.-GenH State of Maine, 
Augusta, Maine." 

List of killed and wounded in action of May 3, 1863 : 

KILLED. 
Sergt A^lliam F. Locke, Corp. Benjamin F. Grover. 

PRIVATES. 

William W. Ripley, Timothy Sullivan,* 

fames Nason, James P. Holt. 



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108 MAINE AT GETTYSBUKG. 

WOUNDED. 
Capt. Geors^e F. Leppien, severely, left leg amputated. 
Lieut. G. T. Stevens, slightly, flesh wound left side. 
Lieut. A. B. Twitchell, severely, flesh wound in leg, two fingers amputated. 
Sergt. James C. Bartlett, slight, leg. 
Sergt. Andrew McRae, severely, right breast. 
Corp. Lemuel A. Cummings, slight, neck. 

PRIVATES. 

Alonzo Hinkley, slight, face. John Bolinger,* slight, head. 

Charles L. Crane, slight, foot. Roliston Woodbury, slight, back. 

Edwin F. Witham, slight, foot Heylep Powers,* slight, arm. 

Joseph Woods, slight, face. Napoleon B. Perkins, severely, leg. 

Charles M. Kimball, severely, arm. Edward A. Stewart, severely, leg. 
William H. Nason, severely, hand. Edwin L. Knowlton, severely, leg. 
James Russell,* severely, back. Cornelius O'Neil, severely, leg. 

Joseph Holsinger,* slight, arm. George Dennison, severely, side. 

Total: Six men killed, three officers and nineteen men wounded. 
* Detached from the 186th refpiment Penn. Vols, and serying in the battery. 

Captain Leppien was the first ofBcer wounded. He was on 
his horse. The battery was in full play. Every gun was being 
worked to its utmost capacity. An exploded shell struck his 
leg not far from the ankle joint nearly severing the foot. 
Amputation followed, after great loss of blood, then extreme 
prostration and finally death on Sunday, May 24th, in the city 
of Washington. He held a Lieut.-CoFs conmiission in the 
Maine Mounted Artillery, but on account of some delay was not 
mustered into the United States service as such until May 18th. 
He rests in a patriot's grave in Laurel Hill Cemetery on the 
banks of the Schuylkill near Philadelphia, the city in which he 
was born. 

Lieutenant Stevens was the next oflicer wounded. He was 
hit or grazed by a shot or shell which felled him to the ground, 
tearing the clothing from his side and giving him a severe 
shock with a slight flesh wound. 

The conmiand of the battery then devolved upon Lieut. A. 
B. Twitchell, who continued to work the battery until it was 
nearly silenced for want of cannoneers, most of them being 
killed or wounded, and he himself severely wounded. 

The battery was thus deprived of its three ranking ofli- 
cers, when Lieutenant Edmund Kirby of Battery I, 1st U. 
S. artillery, was ordered by General Couch to its assistance. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 109 

He had scarcely arrived when his horse lost a fore leg by a 
cannon shot. Kirby called for a pistol which was handed him 
and he shot his horse on the spot. That scene had hardly been 
enacted when Lieut. Kirby received a fatal wound, his thigh 
being smashed by a ball from a spherical case shot. He lost 
his leg and lost his life. 

Beside the three officers of the battery who had been dis- 
abled, not including Lieut. Earby, six men had been killed and 
nineteen men wounded and forty-three horses killed. Corporal 
James H. Lebroke then informed General Hancock of the 
condition of affairs, who ordered a detail from the infantry 
which removed the pieces by hand to a place of safety. One 
gun and the caissons had previously been taken from the field. 
The gun was disabled. It was struck on the face by a solid 
shot and its muzzle closed. Notwithstanding the disadvantages 
under which the battery labored, the men behaved in the most 
gallant manner, continuing to work their pieces until their 
ammunition at hand was exhausted. 

The Chancellor house, which was being used as a hospital, 
was shelled and fired by the enemy. The wounded were 
removed from within and around it, and by ten o'clock in the 
forenoon our whole line fell back in the direction of the United 
States Ford and established a new line half a mile to the rear 
of its former position. No Union troops thereafter occupied 
the position vacated by the battery. 

Lieut.-Col. C. H. Morgan, chief of artillery, Second corps, 
in his official report said: ''I do not think it [the ground] 
could have been held by any number of guns I could have 
placed in the contracted ground near the Chancellor house " (a) . 
With great exertion the battery was brought to White Oak 
Church, refitted, and a large detail obtained from the infantry 
was drilled and made efficient by the time the army moved 
north on the Grettysburg campaign. 

Batteries of mounted artillery in the service were called or 
named after their captains or permanent commanders who were 
chargeable with and accountable for all of the property belong- 
ing to the same. As their commanders changed, the name of 
(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 26. part 1, page 810. 



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110 MAINE AT GEtTTSBUBO. 

the battery changed also. Thus the Fifth Maine Battery was 
known as Leppien's battery up to and including the battle of 
Chancellorsville. Subsequently the same battery, in the offi- 
cial reports and in history, having changed its captain and per- 
manent conmiander was known and called Stevens' battery. 
The same applied to all batteries, regulars and volunteers alike. 

It is well known that the Maine Mounted Artillery was 
raised and mustered into the United States service as inde- 
pendent batteries. Under this arrangement there was no 
promotion beyond a captaincy. The captain was the highest 
officer. To obviate this seeming hardship the several batteries 
in the field formed a quasi-regimental organization among 
themselves and asked the appointment and muster of field 
officers. This was granted by the war department rather as 
an act of favoritism towards the Maine artillery than a strict 
military right. 

In chronological order the battle of Gettysburg, an account 
of which has already been given, came next. In November 
of that year the battery took part in the Mine Run campaign. 
Its service consisted only in marching *and counter-marching 
until it finally went into winter quarters at Culpeper, Va., and 
was at that place when General Grant arrived and established 
his headquarters there. 

In the spring of 1864 the Army of the Potomac was reor- 
ganized. The old First corps that had won renown under 
General Reynolds was merged into the Fifth corps. The Third 
corps (formerly Sickles') became a part of the Second corps 
and the Fifth battery was temporarily assigned to the artillery 
reserve. 

On May 4th the army conmienced its colossal campaign of 
that year. The battery crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford and 
encamped for the night near the battlefield of Chancellorsville. 
On the 5th the enemy were encountered in force in the Wilder- 
ness and from subsequent events both Grant and Lee were 
evidently fired with determination to win. There was but 
little skirmishing to foreshadow the coming storm, the strangest 
battle ever fought, one that no man could see. Its progress 
could only be determined by the crashing volleys of musketry 



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STEVENS* BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. Ill 

and the Union cheer and rebel yell as the lines swayed back 
and forth. It is impossible to conceive of a field worse adapted 
to the movements of a great army. The country was thickly 
wooded, with an occasional opening and intersected by a few 
narrow roads. '* It is the region of gloom and the shadow of 
death." Manoeuvring for advantage was out of the question. 
The troops could only receive direction by point of the com- 
pass. Commanders could not see their own lines of battle, 
but there came out of the depth of the forest the roll and crash 
of musketry, volley upon volley, that told the sad story of death. 

Artillery was almost entirely ruled out of use, and cavalry 
was but a little more useful. The contest continued two days, 
but it decided nothing. It was in every feature a drawn battle, 
and its result was only shown in the thousands of dead and 
wounded in blue and gray that lay scattered through that dismal 
forest. The battery stood in harness both night and day and 
was once or twice in position but, like most of the 274 field 
guns that crossed the Rapidan with the army, was not engaged 
in the battle of the WUderness. (a) On May 17th the battery 
was withdrawn from the artillery reserve and assigned to the 
Sixth corps under Greneral Wright and ordered to report to 
Colonel C. H. Tompkins, chief of artillery. This was Sedg- 
wick's old fighting corps, but Sedgwick was not then living. 
He was killed on the 9th, eight days before the battery joined 
the corps. On the 21st the battery was in line near Spotsyl- 
vania Court House and engaged the enemy, expending 118 
rounds of ammunition without loss. 

On the 24th the battery crossed the North Anna at Jericho 
Ford, and the next day struck the Virginia Central Railroad 
and shelled the enemy near Little River while reinforcing their 
pickets. The railroad was effectually cut, the track torn up, 
the ties piled and burned and the rails heated and bent, render- 
ing them useless. On May 26th the battery recrossed the 
North Anna, marched to the Pamunkey, crossed the river and 
entrenched, and on the 27th was in the advance guard ; the next 
day was in the rear guard, and fired eight or ten rounds at the 

(ft) The 274 ffODB do not inolade eight Coehom mortars and 43 ffons of the Ninth 
corps (Bumside's) which Joined the army in May. The Confederates had 318 field 
ffons which were hut little used. 



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112 MAINE AT OETITSBUBO. 

enemy's cavalry that harassed the rear of our column. This 
was during the march to Cold Harbor where the battery arrived 
on the first day of June ; but Sheridan was there in advance, 
and with his ever present cavalry had driven the enemy from 
their barricades, capturing half a regiment of cavalry and a few 
of Hoke's infantry. 

The battery was not at once ordered into position ; but on 
the second day of June, by direction of the corps chief of artil- 
lery, Lieut. Bucklyn, aide-de-camp, and the captain of the bat- 
tery made a reconnaissance, on their hands and knees, in front 
of the First division through the ferns and low bushes to ascer- 
tain whether the position would be tenable for artillery, and 
they decided that, if proper earthworks were thrown up, artillery 
could be used to good advantage, and so reported at head- 
quarters. No man in that position could stand upright without 
being shot in a moment. Consequently the services of Captain 
"Walker of the Fifth Maine regiment with his company of pio- 
neers were secured, and as soon as dark, earthworks, rude but of 
a substantial character, were constructed on the right bank of 
the Gaines' Mill road, and at two o'clock at night the pieces 
of one section (two guns) were quietly placed in the works by 
hand, it being imprudent to bring the horses within 100 yards, 
as the least noise would draw the enemy's fire who were not 
more than 275 yards away. Four anmiunition chests were dis- 
mounted and placed in trenches dug for their security, and such 
other ammunition as was deemed requisite was taken from the 
caissons, wrapped in ponchos and placed in the gun pits for 
inmiediate use. The horses and limbers were sent to a ravine 
in the woods some 400 yards to the rear. The captain and 
seven men with each gun took position in the gun pits, and at 
four o'clock on the morning of the 3d our lines were advanced, 
when these two guns immediately opened, showering the ene- 
my's rifle pits with canister and driving and keeping the enemy 
in front down in their trenches. During the early part of the 
day no attention was paid to the enemy's artillery as their fire 
was principally directed at these two guns and doing but little 
harm, their projectiles either striking and stopping in the earth 
in front or passing harmlessly over head and exploding, many 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTOBIOAL SKETCH. 113 

of them, far to the rear, A battery that was posted directly in 
front, less than 300 yards distant, when it became troublesome 
was twice shelled into silence during the day. The enemy's 
shells having the plug fuse would not work at such short range, 
while our battery was furnished with the Bormann fuse, which 
could be cut to explode at any distance required within range 
of the guns. 

On that day and at that point no other artillery was on the 
front line, but these two guns made themselves heard both far 
and near. An eye-witness reported as follows : " In the battle 
of Cold Harbor, Stevens' battery, belonging to the Sixth corps, 
was so near the rebel line that the soldiers nicknamed it ' Battery 
Insult.' It stirred up the rebels in a most aggravating manner, 
and was an excessively dangerous spot to be seen in. After 
the discharge of the pieces hundreds of bullets would zip through 
the embrasures and around the earthworks ; occasionally round 
shot would batter down portions of the work, but the artillerists 
stuck to it and did good execution." 

On June 4th the battery was not engaged, and on the morn- 
ing of the 5th between two and three o'clock these two guns 
were withdrawn, having expended 16 canister, 16 shell, 64 solid 
shot and 128 spherical case without the loss of a man either 
killed or wounded. 

On the 7th the battery was ordered to report to Major- 
General Bimey, commanding a division of the Second corps, 
as he was short of artillery, and was immediately ordered into 
position at Barker's Mill on the right of Mott's brigade, which 
at that time formed the left of our line. On the evening of the 
8th received orders from General Bimey that for every shot 
that the. enemy threw at his headquarters, which were on an 
elevation across the mill pond in rear of the battery, to throw 
one on Turkey Hill, which was at right angles with the enemy's 
battery. This practice was continued for an hour or more, 
when the enemy discovering the modus operandi ceased their 
fire. Anmiunition expended, 19 shot and 16 shell. The enemy, 
using the Whitworth gun, were at least one mile distant across 
the Chickahominy. 

On the 9th engaged the enemy at a distance of 1,000 yards. 



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114 MAINE AT GBTTTSBURG. 

expending 32 shot, 159 spherical case and 19 shell. No cas- 
ualties were met with as the battery was well protected by earth- 
works thrown up during the first night under Bimey. From 
that time nothing worthy of note occurred in the battery during 
the forward movement of the army until June 16th, when the 
battery was ordered into position with the corps, covering the 
crossing of the James by the army. On the 18th the battery 
went into position before Petersburg and at once remodeled an 
old rifle pit of the enemy, in their outer line of works, making 
it appropriate for artillery, and opened on the enemy, expend- 
ing eight shot and 24 spherical case, with the loss of one man 
wounded (a) . 

By direction of Colonel Tompkins one section of the bat- 
tery was withdrawn that night and ordered to report to General 
Wheaton, who directed it to take position some 800 or 900 
yards to the front, on the right of the road leading up the Appo- 
mattox to a point nearer Petersburg. Nearly the same opera- 
tions were repeated here as at Cold Harbor. The guns were 
unlimbered and run into position by hand, ammunition chests 
dismounted and sunk into trenches, and the horses and limbers 
were sent to the rear. 

**In the early part of the night Lieutenant Charles O. Hunt, 
whose section was to take this advanced position, went out in 
advance to acquaint himself with the location. Owing to a 
wrong direction given him by General Wheaton, and to the fact 
that there was a gap in our picket line at this point, he fell into 
the hands of the enemy. He remained a prisoner until Febru- 
ary 22, 1865, when he was paroled, and was finally exchanged 
and rejoined the battery in the field on April 13, 1865" (b). 

On the 29th day of June the battery with the Sixth corps 
marched to Beams Station, south of Petersburg, ordered there 
to reinforce General James H. Wilson, who was returning to 
the army of the Potomac from his cavalry raid against the 
South Side and Danville railroads ; but we were too late to 
render him assistance. 

On the 6th day of July the battery returned to Petersburg 

(a) Priyate John Wonter, Belgrade. Only man wounded in the battery durinir 
this campaign under Grant. 

(b) Statement of Lieutenant Hunt. 



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STEVENS* BATTEKY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 115 

and reported to Grenend Gretty, commanding the Second division, 
Sixth corps, and went into position near the left of our line, 
which was thrown back facing in a direction nearly opposite 
to that of Petersburg, and commenced work on an unfinished 
redoubt. On the night of the 9th marched to City Point. On 
the evem'ng of the 10th embarked the cannoneers and guns on 
the steamer Jefferson and the drivers and horses on another 
transport, under orders to sail for the city of Washington and 
rejoin the corps, — the city being threatened by the rebel army 
under Early. 

The battery arrived in Washington and reported at artillery 
headquarters of the corps at Crystal Spring, at two o'clock on 
the morning of the 13th, and immediately went into position. 
The enemy had pushed up around Fort Stevens, and had been 
driven back by Gretty's division of the Sixth corps, temporarily 
under conmiand of General Wheaton. After the arrival of the 
Fifth battery the remainder of the night, or rather the morning 
of the 13th, was occupied in strengthening our position, burying 
the dead and caring for the wounded. At daylight on the 13th 
it was discovered that the enemy were moving from our front 
in the direction of Rockville, Md. 

Then commenced a new campaign which culminated in Sher- 
idan's crowning victories in the valley of the Shenandoah. For 
the next two months the battery participated in the general 
movements and operations of the corps ; marching to Snicker's 
Gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains by way of Poolesville, White's 
Ford and Leesburg, and returning to Georgetown, D. C, by 
way of Leesburg and the Chain Bridge across the Potomac. 

From Georgetown, D. C, the battery with the corps pro- 
ceeded to Harper's Ferry by way of the Monocacy and Fred- 
erick City, thus taking an active part in the defensive campaign 
for the protection of Baltimore and Washington. On August 
5th Greneral Grant directed a concentration of the forces of 
Genei'als Wright, Emory and Crook in the vicinity of Harper's 
Ferry without delay, with orders that if the enemy moved north 
of the Potomac to follow him and attack him wherever he went. 
On the 6th Sheridan crossed the Potomac and entered his new 
field of operations, the Shenandoah Valley. 



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116 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

On the 21st the battery entrenched on the Berryville pike 
near Charlestown, W. Va., and that night fell back to Hall- 
town, within four miles of Harper's Ferry, and again entrenched, 
the corps being largely outnumbered by the enemy. But Sher- 
idan soon assembled a powerful army, afterwards known as 
the Army of the Shenandoah. It embraced the Sixth corps, 
13,344, infantry and artillery, under General Wright; the 
Nineteenth corps, 13,025, under General Emory; the Eighth 
corps (a) , 7,507, under General Crook ; and the cavalry, with its 
accompanying artillery, 6,818, under General Torbert, making 
the sum total of 40,694 troops south of the Potomac by Sep- 
tember 10th, 1864. The above number does not include 4,815 
troops included in the district of Harper's Ferry, which were 
also south of the Potomac. This was the most effective Union 
force ever assembled in the Shenandoah Valley. From the 
twenty-first day of August to the eighteenth day of September 
nothing unusual occurred, the battery making the usual marches 
and counter-marches with the corps incidental to a campaign. 

On the evening of the 18th orders were received to be ready 
to march at two o'clock the next morning, the 19th. The bat- 
tery was in harness at the appointed time and soon after moved 
with the artillery brigade. Sixth corps, from a point near Clifton 
to Opequan Creek, a distance of some five or six miles, beyond 
which, and within about three miles of Winchester, the enemy 
were encountered in force. The Union line of battle, facing 
to the west, was formed from left to right in the following 
order: Wilson's division of cavalry; Sixth corps. General 
Wright; Nineteenth corps. General Emory; Merritt's and 
Averell's divisions of cavalry. General Crook's conmiand was 
held in reserve at the Opequon until a later hour in the day. 
The batteries of the Sixth corps were ordered into position on 
the corps front by Colonel C. H. Tompkins, chief of artillery. 
The formation was effected under an annoying fire of the enemy. 
Notwithstanding the early hour in which the army moved, it was 
not in line of battle ready to advance until past eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon. In the attack the Sixth and Nineteenth corps 

(a) Crook's command—two diyisionB— was more strictly designated: "Army of 
West Virginia, ** by Sheridan, and in the official reports. See Rebellion Records. Vol. 
43. part 1, pp. 40, 403. 



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STEVENS* BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 117 

advanced in fine order and in great spirit, driving for the time 
everything before them. After an advance of Several hundred 
yards of both infantry and artillery a most determined charge 
of the enemy was made on the left of the Nineteenth corps, 
crowding it back and turning the flank of the Third division of 
the Sixth corps (Ricketts') and threatened a disaster. "The 
moment was a fearful one. Such a sight rarely occurs more 
than once in any battle as was presented in the open space 
between two pieces of woodland into which the cheering enemy 
poured. The whole rebel line, reckless of bullets, even of the 
shells of our batteries, constantly advanced." 

General Getty, commanding the Second division of the 
Sixth corps, in his official report said : *' The success of the 
enemy, however, was but momentary. He was promptly met, 
held in check, and finally repulsed by several batteries, promi- 
nent among which was Stevens' (Maine) battery of light twelve- 
pounders, of the corps, and troops of the First division" (a). 

" When the Nineteenth army corps was repulsed," said CoL 
C. H. Tompkins, "and the enemy had passed the right flank of 
the 1st N. Y. [battery] I ordered it withdrawn to the ridge 
about 100 yards in rear and on the left of the Fifth Maine. 

"To the front and right of this position the enemy was 
checked, the Fifth Maine enfiladed his line with canister, and 
finally was driven to the cover of the woods." ♦ ♦ ♦ 

" I cannot speak," he says, " in too high terms of the con- 
duct of the officers and men of the command. Particular men- 
tion should be made of Capt. G. T. Stevens, commanding the 
Fifth Maine battery, and First Lieut. W. H. Johnson, com- 
manding 1st N. Y. Independent battery, for the gallant man- 
ner in which they handled their batteries when charged by 
the enemy, at which time Lieutenant Johnson was seriously 
wounded" (b). ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Colonel Tompkins further said in the same report : " To 
the following named officers of my staff I am expressly 
indebted for valuable assistance, and would respectfully recom- 
mend them to the major-general commanding for promotion 

(a) RebeUion Records, Vol. 43, part 1, paire 192. 

(b) Rebellion Records, Vol. 48, part 1, pa^es 271, 272. 



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118 MAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 

for gallant and meritorious conduct in both engagements: 
First Lieut. E.*N. Whittier, acting Assistant Adjutant-General, 
Fifth Maine battery ; First Lieut. J. K. Bucklyn, acting aide- 
de-camp, 1st R. I. Light Artillery." 

General Wright, commanding the corps, gave the following 
concise account of the enemy's repulse : "* The First division 
[Russell's] moved admirably on the enemy, and the batteries 
with canister opened upon them with murderous effect, the 
two driving them back in much disorder. This was the turning 
point in the conflict " (a) . 

The Fifth Maine and the 1st N. Y. Independent were the 
only batteries having a fire on that part of the line. Lieutenant 
Johnson was mortally wounded and soon died. General Rus- 
sell in the hour of triumph was instantly killed, a piece of shell 
penetrating his chest in the region of his heart. *^His death," 
said Sheridan, ''brought sadness to every heart in the army." 
Among other losses, that charge and temporary advantage cost 
the enemy the loss of Major-General Robert E. Rodes, one of 
their most experienced and skillful division commanders. 

It was now long past noon, and the broken portion of 
Ricketts' line was quickly reformed in rear of Russell's division, 
now under Upton. Dwight's division of the Nineteenth corps 
took the place of Grover's. The latter, however, was promptly 
rallied and brought up ; and the Eighth corps, which had been 
held in reserve down by the Opequan, was ordered to move 
rapidly to the front, and was placed in line on the right of the 
Nineteenth corps. Sheridan was now prepared for his culmi- 
nating effort. Our whole line was then advanced, and the 
enemy driven at every point and pushed steadily back, con- 
testing every foot until five o'clock in the afternoon, when, to 
use the language of Sheridan, "We sent them whirling through 
Winchester," and the victory was complete. 

General Wheaton, conmianding the First brigade. Second 
division. Sixth corps, described the closing scene of the engage- 
ment as follows: "With little difficulty we advanced to the 
brick house on the north side of the pike and at the foot of the 
slope east of Winchester. A severe artillery fire was here 
(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 48, part l« pace ifiO. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HI8TORI0AL SKETCH. 119 

encountered and here some of the enemy's infantry seemed 
inclined to delay for a short time our advance. Sending to 
General Getty for a battery to confront the one that was giving 
us so destructive a fire, I soon had Captain Stevens' Fifth 
Maine battery trotting up to our support. From the moment 
it opened, our forward movement was without opposition, and 
the enemy could be seen in the distance running, routed, to the 
rear in the direction of the Winchester and Strasburg pike. 
Our men were wild with delight at this evidence of their glori- 
ous success, and could hardly be restrained and kept in the 
ranks" (a). 

In the engagement the battery did its fuU share of the work. 
It expended 283 solid shot, 220 spherical case, 66 shell, and 
39 canister, total 608 rounds ; or in other words it burned 
1,520 pounds of powder and hurled 7,296 pounds of iron into 
the enemy's ranks with the loss of only six men wounded (b) . 
The ground on which the battle was fought was, for the most 
part, rolling, and every advantage was taken of the same to 
save our men and punish the enemy. The Union losses were 
697 killed, 3,983 wounded, 338 missing; total 5,018. 

The enemy reported their total loss to be 3,611 not includ- 
ing their cavalry, which is not given. Among the trophies 
captured were five pieces of artillery, nine battle flags, a num- 
ber of caissons and 4,000 stand of small arms (c) . 

On September 20th at an early hour in the morning Sheri- 
dan's victorious army moved up the Shenandoah Valley in 
pursuit of the enemy. The cavalry preceded the infantry and 
artillery on the march. The valley to the north of the Stras- 
burg is at least twenty miles in width. There it narrows up 
to four miles, being intersected by other mountains ; and at 
Fisher's Hill, two miles further south, it is still more narrow. 
To the latter point, eighteen miles from Winchester, Early had 
hastily fallen back. In that position, with mountains on his 
right and left, he felt himself secure. 

(a) BebeUion Records. Vol. 48, part 1. vKe 198. 

(b) Rebellion Records, Vol. 48, part 1, page 378; Maine Adjutant-General's 
Report, 1884, paffe 288. Two of the wounded were Biichael Bradley, of Portland, and 
Henrj Turner, of Rome. 

(c) RebeUion Records, Vol. 48, part 1, pave 88. 



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120 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

The twenty-first was spent in driving the enemy's skir- 
mishers through Strasburg back upon their defenses at Fisher's 
Hill, and in securing a commanding lodgment on the ridge to 
the north of Tumbling Run in front of the enemy's main posi- 
tion. Their right was found to be impregnable and Sheridan 
concluded to repeat the tactics of the Opequan and turn the 
enemy's left, which was admirably accomplished. The Fifth 
battery was in line, but there being no position near where the 
Napoleon gun, with which the Fifth was armed, could be 
effectively used, none of those guns belonging to the Sixth 
corps were engaged. Following up the success of the infantry 
the Fifth battery took from the field three iron 12-pounder 
guns of the enemy, two limbers, four horses, four sets of har- 
ness and thirty rounds of artillery ammunition (a) . 

From Fisher's Hill Sheridan's army moved rapidly up the 
valley in pursuit of Early's shattered forces. The battery 
went as far up as Harrisonburg. The enemy was so closely 
followed and hardly pressed that a portion of them left the 
valley and took to the mountains. Early could not be induced 
to offer further resistance. 

October 6th our army commenced to retrace its steps, and 
then the devastation of the valley commenced in earnest. It 
was no pleasurable duty. The battery had but little hand in it. 
That task was assigned to the cavalry. It however was a mil- 
itary necessity, and designed to prevent the subsistence of the 
Confederate army in that vicinity. 

The Union losses at Fisher's Hill were as follows in killed, 
wounded and missing : Siicth army corps, 238 ; Nineteenth 
army corps, 114; army of West Virginia, 162 ; Cavalry, 14. 
Total, 528 (b). 

We now come to Cedar Creek, Sheridan's last battle in the 
Shenandoah Valley, and the last battle in which the Fifth Maine 
battery was engaged. That battle was a complete surprise to 
the Union army, but the result was as favorable as though 
the whole scheme had been deliberately planned and faithfully 
executed. 

(a) Rebellion Records, Vol. 43, part l, pasre 273. 

(b) Rebellion Records Vol. 43, Part l, page 124. 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 121 

On the eighteenth day of October, the day before the engage- 
ment, the army was at rest and encamped near Cedar Creek, 
some four or five miles north of the battle-field of Fisher's Hill. 
The troops were posted facing up the valley in a southerly 
direction. Greneral Crook was on the left; the Nineteenth 
corps, General Emory, in the centre; and the Sixth corps, 
General Ricketts, on the right. The front lines of the Eighth 
and Nineteenth corps were entrenched ; that of the Siicth corps 
was not, as it occupied a naturally strong position. 

The cavalry was upon the flanks of the army, and the Fifth 
battery with the other artiUery of the corps was in park near 
the infantry. General Sheridan being absent. General Wright 
was in command. The enemy having been largely reinforced, 
again turned their faces towards our army and were at Fisher's 
Hill, but in what force was not known. Both armies were then 
on the westerly side of the north branch of the Shenandoah 
River. The day had been warm and the night cool, and a heavy 
fog hung over the valley on the morning of the 19th. As soon 
as dark on the night of the 18th three divisions of the enemy 
left their encampment at Fisher's Hill, crossed the river and 
worked their way down opposite the left flank of our army, 
recrossed the river which was fordable at that season of the 
year, and made their attack at early dawn on Thobum's division 
of Crook's command. Those of the division that were not killed 
or captured were routed and fled to the rear. The gallant Tho- 
bum was killed. Then the bugles' shrill notes, the rattle of 
harnesses, the command of ofBcers, the crash of musketry com- 
ing still nearer in that chill morning, created a pandemonium not 
easily described. The enemy next struck Hayes' division of 
Crooks' command, which shared a similar fate, although Hayes 
got his troops in line and made a stubborn resistance. The whole 
Sixth corps turned out at once. Tents were struck, baggage 
loaded, and teams directed to the rear. The left of the Nineteenth 
corps was turned and the enemy were sweeping down in rear of 
their entrenchments, rendering them useless, and carrying all 
before them. The Fifth battery was then ordered by Colonel 
Tompkins to take position on a knoll to the left and engage the 
enemy that were approaching from that direction. The battery 
had no supports. A stone-wall, however, in tumble-down con- 



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122 MAINE AT OETTY8BUBG. 

dition was about 50 yards in front of the battery, in rear of 
which a body of our infantry had taken position and was then 
holding it. The battery at once opened on the enemy that were 
coming down over the hill just across a ravine. The fog had 
now partially cleared away. Soon our infantry in rear of the 
wall withdrew from the position and passing along the hillside 
to the right of the battery went to the rear. 

The battery held that position until charged by the enemy. 
In that charge two guns which had recently been received from 
battery A, 1st Mass., manned by men from that battery and 
temporarily assigned to the Fifth Maine battery, fell for the time 
being into the hands of the enemy, the horses being shot and 
tangled up in harness in the attempt to limber to the rear. The 
other guns with diflSculty succeeded in reaching our line then 
forming to the right and some distance back in the edge of the 
woods, some of the horses falling in harness while on the way. 

In retiring from that position the Fifth Maine came across 
one gun of McKnight's battery M, 5th U. S., that was left 
upon the field. The gun was secured by order of Captain Stev- 
ens, attached to the carriage hook of a caisson, moved back to 
our line in the edge of the woods and turned over to McKnight's 
battery by direction of Colonel Tompkins. Other guns of 
McKnight's battery had been recaptured and drawn off by the 
infantry. 

The army fell back to a ridge of land about a mile north of 
Middletown and some four miles from where the enemy made 
their attack in the morning, the Sixth corps taking position and 
contesting the ground on the way back, holding the enemy in 
check and giving the troops of the Eighth and Nineteenth corps 
time to reorganize and re-form. 

At that point Sheridan came up and took command, General 
Wright resuming command of the Sixth corps. The formation 
then effected was similar to that of the morning except the Sixth 
and Nineteenth corps had changed places in line. All of the 
Eighth corps that could be assembled were still on the left. 
The Fifth battery was in position on or near the right of Gretty's 
division. All were enthusiastic at Sheridan's arrival. He rode 
along in rear of the line from left to right encouraging the troops 



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STEVENS' BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 123 

by saying : " We will whip them yet," ** You haven't begun to 
fight," " We will camp on the old ground to-night." Troops 
that had started on the retreat were turned back and put into 
position, and stragglers returned to the line of battle like bees 
to a hiye, not waiting to find their own command but going into 
line wherever they struck it. 

The enemy made one or two persistent attacks upon this 
position but were repulsed and compelled to take shelter, the 
Fijfth battery doing at least its share of the work. Everything 
having been prepared and the men refreshed by a bite of hard- 
tack and a little water, — ^the only refreshment since the night 
before, — and somewhat rested from the fight and fatigue of the 
morning, an advance of the whole line was then ordered by 
General Sheridan. 

Colonel Tompkins riding up to the battery said to Captain 
Stevens : '* Now we are going to attack and, if we drive them, I 
want you to follow and push them as hard as you can." He 
appeared satisfied to have the battery fight on ground of its 
own selection and in its own way. 

The advance of the whole army was made between three and 
four o'clock in the afternoon. The Fifth battery with the other 
artillery opened at once and the enemy was driven at every 
point for more than half a mile, until near Middletown. There 
a part of Getty's division, coming under a terrific fire of infan- 
try and artillery, experienced a temporary check and was com- 
pelled to fall back, but soon rallied and returned to the line. 
The attack was then renewed with great spirit, and with the 
assistance of the Fifth Maine battery, which General Getty 
had requested, and one gun of battery C, 1st R. I. light art., 
under Lieutenant Lamb, which had survived the storm of the 
morning, the enemy was driven in confusion through the town and 
over the plains to Cedar Creek. The cavalry was then hurled 
upon the routed and disorganized enemy, securing many of the 
trophies and substantial fruits of the great victory. 

At Middletown five of their dead were found in one spot, 
the victims of a single 12-pounder spherical case shot fired by 
the Fifth battery (a) . General Getty in his official report of 

(a) Maine A.-0. Report for 1864^ Vol.1, page 289. 



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124 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

the battle said : ** During the advance in the afternoon Stev- 
ens' Maine battery of light 12-pounders and a section of Lamb's 
battery 10-pounder Parrots ♦ ♦ ♦ were served with rapidity 
and effect " (a) . 

The battery in that engagement sustained a loss of twenty- 
eight men, including the attached men, as follows : 

KILLED. 

Privates: John H. McKeen, Patten; Jeremiah Murphy, Augusta. 

WOUNDED. 

Sergeants: James L. Loomis, Colebrook, N. H.; Lemuel A. Cum- 
mings, Augusta. 

Corporal: Hiram M. Paul, Stewartstown, N. H. 

Privates: Charles ET. Brown, Carratunk; Seth W. Terrill, Stewarts- 
town, N. H.; Henry White, Stratford, N. H.; Amos Baker, Hartland; 
Amo Little, Mt Vernon; Charles F. Merry, Boothbay; James S. Priest, Vas- 
salboro; Lucius Smith, Readfield; Samuel Stevens, Augusta; John W. 
Waterhouse, Gardiner. 

The remainder of the wounded were attached men whose 
names do not appear on our Maine records. 

Among other things too numerous to mention, Sheridan and 
his victorious army in the space of three months and six days 
captured from the enemy 94 pieces of artillery, 40 battle flags, 
19,230 stand of small arms and about 13,000 prisoners (b). 

ROSTER. 

COMMISSIONED OPPICBRS. 

Captain George F. Leppien.— November i8, i86i, mustered into U. 
S. service; February 27, 1863, on leave of absence for 15 days; March, pres- 
ent for duty; May 3, wounded at Chancellorsville; May 18, mustered Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; May 24, died from wounds in Washington. 

First Lieutenant William F. Twitchell.— December 4, 186 1, mus- 
tered into U. S. service; June, 1862, absent sick; June 21, returned from 
absent sick; July, present for duty; August 30, killed at Second Bull Run. 

First Lieutenant Greenliep T. Stevens.— January 31, 1862, mus- 
tered into U. S. service; July 27, on detached service, Special Order No. 35; 
September 9, returned from detached service; October 20, absent sick; 
November, present for duty; May 3, 1863, wounded at Chancellorsville; 
June 18, promoted Captain; July 2, wounded at Gettysburg; August 27, 
present for duty; December 31, absent with leave; February, 1864, present 

(a) Rebellion Records. Vol. 48, i>art 1, page 19S. 

(b) Rebellion Records, Vol. 48, part 1. pases 87, S7. 



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BOSTER OF FIFTH MAINE BATTERY. 125 

for duty; January 17, 1865, absent with leave for 20 days; February, present 
for duty, and appointed Brevet-Major U. S. V., to rank from October 19, 
1864; July 6, 1865, mustered out of the U. S. service at the close of the war. 

Second Liexjtenant Adblbbrt B. Twitchbll.— December 4, 1861, 
mustered into U. S. service; September i, 1862, promoted ist Lieutenant; 
March 30, 1863, on leave of absence; April, present for duty; May 3, 
wounded at Chancellorsville; August, present sick; September 9, absent 
sick; December 11, discharged, commissioned Captain Seventh Maine 
Battery. 

Second Lieutenant Ezra CLARK.—January 31, 1862, mustered into 
U. S. service; February 13, 1863, sick in hospital, Georgetown; March 24, 
on recruiting service; February, 1864, present for duty; December 16, on 
detached service, Augusta, Maine; January 31, 1865, mustered out U. S. 
service, term expired. 

First Sergeant Edward N. Whittier. — September i, 1862, pro-, 
moted 2nd Lieutenant; March 18, 1863, on leave of absence 15 days; April, 
present for duty; May 18, promoted ist Lieutenant; February 13, 1864, on 
recruiting service; April 16, on detached service 2nd Brig. Art Reserve; 
May 17, on special duty Brig. Hd. Qrs. Sixth corps; Decemberi6, returned 
from detached service; February, 1865, appointed Brevet-Captain U. S. V., 
to take rank from October 19, 1864; April 13, 1865, on detached service 
art. brig, h'dqrs. A. of S.; July 6, mustered out of U. S. service at close 
of the war. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Charles O. Hunt.— May 18, 1863, pro- 
moted 2d Lieutenant; July i, wounded at Gettysburg; July 28, absent with 
leave; September, present for duty; January 24, 1864, absent under orders; 
February, present for duty; March 24, promoted ist Lieutenant; June 18, 
taken prisoner; April 13, 1865, present for duty; July 6, mustered out with 
the Battery. 

Sergeant James C. Bartlett.— June 17, 1864, promoted 2nd Lieuten- 
ant; January 31, 1865, on detached service at Alexandria, Va.; February 15, 
absent with leave for 20 days; March 8, absent sick; Mays, 1865, discharged 
for disability. 

Quartermaster Sergeant George W. Woodbury.— March 30, 1865, 
promoted 2nd Lieutenant; July 6, mustered out with the Battery. 

Sergeant David I. Black.— June i, 1865, promoted 2nd Lieutenant; 
July 6, mustered out with the Battery. 



Note. On the loth of January, 1865, the battery proceeded to Fred- 
erick, Md., where it remained encamped until the 4th of April, when it 
returned to Winchester. April 6th it was assigned to the artillery brigade, 
the Nineteenth corps having been discontinued. After that the duties were 
battery and brigade drill. On June 21st the battery was ordered to Maine, 
where it was mustered out and discharged from the United States service 
at Augusta on the 6th of July, having served three years and seven months. 



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126 MAINE AT OETTT8BUBO. 



MONUMENT 

OF 

THIED MAINE REGIMENT. 

The monument stands in the historic *' Peach Orchard" near the 
Enmiitsburg road, upon a commanding elevation which overlooks the undu- 
lating fields and woods where Lohgstreet's lines advanced on the afternoon 
of July 2d. It is cut from Maine granite, surmounted by a red diamond 
block highly polished. 

Admbasurembnts: Base, five feet by five feet by one foot six inches; 
plinth, three feet six inches by three feet six inches by one foot six inches; 
shaft, two feet six inches by two feet six inches by eight feet one inch; cube, 
of Red Beach granite, two feet by two feet two inches by two feet Total 
height, thirteen feet one inch. The following are the inscriptions upon the die. 

3rd 

Maine Inf'ty. 

2xD Brigade 

IST Division 

3rd Corps 

Strength op Regiment 

Morning of July 2nd. 

14 Officers and 196 Men. 

detached from the 
brigade, fought here 
in the afternoon op 

July 2nd, 1863, 

having been engaged 

in the forenoon at 

point in advance as 

indicated by a marker. 



July 3rd 
in position on left 

CENTRE OF LINE, UNTIL 

AFTERNOON, WHEN WITH 

OTHER REGDiENTS OF THE 

BRIGADE, IT MOVED TO 
SUPPORT OF THE CENTRE 
AT TIME OF THE ENEMY'S 
ASSAULT. 



1 Officer and 17 Men 
Killed, 2 Officers and 

57 Men Wounded, 45 Men 

Missing. 



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THIRD MAINE EEGIMENT, 

SECOND BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, THIRD ARMY CORPS, 

AT THB BATTLE OF OBTTYBBUBO. 



IN the battle of July 1st the three Maine organizations in the 
First corps, the Sixteenth regiment. Colonel Tilden, and 

Hall's and Stevens' batteries, were the only Maine troops 
engaged. But when General Sickles with part of his command 
arrived on the field on the evening of July 1st, after the first 
day's battle, he brought two more Maine regiments, the Third 
and Fourth, of Gen. J. H. Hobart Ward's brigade, of Gen. 
David B. Bimey's division. There was in this division another 
Maine regiment, the Seventeenth, which was attached to Col. 
P. Regis de Trobriand's brigade, that had been left at Emmits- 
burg to guard the pass of the mountains, so the Seventeenth did 
not arrive until the forenoon of July 2d. 

The Third Maine, as it marched onto the field of Gettysburg 
on the evening of July 1st, was in every respect, except that of 
numbers, as fine a veteran regiment as there was in the army 
of the Potomac. Two years before it had left the Kennebec 
Valley, a thousand strong, under its Colonel, Oliver O. Howard, 
who, as Major-General commanding the Eleventh corps and the 
field, bore a prominent part in the first day's battle. During the 
two years of its service two hundred fresh recruits had been 
sent from Maine, yet at the roll-call on the morning of July 2d, 
only a little upwards of two hundred men and officers answered, 
— a striking testimonial of the arduous services of the regiment 
in the campaigns of Virginia. At the battle of Chancellorsville, 
a few weeks before, its loss had been heavy. The regiment was 
under command of Colonel Moses B. Lakeman. 

Early on the morning of July 2d, Colonel Lakeman formed 
his regiment in line of battle parallel to and facing the Emmits- 
burg road and on the right of the brigade. This was on the 



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128 MAINE AT OETTTSBUBG. 

line which General Sickles was establishing with the Third corps 
before he had determined to advance his line to the angle of the 
Peach Orchard. But as the forenoon advanced General Ward 
ordered Colonel Lakeman to move forward as support to one 
hundred of the 1st U. S. Sharpshooters, under Colonel Berdan, 
who were to cross the Emmitsburg road and penetrate the woods 
beyond with the intention of ascertaining what force of the 
enemy might be there. It was well known that the Confederate 
forces had been arriving during the night, a fact very evident 
already to the Fourth Maine which had been on picket duty 
all night beyond the Enmiitsburg road. 

The Third Maine, preceded by the Sharpshooters, advanced 
to and moved southward along the Emmitsburg road for some 
distance, then left it and advanced toward a dense wood on the 
west side. In approaching this wood, believed by both officers 
and men to be concealing the foe, the conmiand was forced to 
move three-quarters of a mile through an open field. But they 
were unmolested as they made this movement, so trying to the 
soldier ; and entering the wood, formed to support the Sharp- 
shooters, who were advancing as skirmishers. It was between 
11 and 12 o'clock when the regiment advanced into the thick 
coverts of oak and chestnut. 

They had proceeded about fifteen rods when they espied men 
in butternut gray dodging among the trees. These men were 
from Alabama, — the 8th, 10th and 11th, — and belonged to Wil- 
cox's brigade of five Alabama regiments, of Anderson's division 
of A. P. Hill's corps (a). With the skirmishers of these 
Confederates the Sharpshooters were already engaged when 
the Third Maine came up in support. The regiment advanced 
on the double-quick, and drove in the opposing skirmishers. 
Then, through the trees and the smoke, suddenly loomed three 
distinct lines of the enemy, one behind another in close column, 
and stretching a distance of one hundred and fifty yards in 
front (b) . The advance of this overwhelming force the Third 

(a) Statement of Lieat. Hannibal A. Johnson (1889) a First Sergeant that day, and 
woonded and captured by these Alabamians in the wood. See also Wilcox's Beport» 
Rebellion Records, Vol. 27, part 2, page 617. 

(b) Statement of Lientenant Johnson (1888). Colonel Lakeman states that the 
Third had little protection, as the Sharpshooters, who had been adranoinir as skir- 
mishers, had secured nearly all the trees. 



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THIBD BEOIMENT ENGAGED. 129 

Maine met with an audacity and firmness in keeping with its 
reputation as one of the hardest fighting regiments of the army 
of the Potomac. ^ We felt," one of the survivors of that day 
has said, ^ that the life of the Nation was at stake, and every 
man in the ranks was conscious of personal responsibility." 
The combatants were in plain sight of each other, probably not 
over three hundred yards apart, and for twenty-five minutes, 
— the Confederates say twenty minutes, — this unequal contest 
was maintained. At the end of the twenty-five minutes the 
bugle sounded the retreat. In this short time the regiment 
sustained a loss of forty-eight men, killed, wounded and miss- 
ing, over thirty of whom were captured. The presence of the 
enemy was disclosed, and his movement to attack the Union 
left uncovered. Leaving its dead and some of the disabled 
wounded, who could not be taken on account of the rapidity 
and force of the Confederate advance, the regiment retired, 
followed vigorously by the yelling foe, upon whom the auda- 
cious skirmishers did not cease to keep up a constant fire as 
they retired (a) . 

The marker of the Third Maine Regiment to indicate the position of the 
regiment daring this action near the noon of the second day stands in the 
grove west of the Emmitsburg road on the west slope of Pitzer's Run, a trib- 
utary of Willoughby Run, and bears the following inscription on its face: 

3rd 

Maine 

Infantry 

engaged herb 

forenoon of 

July 2nd 

1863. 

The Confederates ceased their fire on the edge of the woods, 
and the Third, going back over the open field unmolested, took 
position in the Peach Orchard, where it was to be stationed in 
conformity with the new plan of battle which General Sickles was 
about to adopt. For General Birney had no sooner communi- 
cated to his corps commander the information secured by the 

(m) Fox, the author of ** Regimental Losses in the GlrU War," ooDsiders worthy 
of especial note ** the tenacity with which the Third Maine held that skirmish Une 
atGettysbnxv/' 



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130 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

Third Maine and the Sharpshooters than he was ordered to 
advance his division of three brigades, and swing to the left 
so that its right should be at the Peach Orchard while its left 
should be at Devil's Den (a) • Ward's brigade, to which the 
Third and Fourth Maine belonged, but from which the Third 
Maine was to be detached during this battle, was on the left 
near Devil's Den ; in the centre was de Trobriand's, among whose 
soldiers was the Seventeenth Maine ; on the right was Gra* 
ham's brigade ; and connecting to the left of the latter it was to 
be the fortune of the Third Maine to fight on this afternoon. 

After returning from the reconnaisance. Colonel Lakeman 
was moving his regiment to join its brigade when he received 
an order from General Birney to take position in the Peach 
Orchard. There to the left of Graham the regiment went into 
line of battle without any greater delay than was necessary for 
the soldiers to take a hasty luncheon from their haversacks. 
The regiment was posted behind the fence that bounded the 
Peach Orchard on the southwest side, its right resting along 
the east side of the Emmitsburg road. 

The regiment waited in line until about 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon before there were any signs of an attack in force by 
the enemy, who, with an unaccountable sluggishness, was letting 
the long July day slip away. There was more or less firing, 
however, and the Third Maine being midway between batteries 
of the two armies suffered somewhat from exploding shells. 
Several times during the afternoon the enemy's skirmishers also 
advanced on the position of the Third. At one time the regi- 
ment was quite hard pressed by a force of them coming up on 
the front and right flank. These however were repulsed, and 
there was no other advance for a time. But as Colonel Lake- 
man scanned the country across the Emmitsburg road and to 
the westward, he soon saw the glistening bayonets of long and 
continuous columns of infantry passing toward Round Top and 
the Union left, where the battle was about to burst with fury 
at Devil's Den and in the Wheatfield, around the positions 
of the Fourth and the Seventeenth Maine regiments. Those 
marching columns were of Hood's division of Longstreet's 

(a) Report of Gen. Dayid B. Birney (1863). 



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THIBD BEOIMENT ENGAGED. 131 

corps ; and behind the walls and fences by the left flank of 
these columns were Kershaw's and Barksdale's brigades of 
LaFayette McLaws' division of the same corps, ready to 
advance upon the Peach Orchard and the defenses near it so 
soon as Hood should develop his attack farther to the Union 
left (a) . Colonel Lakeman at once sent notice of his discovery 
to Captain Randolph, <Jhief of artillery of the Third corps, who 
sent up a battery. This battery took a position near the regi- 
ment and threw shell into the distant Confederate columns. 
These shots were among the very first in the opening of the 
battle of the second day (b) . The columns of the enemy con- 
tinued their movements ; but the fire of the battery was very 
annoying to them and caused a detour in their line of march to 
avoid discovery of their plan. 

Soon detachments of the enemy were seen advancing towards 
the Orchard in force against the position occupied by the Third 
Maine. Towards the front of the regiment came the left wing 
of Kershaw's South Carolina brigade (c) , while from across the 
Enmiitsburg road the Mississippi regiments of the fiery Barks- 
dale were soon to sweep in upon the rear and right flank of the 
Third. While meeting the attack of Kershaw in his front Lake- 
man learned that Barksdale had broken through Graham's line, 
which, posted on the Emmitsbunc road to the right of the Peach 
Orchard, formed the extreme ri^t of Bimey's division. This 
disaster left the rear of the Third Maine exposed, so Colonel 
Lakeman at once changed the line of his regiment to face the 
Emmitsburg road. This angle of the Peach Orchard, the very 
apex of Sickles' line, was at this instant menaced on its two 
sides by overwhelming forces. As the Third Maine turned 
from Kershaw to meet Barksdale it received a withering fire. 
The color company (K) was just forming on the prolongation 
of the line, when, struck by an enfilading volley, it literally 
melted away. Every man of the color-guard was either killed 
or wounded. In a short time, measured by minutes, a third at 
least of the one hundred and fifty men left from the morning's 

(a) Report of Gen. J. B. Kershaw, 1868. 

(b) StatemeDt of Colonel Lakeman, 1888. The battery would appear to be Ames' 
battery G, l8t N. Y., snbteqnently reliered by battery I, Sth U. S. 

(c> Eighth Soath Carolina and James' Sonth Carolina battalion. 



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132 MAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 

fight were killed or wounded ; and the regiment, **wrapped in 
a vortex of fire," as the Ciomte de Paris has said, was hurled 
out of the Orchard by overwhelming numbers (a) . 

To Graham's brigade, which was nearest on Bimey's line, 
the remnant of the Third Maine gravitated ; but as evening 
came on the entire line which Sickles had established gave 
ground. In the general movement thfe Third Maine retired 
behind the second Union line that Hancock had established 
and which checked the Confederate onsets. That night the 
regiment rejoined Ward's brigade, which had retired from the 
ridge of Devil's Den. The official report of General Ward 
(1863) calls particular attention to the gallantry of Colonel 
Lakeman and his regiment on this day. 

Of the fourteen officers and one hundred and ninety-six 
men who entered the battle in the morning only ninety-seven 
reported at night. One-half of the others were lying on the 
field, dead or wounded. The survivors slept upon their arms 
that night. After noon the next day they were sent to sup- 
port the Second division of the Second corps ; but the attack 
had been repulsed before their arrival. On July 4th the Third 
was on skirmish duty, but sustained no losses. 

A MARKER 
to designate the position of the Thi^ Maine when in support of the Second 
corps, afternoon of July 3d, at the close of the enemy's assault, stands upon 
the east side of Hancock Avenue in a northeasterly direction from *'High 
Water Mark" monument. It is cut from Maine granite, adorned with a 
red granite diamond, and has the following inscriptions: 

3rd Maine Regiment 

Colonel M. B. Lakeman 

In Support 

July 3rd 1863. 

Engaged July 2nd 

In Peach Orchard. 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF COL. MOSES B. LAKEMAN. 

Near Warrenton, Va., July 27, 1863. 
Captain: — I have the honor to submit the following report of the part 
taken by my regiment at the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., on the 2d instant:— 
By order, I formed my regiment in line of battle parallel to and facing 

(a) The refriment of Barksdale's briflrade adyancinff nearest the Third Maine at 
the time was probably the 2l8t Mississippi. 



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THIRD REGIMENT ENGAGED. 133 

the Emmitsburg road, on the right of the brigade, at early mom. Soon 
after, by order of General Ward, I moved my regiment as a support for a 
body of sharp-shooters, under command of Colonel Berdan, to whom I was 
ordered to report, by Captain Briscoe of General Bimey 's staff. Advancing 
to and for some distance on the Emmitsburg road, I approached a dense 
wood on the west side of the road, and on entering it formed my regiment 
(as ordered) to support the advandng line of skirmishers, and followed at 
supporting distance. They soon, however, became hotly engaged, * * * 
and I advanced double-quick to the line they occupied, and instantly formed 
my regiment under a heavy fire from the enemy, which we returned with a 
good will. Here I labored under a decided disadvantage, which will 
account for my heavy loss. The skirmishers were well secured behind 
trees, while my battalion filled the intervals. The enemy showed himself 
in overwhelming force, but so well did we hold our position that his advance 
was much checked and very disastrous, and not until ordered * * * to 
fall back did a single man leave the ranks, with the exception of those 
slightly wounded, when I retired, giving an occasional volley to check his 
advance, which now became quicker. 

I was obliged to leave my dead and seriously wounded on the field, and 
on arriving at the road formed my regiment, which had gotten somewhat 
confused from loss of men and obstructions in our retreat. 

This engagement was short but very severe, and serves to give me a 
renewal of confidence in the men I command. I sustained a loss of forty- 
eight in killed, wounded and missing. 

While on the move to join my brigade, I received an order from General 
Bimey to take position in a peach orchard on the right of my previous one, 
and accordingly moved my regiment there and occupied it Here I was 
enabled several times during the day to repulse the enemy's skirmishers 
(who seemed very anxious to drive us from it) and also to seriously harass 
the left flank of their advancing columns to the position which the other 
regiments of the brigade were holding, changing my front as circumstances 
required. In this position my regiment lay about midway between our own 
and the enemy's batteries, and a few of my command were more or less 
seriously injured from the frequent explosion of shells immediately over us. 

I was heavily pressed in front and on my right flank about 4 p. M., but 
succeeded in repulsing, with considerable loss, the force, which was much 
greater than mine, and sent them flying back to their covers. An hour 
later they came forward again with a force much greater than before, but I 
engaged them and held them for some fifteen minutes, when I received a 
severe flank fire on my left. I then saw a large force marching round to 
cut me off, and ordered my regiment to retire, and while doing so we 
received a most distressing fire, which threw my command into much con- 
fusion, and mixing them up with a portion of the First brigade, which was 
also falling back. 

I regret to report the loss of my national colors, or no men fought 
harder under it that day than did my regiment, but Captain Keene of the 
color company and his ist — and only — lieutenant, Henry Penniman, fell, 
the former pierced by four bullets, the latter severely wounded in the leg. 
The color-bearer fell, wounded; two of the guard were killed and four 



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134 IfAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Others seriously wounded; and, as darkness was fast approaching, I did not 
miss it till the following morning. If I had, they would have had me and 
my little squad or I would have had my flag. 

As soon as I could rally the remainder of my shattered regiment, I 
joined the brigade, and the men lay on their arms during the night 

I am proud to say the conduct of my oflicers and men throughout the 
entire day is deserving the highest praise. Their coolness and courage in 
resisting a force which they could plainly see was four times their number I 
cannot pass over lightly, but feel somewhat recompensed for my loss by 
the knowledge that the few I have left are of the same material as the gal- 
lant spirits that have fallen. 

I entered the engagement of the morning with 14 oflicers and 196 rifles, 
and lost during the day 113 killed, wounded and missing, including Major 
Lee wounded. Captain Keene killed, etc., a list of which has already been 
sent to headquarters. 

I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Moses B. Lakeman, 
Colonel^ Commanding Third Maine Regiment. 
Capt. John M. Cooney, 

Asst Adjt'Gen,, Second Brig,, First Div,, Third Corps, 

— Rebellion Records, Series I, Vol, xxvii, p. 507. 

HBAi>QUARTERS THIRD MaINE ReGIMENT, July 27, 1863. 

Colonel: — I herewith respectfully report the movements of my regi- 
ment under your command at the battle of Gettysburg, on the 3d, 4th and 
5th instants. 

On or about noon of the 3d instant, I was, by order of General Ward, 
sent as support to the Second division of the Second corps, which was being 
heavily pressed by the enemy, but who had succeeded in repulsing them 
before my arrival. I reported to General Webb, and placed my regiment, 
as ordered by him, in support of a battery in our front, but our services 
were not required throughout the afternoon or night. 

Early on the morning of the 4th instant, I, with the Fourth Maine, 99th 
Penn. and 20th Indiana regiments, advanced to the front, sending forward 
the skirmishers of the Second corps, and taking position on the Emmits- 
burg road, previously the skirmish line, relieved the skirmishers in my 
front, thereby being supported by, instead of supporting, the Second corps. 
Quite brisk skirmishing took place during the day, but without loss, I am 
happy to state, to my regiment. 

I remained on this line until about 12 m. on the 5th, when I retired to 
the position occupied the previous morning, leaving my skirmishers still 
to the front, when, finding the enemy had gone, my skirmishers were 
relieved, and I, with the other regiments, joined the brigade. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Moses B. Lakeman, 
Colonel, Commanding Third Maine Regiment, 

P. S. Permit me to add that the conduct of my oflicers and men 
throughout the whole of the trying engagement was admirable in the 
extreme, and they are highly deserving of special mention. 



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THIBD REGIMENT mNEBABr. 135 



ITINERARY. 

The following itinerary of the Third regiment during the 
Gettysburg campaign is taken from the diary of Col. Moses B. 
Lakeman, commanding the regiment : 

Thursday, June II, 1863. Fair. Relieved from picket; arrived in camp 
at I o'clock p. M. ; started on march at 2 p. m. — Rappahannock Station. 
Marched about ten miles, bivouacked for night at 11 o'clock p. m. 

June 1 2th. Fair. Started on march at 9 o'clock a. m.; marched about 
twelve miles; arrived at bivouac one mile from Bealeton at 5.30 p. m. 

June 13th. Fair. Moved bivouac one and a half miles to Bealeton. 
Division officer of day. 

June 14th. Fair. Struck bivouac at 4.30 p. m.; arrived near Catlett's 
Station, eight miles, at 10 o'clock. 

June 15th. Fair. Started at 5 o'clock a. m. on march; arrived near 
Centreville at 6 o'clock p. m.; distance marched ten miles; very warm and 
dusty. 

June i6th. Fair. Started at 5.30 o'clock a. m., and marched about 
three miles to rifle pits. 

June 17th. Fair. Started at 3.30 o'clock p. m., and marched about 
three miles in rear of Centreville. 

June i8th. Rain. Remained in bivouac. Smart rain in afternoon and 
evening. Lt.-Col. Burt left on fifteen days' sick leave. 

June 19th. Rain. Started at 3 o'clock p. m. ; marched to Gum Spring; 
distance marched ten miles; a very severe march on account of rain, mud 
and darkness; arrived at 10.30 p. m. 

June 2oth. Rainy. Remained in bivouac. Lts. Day, Anderson, Gil- 
man and Blake missing, supposed to be captured by guerillas. 

June 2ist. Rainy. Remained in bivouac until 3.30 o'clock p. m., when 
we changed position to front. Heavy firing in direction of Aldie. 

June 22d. Fair. Remained in bivouac until 5 p. m. Part of regiment 
went on picket, rest moved to rear on reserve. Sat on court martial on 
case of Major D of N. Y. Vols, at Col. Berdan's headquarters. 

June 23d. Fair. Remained in bivouac. 

June 24th. Fair. Remained in bivouac. 

June 25th. Rainy. Regiment relieved from picket; struck bivouac at 
6 o'clock A. M., and marched to Monocacy, where we arrived at 10 p. m. ; 
distance marched about twenty-four miles. 

June 26th. Rainy. Started at 6 o'clock a. m.; marched to near Point 
of Rocks; distance six miles. Division officer of day. 

June 27th. Rainy. Started at 10 o'clock a. m. ; passed through Jeffer- 
son and bivouacked near Middletown; distance about twelve miles. 

June 28th. Fair. Started at 8 o'clock a. m. ; passed through Middletown 
and Frederick to Walkerville, distance about sixteen miles, and bivouacked 
for the night. 

June 29th. Rainy. Started at 6 o'clock a. m. ; passed through Walker- 
ville, Woodsborough, Middleburg and Taneytown, distance marched about 
eighteen miles, and bivouacked for night. 



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136 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

June 30tb. Rain. Started at 2.30 o'clock p. m. and marched to near 
Emmitsburg; distance eight miles. 

July ist. Rain. Started at 2.30 o'clock; bivouacked near Gettysburg, 
Pa.; distance nine miles. Enemy in our front. Severe march; distance 
marched fourteen miles. 

July 2d. Fair. Took position early; went to the front in woods with 
one hundred sharp-shooters; met enemy in force; lost in the charge forty- 
eight men killed, wounded and missing; remained in advance until evening 
when we retired with First brigade, losing great many men, reported 
seventy-four. Maj. Lee, Capt. Keene, Lt. Penniman, Sergt-maj. Small, 
killed or wounded. 

July 3d. Fair. Took position on left in movement Went to support 
of Second corps; no casualties. Rained at night Enemy completely 
repulsed in our front entire day. Commanding brigade. 

July 4th. Rain. No casualties. Moved to first line and relieved skir- 
mishers of 15th Mass. Occupied the line until midnight, when we retired 
in rear of second line. Very heavy rain all night; skirmishers to front all 
night; enemy left at night 

July 5th. Fair. Relieved from support of Second corps; rejoined bri- 
gade and occupied line of 2d instant. Found and buried our dead. 

July 6th. Stormy. Remained in same position; visited hospital. Lieut- 
Col. Burt joined regiment. 16 K., 59 W., 10 P., 22 M. [These figures evi- 
dently refer to the losses at Gettysburg in killed, wounded, prisoners and 
missing.] 

July 7th. Rain. Started from bivouac at 4 o'clock a. m.; passed 
through Emmitsburg and Mechanicstown and bivouacked there for the 
night; distance marched fourteen miles. 

July 8th. Rain. Started 6.45 a m. ; passed through Katoctin Furnace 
and Pass, on pike; three hours' rest at noon on account of extreme bad 
road; passed through Frederick; bivouacked on road to Middletown; dis- 
tance marched sixteen miles. 

July 9th. Fair. Started at 5 o'clock; passed through Middletown 
and bivouacked at South Mountain Pass; distance marched five miles. 

July loth. Fair. Started at 5 o'clock; moved towards the front, very 
short marches to change position; distance marched ten miles. Passed 
through Cadysville; bivouacked near Antietam Creek. 

July nth. Fair. Started at 4 o'clock; passed through Rocks Mills; 
crossed Antietam Creek; bivouacked for night; distance six miles. Pre- 
sented with set spurs by Co. E. 

July 1 2th. Rain. Moved to front in reserve; formed line in afternoon 
and bivouacked for night; advanced about one mile. 

July 13th. Fair. No charge; remained on same line. 

July 14th. Rain. Struck bivouac at 12 o'clock; passed Jones' Cross 
Roads and bivouacked for night in field near and in rear of reb's works — 
(two miles). Division officer of the day. 

July 15th. Fair. Started at 4 o'clock en route for Harper's Ferry; 
passed through Fairplay and Sharpsburg and bivouacked three miles beyond; 
— eight miles. 



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TUIKD BEOIMENT PAKTICIPANT8. 137 

July i6th. Rain. Started at 6.30 o'clock a. m. and bivouacked near 
Maryland Heights; marched about six miles. 

July 17th. Rain. Started at 6 o'clock p. m. and crossed Potomac at 
Sandy Hook to Harper's Ferry; crossed Shenandoah River and bivouacked 
for night; marched eight miles. 



PAKTICTPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Moses B. Lakeman, Augusta. 
Major, Samuel P. Lee, Hallowell. 
Surgeon, Thaddeus Hildreth, Gardiner. 
Assistant Surgeon, William H. Jewett, Turner. 
Second Assistant Surgeon, James D. Watson, Brooks. 
Chaplain, S. Freeman Chase, Camden. 
Quartermaster, Charles T. Watson, Bath. 
Sergeant-major, Henry S. Small, Bowdoinham. 
Quartermaster-sergeant, Thomas McFadden, Bath. 
Commissary-sergeant, Lorenzo W. Grafton, Augusta. 
Hospital Steward, John Littlefield, Jr., Skowhegan. 
Drum-major, Charles Ellis, Waterville. 
Fife-major, Charles Elliott, Bath. 

Company A. 
Captain, George W. Hervey, Bath. 
First Lieutenant, Abner W. Turner, Bath. 
Second Lieutenant, George C. Hudson, Bath. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Charles T. Hooper, Bath, 

Charles N. Osgood, Bath, William B. Parris, Bath. 

CORPORALS. 

Jonathan Newcomb, Jr., Bath, John L. Little, Bath, 

Charles T. Butler, Phippsburg, Wesley Oliver, Bath. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, John W., Bath, Barton, George H. B., Bath, 

Campbell, Thomas G., Bath, Crooker, William F., Bath, 

Durgin, William H., Bath, Emery, Augustus F., Phippsburg, 

House, Henry H., Bath, Hughes, William, Woolwich, 

King, Eleazer, Bath, Lord, John A., Bath, 

Norton, Charles M., Bath, Preble, Edgar W., Woolwich, 

Ramsey, Edwin R., Bath, Sprague, Gilman S., Bath, 

Trull, Phineas A., Bath, Wall, Amos H., Bath, 

Webber, Oliver, Bath. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant Lincoln Litch- 
field, Bath, div. com. dept. Privates: Lewis K Blair, Bath; John E. Foley, 
Bath, ambulance driver; Adam Lemont, Brunswick, prov. gd. div. h'dqrs.; 
Franklin Shepherd, Bath, corps h'dqrs. 



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138 MAINB AT GETTTSBUBG. 

Company B. 

sergeants. 
Hannibal A. Johnson, Hallowell, Asa C. Rowe, Aus^usta, 
Frederick Gannett, Augusta. 

CORPORALS. 

Edward L. Smith, Belgrade, Frank White, Augusta, 

John W. Jones, Augusta. 

PRIVATES. 

Barker, Enoch M., Troy, Call, Nathan H., Augusta, 

Crummett, George L., Augusta, Delano, Charles S., Augusta, 
Foss, WUiam T., Belgrade, Gannett, Charles, Augusta, 

Kittredge, Orrin, Richmond, Pease, Thomas O., Augusta, 

Sawyer, Charles E., Bath, Winslow, Joseph F., China. 

Musician: Frank Carlin, Augusta. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Capt Edward C. Pierce, 
Augusta, signal corps. Wagoner Frank E. Sager, Hallowell. Privates: 
William Bagley, Canton; George M. Bean, Augusta; Orrin G. Famham, 
Bath; Harry W. Gardiner, Hallowell, signal corps; Reuel Merrill, Augusta; 
Stephen M. Scates, Augusta; Benjamin Sedgerly, Bowdoinham. 

Company C. 
Captain, John S. Moore, Gardiner. 

SERGEANTS. 

Parlin Crawford, Gardiner, George F. Spear, Gardiner, 

George M. Houghton, Gardiner. 

CORPORALS. 

Charles H. Martin, Canaan, Danforth M. Maxcy, Gardiner, 

Charles M. Landers, Danville. 

PRIVATES. 

Brookings, Daniel, Pittston, Colbum, Hiram W., Pittston, 

Crosby, Reuben H., Winthrop, Dale, Horace W., Gardiner, 

Dean, Westbrook, Gardiner, Dennis, John S., Gardiner, 

Fall, Hamden A., Gardiner, Foy, Charles H., Gardiner, 

Heath, Andrew, Whitefield, Hutchinson, Albion T., Gardiner, 

Leighton, William, Augusta, Moody, Daniel M., Pittston, 

Morrill, George T., Wiscasset, Neal, Lyman C, Augusta, 

Packard, Almon J., Gardiner, Pettingill, William H., Winthrop, 

Spear, Charles H., Gardmer, Sturtevant, William H., Gardiner, 

Wakefield, Stephen D., Gardiner, Walker, Nathan N., Gardiner, 
Washburn, George M., Gardiner. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Moses S. Wads- 
worth, Gardiner, hosp. nurse; George S. Wedgewood, Litchfield, clerk 
brig, h'dqrs.; Charles H. Welch, Gardiner; William Wight, Gardiner, 
brig, h'dqrs. 

Company D. 

Captain, Alfi-ed S. Merrill, Bath. 

First Lieutenant, Woodbury Hall, Woolwich. 

SERGEANTS. 

Eben S. Allen, Bath, Henry H. Shaw, Woolwich, 

Alvin Kennerson. Bath. 

CORPORAL. George Famham, Woolwich. 



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THIRD REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 139 

PRIVATES. 

Carlton, Jotham S., Bath, Campbell, Archibald, Bath, 

Dearborn, Charles H., Wentworth, Fletcher, James, Bath, 
Getchell, Charles, Woolwich, Hartnett, Patrick T., Bath, 

Mclntire, Josiah K., Bath, Pushard, Joseph, Bath, 

Ring, David, Bath, Roach, Joseph A., Bath, 

Scammell, Tmiothy, Bath, Snell, Charles F., Bath, 

Wakefield, Jeremiah, Bath, Williams, Melville C, Bath. 

Musician: Warren W. Goud, Topsham. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Wagoner Lyman P. Wildes, 
Bath, teamster div. h'dqrs. Privates: Chandler Ayers, Bath, div. h'dqrs.; 
Isaac Durgin, Bath, teamster brig, h'dqrs. ; James Jameson, Bath, div. pro. 
guard; Edward C. Stinson, Woolwich, brig, h'dqrs. 

Company E. 
Captain, George O. Getchell, Hallowell. 
First Lieutenant, George S. Fuller, Hallowell. 
Second Lieutenant, George A. Nye, Hallowell. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Charles M. Bursley, Hallowell, 
Geoige F. Chamt>erlain, Hallowell. 

CORPORALS. 

George W. Hubbard, Hallowell, Charles J. Dalton, Chelsea. 

PRIVATES. 

Bailey, George W., West Gardiner, Bancroft, Charles, Hallowell, 
Bragg, William F., Hallowell, Bryant, John W., Hallowell, 

Bums, Hugh, Hallowell, Buswell, Albert S., Hallowell, 

Carter, Henry C, Farmingdale, Crosby, Rodney, Albion, 

Douglass, Isaac M., Bath, Emerson, Hazen H., Hallowell, 

George, Sherbum S., Hallowell, Gilman, Charles C, Hallowell, 
Leighton, Silas F., Manchester, Murch, Alden F., Foxcroft, 

Packard, Horatio M., Bridgewater, Roach, Henry J., Bath, 
Rogers, Charles B., Hallowell, Russell, George G., Harpswell, 

Simmons, Stephen M., Hallowell, Sprague, Allen H., St. Albans, 
Sweetland, Frank, Farmingdale, Sweetland, Seth, Farmingdale, 
Towns, Elijah C, Wilton, Towns, Elisha, Wilton, 

Towns, Reuben A., Wilton, Turner, Iddo B., Palermo, 

Williams, Frank, Gardiner. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant Thomas S. Allen, 
Bowdoin, brig, ambulance corps. Privates: William C. Bartlett, Bethel; 
James S. Choate, Hallowell, teamster; William E. Mathews, Hallowell, brig, 
ambulance corps; William B. Potter, Dubuque, la.; clerk brig, h'dqrs.; 
Noah F. Weeks, Hallowell, teamster. 

Company F. 
Captain, William C. Morgan, Comville. 

SERGEANTS. 

Anson R. Morrison, Skowhegan, Joseph P. Durgin, The Forks pi. 
Ora H. Nason, Clinton. 

corporals. 
Amos H. Cole, Starks, Henry H. Chase, Skowhegan. 



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140 



IfAINE AT GETTYSBUBQ. 



PRIVATES. 

Dorathy, George E., Walpole, Mass. 
Maxim, William H., Norridgewock, 
Parlin, John A., Skowhegan, 
Rich, George F., Skowhegan, 
Shattuck, Luke F., Madison, 
Stevens, John H., Clinton, 
Swan, Henry B., Anson, 
Weston, William H., Skowhegan, 



Currier, Thomas S., Anson, 
Luce, Alsbury, Norridgewock, 
Maxwell, Charles N., Canaan, 
Rackliff, William J., Fairfield, 
Savage, Brooks D., Skowhegan, 
Smith, Wilson C, Farmington, 
Swan, Franklin, Anson, 
Towle, Charles L., Winthrop, 
Williamson, Luther A., Starks. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal George Keef, 
Fairfield. Wagoner Luther Dean, Madison. Privates: John L. Fish, Starks; 
John F. Frost, Skowhegan; Benjamin Greenlief, Starks; Heman Hunne- 
well, Jr., Solon; John W. Jones, Winthrop, orderly div. h'dqrs. 

Company G. 
First Lieutenant, George A. Mclntire, Waterville. 
Second Lieutenant, Charles W. Lowe, Waterville. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, William E. Brown, Sidney, 

William H. Copp, Waterville, George W. Davis, Waterville. 

George C. Drummond, Winslow. 

corporals. 
Algernon P. Herrick, Brooklin, Orrin Austin, New Sharon. 

privates. 

Derocher, Henry, Waterville, 



Fossett, John E., Vassalboro, 
Grover, Charles C, Skowhegan, 
McClausland, Simon, Winslow, 
Perley, Nathaniel, Waterville, 
Pollard. Otis, Winslow, 
Sawtelle, Augustus M., Sidney, 
Sylvester, Charles E., Bath, 



Arnold, Charles H., Sidney, 
Field, Henry, Sidney, 
Frost, Samuel E., Belgrade, 
Hallett, Leander T., Mercer, 
Marshall, John T., Southport, 
Perry, James, Waterville, 
Pullen, Frank D., Waterville, 
Spofford, Amherst, Southport, 
Webber, Hiram C, Winslow. 

Musician: Llewellyn E. Hodges, Winslow. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporals Jonathan Bige- 

ow, Jr., Lowell; Charles W. Derocher, Waterville. Wagoner John G, 

Wiley, Boston, Mass. Privates: Charles Bacon, Waterville, hosp. nurse; 

Charles H. Bus well. New Sharon; Li^er N. Eames, Waterville; George 

Lashus, Waterville; Hiram G. Robinson, Sidney; Moses W. Young, Calais. 

Company H. 
sergeants. 
William W. Livermore, Vassalboro, Albro Hubbard, Waterville. 

CORPORALS. 

John H. Bacon, Waterville, John F. Stanley, Smithfield, 

Eben Farrington, Livermore, Philander F. Rowe, Smithfield. 

PRIVATES. 

Bow, Horace, Waterville, Bragg, Lewis, Vassalboro, 

Cochran, Robert, Waterville, Corson, Albert, Waterville, 

Dixon, George, Fairfield, Dyer, Lorenzo, Brighton, 



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THIBD BEGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



141 



Emery, Joseph R., Fairfield, 
Fish, Hiram, Waterville, 
Hursom, Milford, Waterville, 
James, Isaiah H., Waterville, 
Major, Cyrus M., Vassalboro, 
Robinson, Charles H., Sidney, 
Tallus, John, Waterville, 



Eaton, James R., Vassalboro, 
Farrington, Frank, Chesterville, 
Freeman, George R., Vassalboro, 
Hunter, Melvin, Clinton, 
Jones, Charles H., Jay, 
Preble, William T., Winslow, 
Rowe, Isaac, Smithfield, 
Woodman, Alvin B., Waterville. 

MUSICIANS. 

Henry Crowell, Waterville, Baxter Crowell, Waterville. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates Samuel W. 
Austin, New Sharon; Solomon B. Lewis, Waterville; Nathan P. Taber, 

Vassalboro. 

Company I. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, John B. Dodge, Somerville, 

Andrew Nicholas, Augusta, Nelson W. Jones, Palermo, 

Henry Lyon, Vassalboro. 

CORPORALS. 

Daniel Chadwick, Augusta, Henry A. Griffith, Augusta, 

Wilbert Boynton, Palermo, Warren W. Cooper, Somerville. 



Bailey, Andrew J., Chelsea, 
Bolton, William, Augusta, 
Brown, ^^liam A., Augusta, 
Day, David, Augusta, 
Goodwin, Adam B., Newiield, 
Lewis, Alexander, Somerville, 
Uvermore, Leonard H., Augusta, 
Mann, John A., Augusta, 
Orrick, James, Augusta, 



PRIVATES. 

Bachelor, Charles M., Augusta, 
Brann, Levi W., Somerville, 
Burden, Calvin H., Augusta, 
Fellows, George L., Augusta, 
Hill, Reuben, Sanford, 
Lewis, Andrew J., Somerville, 
Maher, William, Gardiner, 
Neal, Harrison W., Palermo, 



Palmer, William V., Newfield. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal George P. Went- 
worth, Augusta. Musicians William Stover, Augusta; Marcellus Gale, 
Augusta. Wagoner William H. Spofford, Augusta, teamster div. h'dqrs. 
Privates: Byron C.Bickford, Augusta; Byron Branch, Augusta, div. h'dqrs.; 
Benjamin C. Campbell, Somerville; Augustus Chadwick, Augusta, ambu- 
lance corps; Samuel Gowell, Augusta; Frank S. Martin, Augusta, teamster 
brig, h'dqrs.; Rufus S. McCurdy, Augusta, pro. guard, div. h'dqrs.; Heze- 
kiah Ridley, Richmond, ambulance corps; John H. Spaulding, Augusta, 
teamster div. h'dqrs.; Edward A. Stewart, Augusta, div. h'dqrs.; William 
S. Thoms, Augusta, corps mail agent. 

Company K. 
Captain, John C. Keene, Leeds. 
First Lieutenant, Henry Penniman, Winthrop. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Fred H. Strout, Durham, 

Bradford W. Smart, Vassalboro, Edward K. Thomas, Winthrop, 

Dexter W. Howard, Leeds. 



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142 IfAINE AT GBTTTSBUBO. 

CORPORALS. 

Hugh S. Newell, Readfield, Charles A. Smart, Vassalboro, 

Alexander T. H. Wood, Winthrop, Andrew P. Bachelder, Winthrop. 

PRIVATES. 

Burgess, William H., Winthrop, Butler, Geoi^ge A., Winthrop, 

Caswell, Lloyd B., Leeds, Chandler, Samuel G., Winthrop, 

Cochran, Hiram, Waterville, Frost, Albert H., Winthrop, 

Heald, William, E. Livermore, Holmes, James M., Winthrop, 

Johnson, Henry C, Farmington, Keay, Ruggles S., Greene, 

Norris, Daniel S., Mt Vernon, Perkins, George, Winthrop, 

Raymond, William R., Wayne, Ricker, James C, Winthrop, 

Steams, Joseph H., Winthrop, Thompson, Gustavus A., Winthrop, 

Turner, Henry S., Leeds Wilson, William G., Winthrop, 

Wood, Elias, Winthrop. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: John W. Russell, 
Winthrop, blacksmith; Franklin Dwyer, Winthrop; William Elder, Win- 
throp, pro. guard, div. h'dqrs.; Charles H. Smiley, Winthrop, brig, ambu- 
lance corps; Patrick H. Snell, Winthrop, brig, ambulance corps. 

The condensed morning report of the Third Maine regiment 
June 30, 1863, shows : 

Present for duty, 22 officers, 244 enlisted men ; total, 266< 
Present sick, 2 men ; present daily duty, 3 men. 



Note on foregoing list of participants. 

It will be observed that the monument inscription and CoL 
Lakeman's official report show less in number than this nominal 
list. The non-combatant officers here given were omitted in 
the former, and one staff officer, present June 30th, was not 
on duty July 2d. The discrepancy of two line officers remains ; 
it is possible that two were commissioned and acting as officers, 
but not mustered as such at the time ; all those named in the 
list are well vouched for as present. 

As to the difference of fifty in enlisted men : some fell out 
sick after June 30th ; a number in every regiment were mus- 
tered as present for duty June 30th who did not carry arms in 
battle, — stretcher-carriers, temporary details, etc. Hiving 
been denied all information from the departments at Wash- 
ington, the difficulty of separating the names at this late day is 
insurmountable. 



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THIBD REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 143 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Major, Samuel P. Lee, wounded, right arm dislocated. 
Sergeant-major, Henry S. Small, killed. 

Company A. 

SERGEANTS. 

Charles N. Osgood, w'd, leg, severe. William B. Parris, wounded, leg. 

CORPORALS. 

Jonathan Newcomb, Jr., prisoner. John L. Little, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Crooker, William F., prisoner. Emery, Augustus F., w'd, side, severe. 

Hughes, William, prisoner. Ramsey, Edwin R., wounded, hand. 

Trull, Phineas A., prisoner. Webber, Oliver, prisoner. 

Company B. 

sergeants. 
Hannibal A. Johnson, w'd and pris'r. Asa C. Rowe, killed. 
Fred Gannett, w'd, right foot 
Corporal John W. Jones, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Barker, Enoch M., prisoner. Call, Nathan H., wounded. 

Gannett, Charles, prisoner. Winslow, Joseph F., prisoner. 

Company C. 

sergeants. 
Parlin Crawford, w*d, arm, severe. George F. Spear, killed (rep'd miss'g). 

CORPORALS. 

Charles H. Martin, prisoner. Danforth W. Maxcy, 

Charles M. Landers, w'd, head, severe, mounded, died Aug. w. was. 

PRFVATBS. 

Dale, Horace W., killed. Dennis, John S., w'd, thigh, severe. 

Foy, Charles H., wounded, foot. Heath, Andrew, wounded, hand. 
Moody, Daniel M., w'd, thigh, ampt'd. Neal, Lyman C, wounded, leg. 
Sturtevant, William H., w'd, leg. 

Company D. 

sergeants. 

1st Serfi^t. Eben S. Allen, Henry H. Shaw, wounded, severe. 

woonoed, died Aug. 6, 1868. 
Corporal George Famham, wounded, foot. 

PRIVATES. 

Hartnett, Patrick T., prisoner. Roach, Joseph A., w'd, died July ii, '63 

Wakefield, Jeremiah, wounded, leg. 

Company E. 
Sergeant Geoi^ge F. Chamberlain, wounded, died Aug. 21, 1863. 

PRIVATES. 

Bailey, George W., w'd, severe. Bancroft, Charles, killed (rept'd w'd). 

George, Sherbum S., w'd, severe. Leigh ton, Silas F., w'd, shoulder. 
Murch, Alden F., wounded, leg. Packard, Horatio M., wounded. 

Rogers, Charles B., killed. Simmons, Stephen M., prisoner. 

Sprague, Allen H.,w'd, diedAug. 3,'63Sweetland, Seth, prisoner. 



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144 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBO. 

Company F. 
sergeants. 
Joseph P. Durgin, wounded Ora H. Nason, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

Amos H. Cole, killed. Henry H. Chase, wounded. 

PRIVATES. 

Currier, Thomas S., killed. Dorathy, George E., wounded. 

Luce, Alsbury, killed. Maxim, Wm. H., killed (rep'd mis'g). 

Rackliff, William J., wounded. Shattuck, Luke F., prisoner. 

Stevens, John H., wounded. Swan, Franklin, prisoner. 

Swan, Henry B., reported killed ; Towle, Charles L., wounded, 
rejoined regiment from mJMlng. 

Company G. 
sergeants. 
istSergt William E. Brown, w'd, leg. George W. Davis, wounded. 

CORPORALS. 

Algernon P. Herrick, Orrin Austin, reported prisoner, 

prifloner; died Oot. 28, lISS. 

PRIVATES. 

Arnold, Charles H., prisoner. Derocher, Henry, prisoner. 

Fossett, John E., wounded. Frost, Samuel E., wounded. 

Grover, Charles C, prisoner. Penry, James, wounded. 

Webber, Hiram C, woonded; died Aug. is, 1868. 

Company H. 
Sergeant William W. Livermore, wounded. 

CORPORALS. 

John H. Bacon, wounded, Eben Farrington, killed. 

Philander F. Rowe, prisoner; died in prison. Not. 87, 1868. 

PRIVATES. 

Corson, Albert, killed. Dixon George, wounded. 

Major, Cyrus M., prisoner; died in prison, Dec. o, 1868. 

Company L 

sergeants. 
Nelson W. Jones, killed. Henry Lyon, killed. 

Corporal Warren W. Cooper, wounded. 

PRIVATES. 

Bailey, Andrew J., wounded. Bachelor, Charles M., wounded. 

Burdin, Calvin H., killed. Fellows, George L., killed. 

Lewis, Alexander, prisoner. Lewis, Andrew J., wounded. 

Neat, Harrison W., wounded. Palmer, William V., prisoner. 

Company K. 
Captain John C. Keene, killed. 
First Lieutenant Henry Penniman, wounded. 

CORPORALS. 

Charles A. Smart, wounded. Alexander T. H. Wood, wounded. 



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THISD REGIMENT HISTOBIOAL SKETCH. 145 

PRIVATES. 

Burgess, William H., killed. Butler, George A., prisoner. 

Chandler, Samnel G., wounded. Cochran, Hiram, 

Frost, Albert H., killed. prisoner; died in prison. Dec. », 1888. 

Heald, William, wounded. Keay, Ruggles S., prisoner. 

Perkins, George, wounded. Raymond, William R., wounded. 

Ricker, James C, prisoner. Turner, Henry S., wounded. 

Wilson, William G., missing. Wood, Ellas, prisoner. 



Note on the foregoing report of casualties. 

The monument inscription gives an aggregate of 122 killed, 
wounded and missing ; Col. Lakeman's official report 113 ; the 
foregoing nominal list 109. This list agrees with the inscrip- 
tion in the aggregate of killed and wounded — 77, although those 
who died of their wounds are separated from the wounded here 
and counted with the killed, but not so on the monument. In 
this list, the ''missing" are those who were captured, whether 
wounded or not, and those never heard from (there being 2 
of the latter) . A careful research brings the list of missing 
down to 32, instead of 45 as on the monument. It is probable 
that the number 45 was adopted for the monument inscription 
from Fox's statistics ; it does not tally with the information 
obtainable in the Adjutant-General's office at Augusta. The 
total discrepancy of 4 between this list and Col. Lakeman's 
report probably arises from 4 falling out and not accounted for 
with their command, but soon after rejoining for duty. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH. 

COMPILBD FROM OFFICIAL AND OTHER SOURCES 
BY THE EDITORS. 

The Third Maine regiment of infantry was organized for 
active service May 28, 1861, and mustered into the U. S. ser- 
vice at Augusta, June 4th. It was raised in the central por- 
tion of the state, and went into camp at Augusta on the State 
grounds fronting the Capitol. Company A was the only com- 
pany which existed under former militia laws, and was known 
as the Bath City Greys. While in camp at Augusta it was 



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146 MAINE AT OETTY8BUBG. 

under constant drill of Sergeant Burt, U. S. A., assisted by 
Mr. Frank Pierce, a native of Augusta and a graduate of the 
Vermont Military School. The regiment was armed with the 
Springfield smooth-bore musket. 

The original organization of the regiment was as follows : 

FIBLD AND STAFF. 

Colonel, Oliver Otis Howard, Leeds, a graduate of West Point 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Isaac N. Tucker, Gardiner. 
Major, Henry G. Staples, Augusta. 
Chaplain, Andrew). Church, Augusta. 
Surgeon, Gideon S. Palmer, Gardiner. 
Assistant Surgeon, George E. Brickett, China. 
Adjutant, First Lieut. Edwin Burt, Augusta. 
Quartermaster, William D. Haley, Bath. 
Sergeant-Major, James H. Plaisted, Waterville. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Joseph S. Smith, Bath. 
Commissary-Sergeant, Lorenzo D. Grafton, Augusta. 
Hospital Steward, Frank H. Getchell, Waterville. 
Drum-major, Charles H. Howard, Leeds. 
Fife-major, Moses M. Wadsworth, Gardiner. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, William O. Rogers, Bath. 

First Lieutenant, Reuben Sawyer, Bath. 

Second Lieutenant, John S. Wiggin, Bath. 
Co. B. Captain, Edwin A. Bachelder, Augusta. 

First Lieutenant, Albert B. Hall, Augusta. 

Second Lieutenant, Edwin Burt, Augusta. 
Co. C. Captain, William E. Jarvis, Gardiner. 

First Lieutenant, James M. Colson, Gardiner. 

Second Lieutenant, George S. Andrews, Gardiner. 
Co. D. Captain, Charles A. L. Sampson, Bath. 

First Lieutenant, William H. Watson, Bath. 

Second Lieutenant, Warren R. Mattson, Bath. 
Co. E. Captain, James M. Nash, Hallowell. 

First Lieutenant, John W. Sanborn, Hallowell. 

Second Lieutenant, Gorham S. Johnson, Hallowell. 
Co. F. Captain, Elbridge G. Savage, Solon. 

First Lieutenant, Royal B. Steams, Skowhegan. 

Second Lieutenant, Henry A. Boyce, Skowh^;an. 
Co. G. Captain, Frank S. Hesseltine, Waterville. 

First Lieutenant, Nathaniel Hanscom, Benton. 

Second Lieutenant, William A. Hatch, Waterville. 
Co. H. Captain, William S. Heath, Waterville. 

First Lieutenant, Francis E. Heath, Waterville. 

Second Lieutenant, John R. Day, Waterville. 



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THIRD BEGIMENT HI8TOBIGAL SKETCH. 147 

Co. I. Captain, Moses B. Lakeman, Augusta. 

First Lieutenant, A. R. Quimby, Augusta. 

Second Lieutenant, H. M. Rines, Augusta. 
Co. K. Captain, Newell Strout, Durham. 

First Lieutenant, Binsley S. Kelley, Winthrop. 

Second Lieutenant, William Elder, Winthrop. 

The Third reghnent, with Col. O. O. Howard, left Augusta 
June 5, 1861 9 and amved at Washington on the evening of the 
7th. On their passage through New York city a beautiful reg- 
imental flag was presented to them by Hon. Stewart L. Wood- 
ford, U. S. District Attorney, in behalf of the sons of Maine. 
The next day after their arrival in Washington they were 
ordered to a camp of instruction on Meridian Hill, where they 
remained until July 6th, when they crossed the Potomac and 
encamped in front of Fort Ellsworth, being at that time the 
advance regiment. On the 10th they moved their camp to 
Clermont, where they were brigaded. Colonel Howard, acting 
Brigadier-General, commanding. July 14th they commenced 
the march for Bull Run, under the command of Major Staples, 
arriving at Centreville on the 17th, and at Bull Run on the 
21st. In the disastrous battle at the latter place, the Third 
sustained itself nobly. Its loss was eight killed, twenty-nine 
wounded and twelve taken prisoners. 

On the 23d, returning to its previous camp at Clermont, it 
remained there until August 10th, when it moved to the right 
of Fort Ellsworth, and was put into Sedgwick's brigade, formed 
of Third and Fourth Maine, 38th and 40th N. Y. regts. 

On the 27th and 28th of August, a portion of the regiment 
under the command of Major Staples had a brilliant skirmish 
with the enemy at Bailey's Cross Roads, but met with no loss. 
The Third remained near Fort Ellsworth, doing picket duty, 
working on fortifications and drilling, until September 27th, 
when the brigade was ordered forward to the Fowle's estate, on 
the old Fairfax road, and was posted in Heintzelman's division. 
During this time Colonel Howard was promoted to Brigadier- 
General, and Major Staples succeeded him as colonel. 

On the 17th of March, 1862, broke camp, marched to Alex- 
andria and then proceeded to Hampton, where they remained 
until April 3d, when they moved with the army of the Potomac to 



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148 MAINS AT OETTYSBUBG. 

Yorktown, at the siege of which they bore an honorable part, and 
when the enemy evacuated they were among the first in pursuit. 
At the battle of Williamsburg, May 5th, the regiment was 
detached by Greneral Heintzelman to guard the left flank, which 
position they held until sunset, when they marched to the relief 
of the regiments then engaged. Gen. Phil. Kearny, who 
commanded the division, says that the Third and Fourth Maine 
^ by their steady and imposing attitude contributed to the suc- 
cess of those more immediately engaged." The Third lost but 
two men, wounded. 

May 15th they arrived at Cumberland Landing on the 
Pamunkey river, where they remained a few days, when they 
marched to within a few miles of Bottom's Bridge, on the Chick- 
ahominy. On the 23d they crossed this bridge and marched 
within half a mile of Fair Oaks. The battle of Seven Pines 
took place on the 31st and June 1st. On the former date, 
during the attack on the enemy's left, the Third was ordered 
to the front by General Bimey. It moved up the railroad by 
the flank, and occupied several positions on the right and left 
of the road during the afternoon, resting at night in line of 
battle upon the first opening on the right of the railroad, above 
the bridge. The next morning it was ordered into the field 
on the left of the railroad, where it formed a line of battle 
under the edge of the woods. The presence of the enemy in 
force in their front was revealed by his terrific fire, opened 
upon the skirmishers under the command of Major Burt, who 
checked them until the main body came up. A charge was then 
ordered, and the movement was gallantly executed. The enemy 
was pursued a half mile when the Third encountered his reserve, 
who returned our fire with terrible effect, but which was soon 
silenced. During this battle the regiment did its duty nobly 
and bravely. General Kearny told Colonel Ward, command- 
ing the brigade at the time of the action, that " The brigade 
have done nobly, sir, and the Third and Fourth Maine can't 
be beat I " The loss in killed and wounded was nearly one- 
third of the regiment. 

The Third remained in the advance line of the army until 
June 25th, when they were engaged in the battle of White Oak 



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THIRD REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 149 

Swamp, in which the regiment by having a good position was 
enabled to do excellent service with very slight loss. On the 
29th they were withdrawn from the advance line of fortifications 
before Richmond at an early hour in the morning, and under 
command of Major Burt crossed White Oak Swamp at Jordan's 
ford in the evening, covered by the left flank company as skir- 
mishers, under command of Lieutenant Cox, who, after an 
advance of nearly two miles in the direction of Charles City 
Cross Roads, came upon the rebels in considerable force, when 
a brisk skirmish took place ; but in consequence of the disparity 
of force, Lieutenant Cox was forced to retire after a loss of one 
man killed and one taken prisoner. By order of General Bir- 
ney the regiment then recrossed the swamp, followed its bank 
about six miles, and again crossing, gained the highlands and 
bivouacked for the night. 

On the morning of the 30th they went forward on the Charles 
City Road and took an active part in the battle of Charles City 
Cross Roads. Before daybreak on the morning of July 1st 
they marched to Malvern Hill, where during the battle at that 
place they assisted in supporting Randolph's 6th R. I. battery. 
For eight hours they were exposed to a severe fire from the 
enemy's batteries, during which time the conduct of the men 
was admirable in the extreme. Their loss was very light. At 
an early hour the next morning they removed to Dr. Mung's 
plantation near Berkley's Station, where they bivouacked that 
night, and on the following morning, after having their camp 
shelled by the enemy, advanced three miles in the direction of 
Harrison's Landing, where they encamped. From this time 
until August 15th, the Third remained in front, when they 
joined in the retrograde movement towards Yorktown, where 
they arrived on the 19th, and on the 21st embarked on trans- 
ports for Alexandria, at which place they arrived the following 
day. From thence they proceeded on the 23d by rail to within 
four miles of the Rappahannock river, thence to Greenwich, 
Bristoe's Station, Manassas and CentreviUe, and finally on the 
29th of August they marched for Bull Run, arriving on the 
battlefield at about 9 a. m., and participating in the engagement 
of that day. The next day they supported Randolph's battery 



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150 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

until 3 o'clock p. m., when they retired to the rear. The reg- 
iment shortly returned to the attack with the lamented General 
Kearny at their head, but meeting a rebel brigade they were 
forced to retire under a murderous fire. A portion of the Third 
also encountered another heavy fire, while supporting a section 
of a battery, when with tlje rest of the forces they fell back to 
Centreville. 

The next day the regiment took up the line of march for 
Fairfax, when took place the battle of Chantilly, during which it 
sustained unflinchingly a murderous fire from a superior force, 
losing four killed, thirty-eight wounded and eight missing. 

On the 2d of September they marched to Alexandria and 
encamped in the vicinity of Fort Lyon. On the 8th they 
moved to Fort Worth, and from thence to Fort Barnard, where 
they remained until the 15th, when they proceeded to Pooles- 
ville, Md., and thence to White's Ford, on the upper Potomac. 
The several fords from the Monocacy to Conrad's Ferry were 
guarded by the regiment. At the last named place Colonel 
Staples had temporary command of the brigade. 

On the 11th of October the regiment, together with the 
Fourth Maine, proceeded to the mouth of the Monocacy, to 
intercept the return of Stuart's cavalry into Virginia. A brisk 
engagement ensued, which resulted in the enemy^s making his 
escape. Betuming to Poolesville, they marched to White's 
Ford, thence to Leesburg, Warrenton, on the Rappahannock 
(Nov. 7th), where they remained at Waterloo bridge until the 
16th, when they were ordered to Falmouth, arriving there 
November 22d. In the meantime Col. Staples resigned, and 
Lieut.-Col. Lakeman was promoted to the colonelcy. 

Remained at Falmouth until Dec. 11th, when they joined 
in the forward move on Fredericksburg. Late in the afternoon 
of the following day they marched six miles down the river in 
order to cross the Rappahannock and reinforce General Frank- 
lin, who had been giving battle to the enemy since morning. 
On arriving within about a mile of the pontoon bridge, it was 
found that the troops previously sent by this route had not yet 
crossed, and the Third was ordered to bivouac. The next day 
at daybreak they were under arms, and at 10 o'clock they 



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THIRD REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 151 

crossed the Rappahannock, when General Bimey, commanding 
division, immediately formed his brigades and pushed forward 
to the left of the ground occupied by General Whipple, and 
prepared for action. Colonel Lakeman marched to the rear 
some one hundred and seventy-five yards, and took position 
amid a shower of shot and shell, when he was ordered to the 
support of Hairs Second Maine battery, remaining in position 
nearly six hours, under a most trying fire. The position was 
a post of honor and danger. The battery having been ordered 
to change position, an attempt was made by the enemy to capt- 
ure it, but the unerring aim of a well-sustained fire from the 
Third sent him back to the cover of his intrenchments. At an 
early hour the next morning they were withdrawn from the 
front and placed in the second line, where they remained through 
the day, when at midnight they took up their previous position 
in the advance. The regiment was from necessity compelled 
to lie on wet ground, in front of the enemy, for nearly fifty 
hours, which accounts for the slight loss they sustained, — three 
killed, twenty-five wounded and four missing. On being with- 
drawn from the lines, they marched to the camp they previously 
occupied, on the north bank of the Rappahannock. 

The regiment broke camp on the 20th of January, 1863, 
and with the army participated in General Bumside's movement, 
afterwards known as the "mud march" ; the movement being 
abandoned, it returned to its former camp on the 23d, where 
it remained until March 4th, when with the division it moved 
to Potomac Creek, four miles, and remained there until April 
28th, during which time the regiment was almost constantly 
employed, under Captain Morgan, building military roads. 

During the winter of 1863, after General Hooker had suc- 
ceeded General Burnside in the command of the army, the sys- 
tem of badges to be worn upon the cap was invented. The 
Third corps badge thus adopted was the diamond, evidently 
carrying out the idea of General Kearny, in whose division 
the Third Maine regiment belonged. Accordingly, those of 
the First division, including the Third, Fourth and Seventeenth 
Maine regiments, and company D, 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, 



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152 MAINE AT OETTY8BURO. 

retained the red diamond patch of Eeamy, the white diamond 
designating the Second and the blue diamond the Third division. 

April 28th, with the army, the Third regiment crossed the 
Rappahannock river, proceeded to and participated in the battle 
of the Cedars and Chancellorsville, May 2d and 3d, in which 
engagements it lost Lieutenants Cox and Witham, killed. Lieu- 
tenant Emery wounded, Lieutenants Fuller and Nye, prisoners ; 
also fifty-six men wounded and prisoners, four of whom after- 
wards died of wounds. 

The movements of the regiment at the battle of Chancellors- 
ville were as follows : The regiment bivouacked near United 
States Ford on the night of April 30th. At daybreak, on the 
morning of May 1st, the brigade crossed the Rappahannock 
and marched to the Plank road, where it took position in line 
of battle and there remained until the morning of the 2d. On 
the 2d the regiment moved farther up the Plank road, awaiting 
an attack until two o'clock in the afternoon, when the whole 
division advanced out beyond our lines several miles, striking 
the enemy's train-guard and capturing many prisoners. This 
action was called the Cedars. Shortly after sunset returned 
towards the previous position, but halted at Hazel Grove, 
remaining there, in line of battle, until nearly midnight, when 
the brigade was ordered to charge upon a force which had 
gained possession of the Plank road, and the road leading to it, 
by defeating the Eleventh corps. The regiment advanced and 
engaged in a severe fight which lasted nearly an hour ; the first 
and second lines of earthworks were carried and held until day- 
light, notwithstanding the stubborn resistance of the enemy 
who outnumbered our forces very largely. This movement 
and its success resulted in keeping open *the communication 
with the Twelfth corps, from which we had been substantially 
cut off by Jackson's movement around our right flank, and by 
which he had driven back the Eleventh corps in disorder. At 
daylight. May 3d, the enemy occupied the woods on two sides 
and opened a sharp fire on the brigade, which was briskly 
returned, until our troops were re-arranged nearer the Chan- 
cellor house. Around this as a centre the battle on May 3d 
was fought, in which Major-General Berry was killed. The 



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THIRD REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 153 

brigade supported such batteries as was ordered and otherwise 
participated in the action that took place. The regiment after 
several changes of position, at times under severe fire, finally 
took up a position with its brigade in the new line of works, 
occupying the first line of defense. In this position it was 
subjected to a heavy artillery fire from the enemy, and several 
men were more or less wounded. The brigade was highly com- 
plimented by General Ward, its commander, for the gallantry 
of its officers and men. They occupied the front line of earth- 
works until daybreak of the 6th, being the last to leave the 
front, recrossing the Rappahannock in the forenoon and return- 
ing to their former camp. Here it remained until June 11th, 
when it took its line of march with the army that terminated 
in the battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 2 and 3, 1863. 

In this engagement at Gettysburg, July 2 and 3, 1863, the 
Third Maine regiment took a most conspicuous part, being the 
first to attack the enemy on the morning of the 2d, a long dis- 
tance in advance of the line, where it sustained a loss of forty- 
eight killed, wounded and missing. The regiment during the 
remainder of the day held an advanced position in the ever 
memorable Peach Orchard until evening, when it was attacked 
by an overwhelming force and compelled to fall back, sustain- 
ing the loss of Captain Keen, killed. Major Lee and Lieut. Pen- 
niman, severely wounded, and fifty-eight men killed, wounded 
and prisoners. In this attack the regiment was not connected 
with its brigade. On the morning of the 3d the regiment, 
under command of Captain Morgan, with three others, were 
detached under the command of Colonel Lakeman to support 
the Second division. Second corps, where it remained until the 
morning of the 4th, when the four regiments formed an advance 
line of battle on the Emmitsburg road and, relieving the 
advanced skirmishers, remained there until the morning of the 
5th, when it rejoined the brigade, the enemy having left its 
front. The regiment then rested in position until the morning 
of the 7th, when, with the rest of the army, it started in pur- 
suit of the enemy. 

July 23d the regiment, with the Fourth Maine, under com- 
mand of Colonel Lakeman, engaged and routed the enemy at 



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154 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Wapping Heights; the regiment, deployed as skirmishers, 
charged and cleared the heights. At night the enemy retreated. 
Next morning the regiment moved towards Warrenton, where 
it arrived the 26th, and on the 31st moved to Warrenton Sul- 
phur Springs, where it remained in camp until September 
16th, when it marched to Culpeper, arriving on the 18th, and 
remained there until October 11th, when, with the army, it 
commenced a retrograde movement, and with the division 
engaged the enemy at Auburn Mills, on the 12th, routing them. 

The Third arrived at Fairfax Station on the 14th and 
remained there untU the 19th, when it advanced with the army 
to Catlett's Station, arriving there the 22d and remaining there 
until November 7th, during which time it was engaged repair- 
ing the railroads. 

On November 7th the regiment was engaged in the skir- 
mish at Kelly's Ford, with slight loss, and the following day 
advanced towards Brandy Station, arriving there the 9th. On 
the 26th, with the army, it crossed the Rapidan river at Jacob's 
Ford, and took part in the engagements of Orange Grove on 
the 27th and Mine Run on the 30th, with loss of one killed, 
eight wounded and twenty-three missing. The regiment 
remained in position until December 1st, when it recrossed the 
Rapidan and returned to camp near Brandy Station. 

On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment was encamped 
near Brandy Station, Va., where it remained until May 4th, 
when it moved, under General Grant, across the Rapidan 
towards Richmond, and encamped the same night on the battle- 
field of Chancellorsville. The Third corps had been consolidated 
with the Second, and the regiment still remained in the First 
(Ward's) brigade. Third (Birney's) division, the corps being 
conunanded by Hancock. It participated the next day in the 
battle of the Wilderness, being in position near where the Brock 
road crosses the Plank road. Here it fought on the afternoon 
of the 5th and the forenoon of the 6th, with heavy loss. The 
regiment made and repelled several charges during this memo- 
rable battle, and its men won fresh laurels by their courage and 
steadiness under the furious attacks of the enemy. Among the 
killed was Lieut.-Col. Burt, and of the wounded was Captain 



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THIRD REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 155 

Getchelly who afterwards died of his wounds. After remaining 
one day in their rifle-pits, they on the 8th joined in the move- 
ment towards Spotsylvania Court House, doing but little fight- 
ing however. On the 10th the regiment was held in reserve 
until sunset, when they joined their brigade in a charge in 
which they were repulsed. In the assault at Spotsylvania by 
the Second corps, on the 12th, it took part. The assaulting 
column succeeded in carrying the works of the enemy at the 
celebrated "* salient,** capturing Johnson's division and many can- 
non, and the repeated counter-assaults of the enemy failed to 
dislodge the Union troops ; the ground was thickly covered by 
the dead and wounded of both sides. The loss of the regiment 
in these engagements was severe. Captain Nye being mortally 
wounded, acting- Adjutant Bursley killed, and Captain Merrill 
missing. On the evening of the 19th the division to which the 
Third belonged relieved those of our forces who had been 
engaged, including the heavy artillery regiments, in repelling 
the furious assaults of the enemy at the Frederickburg road. 
On the morning of the 23d the regiment moved towards the 
North Anna, where it arrived during the afternoon, and where 
it participated in the assault upon the enemy's works command- 
ing the bridge, losing severely; among others were Major 
Morgan killed and Colonel Lakeman wounded. On the 28th 
the regiment reached and crossed the Pamunkey, pushing along 
until the morning of the 30th, when it was engaged in throw- 
ing up intrenchments, losing during the change of position by 
the army sixteen men on picket, most of whom were taken 
prisoners. On the 3d of June the regiment with its division 
supported General Barlow's division in the engagement at Cold 
Harbor. On the 4th the regiment, after being highly compli- 
mented by General Bimey, in general orders, left for Maine, 
its term of service of three years having expired, arriving in 
Augusta on the 11th, where the veterans were greeted with a 
public reception and partook of a handsome collation prepared 
by the city authorities. The regiment, numbering about 112 
men, was mustered out of the U. S. service on June 28, 1864. 
The re-enlisted men and recruits were transferred to the Sev- 
enteenth Maine regiment before their departure from the front. 



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156 BIAENE AT GETTY8BUBG. 

The Third Maine was one of the best regiments in the service 
from Maine and was held in high esteem by those in whose 
commands it served. 

In Fox's work, Regimental Losses of the Civil War, the 
Third Maine is classed among the three hundred fighting regi- 
ments of the Union armies, so distinguished on account of their 
losses in battle. 

ROSTER. 

The following information relating to the Third Maine r^ment will be 
found in the Volunteer Army Register (part i), published by the War Depart- 
ment August 31, 1865:— 

Officers at Muster-Oxjt, June 28, 1864. 

Colonel: Moses B. Lakeman, Nov. 14, 1863. 

Captains: John S. Moore, Feb. 12, 1862; Alfred S. Merrill, Oct 26, 
1862; George A. Mclntire, Dec. 31, 1863; Henry P. Worcester, Jan. 8, 1864; 
Edward C. Pierce, Feb. 5, 1863 {a. w, #if.). 

First Lieutenants: John R. Day, Sept 12, 1861 (paroled prisoner, 
discharged June 5, 1865); Charles T. Watson, R. Q. M., July i, 1862; Daniel 
W. Emery, Aug. 19, 1862; Woodbury Hall, Oct. 26, 1862; George S. Fuller, 
Nov. 14, 1862; Holman M. Anderson, Feb. 27, 1863 (paroled prisoner, dis- 
charged Jan. 30, 1865); William H. Higgins, Jan. 20, i8i54; Abner W. Turner, 
Feb. 5. 1863 (a. w, m.). 

Second Lieutenants: George S. Blake, Oct 15. 1862; Charles W. 
Lowe, Dec. 6, 1862; Samuel L. Oilman, Feb. 27, 1863; George C. Hudson, 
Feb. 27, 1863; John B. Dodge, Jan. 3, 1864; Bradford W. Smart, Apr. 2, 
1864; Hannibal A. Johnson, Apr. 7, 1864. 

Surgeon: Thaddeus Hildreth, Oct 23, 1861; Assistant Surgeon: 
James D. Watson, Dec. 22, 1862. 

Chaplain: Stephen F. Chase, Mar. 23, 1863. 

(The dates given above refer to rank or commission; those hereafter 
given refer to the date of event) 

Died. 

Lieut-Col. Edwin Burt, killed at Wilderness, May 6, 1864; Major Wil- 
liam C. Morgan, killed at North Anna river. May 23, 1864; Captain ^Nathan- 
iel Hanscomb, June 16, 1862, at Fair Oaks, Va., of fever; Captain John C. 
Keene, killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863; Captain George W. Harvey, May 
9, 1864, of wounds received in action; Captain George O. Getchell, May 50, 
1864, of wounds received in action; Captain George A. Nye, June 4, 1864, 
of wounds received in action; First Lieut. *Charles B. Haskell, July 2, 
1862, of wounds received in action at Fair Oaks, Va. ; First. Lieut. *Warren 
W. Cox, killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863; First Lieut. William 
H. Briggs, killed at Totopotomy, Va., May 30, 1864; Second Lieut. Denola 
Witham, killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 2, 1863. 

*Not mustered to thii prade. 



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roster of the third regiment. 157 

Promotbd out of Regiment. 

Colonel Oliver O. Howard, to Brigadier-General U. S. Vols., Sept. 7, 
1861; Captain William S. Heath, to lieut .-Colonel Fifth Maine Vols., Sept 
23, 1861; Captain William A. Hatch, to Major 3d U. S. V., Mar. 8, 1863; 
First Lieut James H. Tallman, R. Q. M., Mar. 24, 1862, to Captain and A. 
Q. M.; Surgeon Gideon S. Palmer, Oct 23, 1861, to Brigade Surgeon; Cap- 
tain Francis E. Heath, resigned July 26, i862» to accept promotion as Colonel, 
Nineteenth Maine; Captain Frs^ S. Hazeltine, discharged Nov. 14, 1861, to 
become Major, Thirteenth Maine. 

Transferred. 

Major Samuel P. Lee to Invalid Corps, July or Nov., 1863; Chaplin 
Henry C. Leonard to Eighteenth Maine regiment, Oct 28, 1862. 
Resigned and Discharged. 

Colonel Henry C. Staples, Nov. 14, 1862; Lieut -Col. Isaac W. Tucker, 
Nov. 4, 1861; Lieut -Col. C. A. L. Sampson, July 7, i862. 

Captains: John M. Nash, July 30, 1861; Newell Strout, Aug. 8, 1861; 
E. G. Savage, Sept 11, 1861; W. E. Jarvis, Oct. 3, 1861; G. S. Johnson, Aug. 
4, 1862; W. L. Richmond, Oct. 16, 1862; W. H. Watson, Oct. 25, 1862; Reu- 
ben Sawyer, Jan. 15. 1863; J. S. Wiggin, Mar. 23, 1863; J. H. Plaisted, 
Mar. 26, 1863. 

First Lieutenants: G. B. Erskine, July 24, 1861; A. R. Quimby, July 
27, 1861; B. S. Kelly, Aug. 7, 1861; W. D. Haley, R. Q. M., Sept 7, 1861; 
R. B. Steams, Nov. 4, 1861; J. M. Colson, Nov. 8, 1861; Albert B. Hall, 
Adjt., Nov. 28, 1861; G. S. Andrews, Feb. 11, 1862; E. P. Donnell, Apr. 6, 
1862; Henry Penniman, Nov. 4, 1863. 

Second Lieutenants: H. M. Rines, July 27, 1861; W. R. Mattson, 
Aug. 12, 1861; H. A. Boyce, Aug. 2, i86i; W. Elder, Aug. 20, 1861; E. C. 
Low, Mar. 11, 1862; S. Hamblen, Dec. 5, 1862, to be Lieut. -Col. loth U. S. 
Col. Hy. Arty.; C. A. Hill, Dec. 28, 1862, to be Capt ist U. S. Col. Infty.; 
T. J. Noyes, Mar. 24, 1863; A. C. Wilson, May 6, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeons: G. E. Brickett, Aug. 27, 1861; F. H. Getchell, 
Oct 28, 1862; W. H. Jewett, May 6, 1863. 

Chaplain: A. J. Churdb, July 11, 1861. 

Otherwise Left the Service. 

Captain E. A. Bachelder, Dec. 22, 1862; Lieut J. Savage, Aug. 19, 1862; 
lieut F. Elliot, Aug. 19, 1862; Adjt C. C. Drew, Mar. 29, 1864. 



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158 HAINXi AT OETTrSBBUO. 



MONUMENT 

OF 

FOUBTH MAINE REGIMENT. 

The monument is placed in the gorge of Devil's Den, where the regi- 
ment suffered its heaviest loss. With one of the huge bowlders of that wild 
place for its foundation, it is a conspicuous memorial of Maine valor. It is 
a five^ided shaft of Maine granite and bears on each face the red diamond 
of the First division of the Third corps. 

ADMEASUREBfENTS: Base, six feet from angle to angle by two feet four 
inches; plinth, three feet six inches between the angles by two feet; shaft, 
two feet nine inches between angles by twelve feet in height. Total height, 
sixteen feet four inches. 

On the several sides are the following inscriptions: 

4th Maine 

Infantry. 

Colonel Elijah Walker. 



Third Corps, First Division, 
Second Brigade. 



22 Ejlled and Died. 

38 Wounded. 

56 Missing. 

Erected by the 

State of Maine. 



IN remembrance 

of our casualties 

July 2d. 1863. 



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FOUETH MAINE REGIMENT, 

SECOND BBIOADE, FIRST DIVISION, THIRD ARMY CORPS, 

AT THE BATTLB OF GXTTTSBUBG. 



THE Fourth Maine regiment was involved in the desperate 
battle upon the advanced line projected by General Sickles, 
and belonged to Ward's brigade. Like the Third Maine, 
it was one of the truest veteran regiments in the army of the 
Potomac. It left Maine June 17, 1861, bearing upon its ban- 
ner the inscription "From the Home of Knox," indicating the 
portion of the state in which it had been recruited. Major- 
Greneral Hiram G. Berry, who had but recently met a glorious 
death at Chancellorsville, was its first colonel. It was led to 
Gettysburg by Colonel Elijah Walker, who had won an honor- 
able reputation for bravery in the campaigns of Virginia. 

The Fourth Maine arrived on the field with Sickles' corps 
about 7 o'clock in the evening of July 1st, the first day of 
the battle, having moved up with the corps from Taneytown 
by the way of Emmitsburg. The regiment brought onto the 
field about three hundred men and officers. About nine o'clock 
in the evening of their arrival Colonel Walker received orders 
from Major-General Sickles to establish a picket line to extend 
along a portion of the front of the left wing, as the Union line 
was formed at that hour. In obedience to this order the regi- 
ment moved out, crossed the Emmitsburg road, and after 
advancing thirty or forty rods, established a picket line. In 
the woods to the front were the Confederate pickets also, and 
in those same woods the latest accessions to the Confederate 
strength were gathering after their march from the passes of 
South Mountain. The night passed quietly, but at daybreak a 
desultory skirmish fire began between the opposing picket lines, 
which was continued until 9 or 10 o'clock in the forenoon 
of July 2d. From that time until afternoon, when the Fourth 



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160 MAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 

was relieved by the Ist Mass. (a) , there was quiet on this part 
of the picket line. 

When the Fourth went onto the picket line the evening 
before, the Union line was extending from Cemetery Hill 
towards Little Eound Top in a line nearly straight. But as 
the regiment rejoined the brigade, events were so shaping 
themselves, as has been noticed already in connection with the 
advance of the Third Maine, that Greneral Sickles felt impelled 
to advance his corps to the higher ground in his front, where 
it made the angular line from Devil's Den up to the Peach 
Orchard, thence northerly along the Emmitsburg road. This 
new line was formed between two and three o'clock in the after- 
noon. The station of this brigade was at the left extremity of 
this line, and the Fourth Maine was at the left extremity of the 
brigade. The official report of the regiment, made directly 
after the battle and before history had made famous every hill 
and valley on the field, speaks of taking position on a ** rocky 
hill." This was the hill to the right of Devil's Den, that won- 
derful ravine where nature has disposed precipices and huge 
bowlders in a wild combination meriting the name which is 
given it. The Fourth Maine was stationed to support two 
sections of Smith's 4th N. Y. battery of 10-pounder Parrott's. 
To the left was a gorge where flows towards the south a small 
stream called Plum Run. Across and to the east of the Run 
rise the precipitous sides of the two Round Tops. On the 
right of the battery and extending through the timber to the 
Wheatfield were the 124th and 86th N. Y., the 20th Ind. and 
99th Pa. in the order named, the direction of the line trending 
towards the Peach Orchard. The 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, 
also of Ward's brigade, were thrown forward as skirmishers 
about one-third of a mile in advance beyond Devil's Den in a 
southerly direction. 

Hood's division of Longstreet's corps had been creeping 
upon concealed roads southward out beyond the left of our lines 
that occupied a section of the Emmitsburg road, and had at 
length advanced to that road beyond the Union pickets, in a 
wood behind a ridge, at a point about 1,300 yards south from 

(a) There is some disparity in the several sources of evidence as to the exact 
time when the Fourth was relieved at the picket line. 



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FOURTH REGIMENT ENGAOED. 161 

the Peach Orchard and about the same distance westerly from 
Devil's Den. 

A group of signal men on Little Round Top had detected 
the enemy's movement and signaled the fact to Meade's head- 
quarters. Approaching 4 o'clock Smith's battery opened fire 
into the woods at the Emmitsburg road, quickly receiving a 
reply from some batteries pushed out on a hillock near the road. 
West of that road, along a general ridge diverging from the 
road as it extended northward, the enemy's battalions of artil- 
lery were admirably posted, and some of them joined in the 
opening attack. They threw shell at the Devil's Den position 
as well as at the group of signal men, and paid their respects 
to the Peach Orchard batteries, not overlooking Winslow's bat- 
tery in the Wheatfield, — light twelves, — not very effective in 
reply at that range. There was no longer doubt where the 
heavy hand of battle would fall. The audacious advance of 
Sickles brought upon his thin, extended lines the first and most 
furious attack of the enemy. 

It was about 4 o'clock when the soldiers of Ward's right, 
looking in the direction of the Emmitsburg road, saw clouds of 
Confederate skirmishers emerge from the woods, followed by 
heavy lines of infantry. They were Robertson's and Law's 
brigades of Hood's division, and, as they came on " in line and 
en rnasse^ yelling and shouting," as General Ward described it 
in his official report, in 1863, with the memories of the day 
fresh in his mind, they were opening the second day of the 
battle of Gettysburg. On Robertson's right, moving directly 
towards Round Top, Law's Alabama brigade advanced, but 
more silently. The position at Devil's Den had been pointed 
out to the subordinates of Longstreetas first to be attacked and 
carried. Doubtless it appeared to Longstreet to be the left of 
the Union line, and indeed it was at that hour. 

But General Hood had discovered the importance of Little 
Round Top, and sent Law's Alabama brigade, with which the 
changes of the advance associated two regiments of Robertson's 
Texans, to pass around Devil's Den, scale the heights and 
attempt the seizure of Little Round Top. By order of his supe- 
rior officer, but contrary to the judgment of Colonel Walker, 



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162 MAINE AT GETTY8BUEG. 

the Fourth Maine was moved from its position in the rear of 
the battery to the left, and extended across the gorge of Plmn 
Run in such a way as to defend Ward's left flank and rear, and 
in a measure the approaches to Little Round Top. When the 
exigency of the contest demanded it Ward gave a further sup- 
port to the battery position with the 99th Pa., taken from his 
right. The battle now began with Ward's line, directly against 
which the two remaining regiments of Robertson — 1st Texas 
and 3d Arkansas — advanced under Robertson's inmiediate com- 
mand. The attack was fierce, and the first struggle for posses- 
sion of the battery was chiefly between the 1st Texas and the 
124th New York, the latter seconded by the 86th New York. 
About this time Ward's line was reinforced upon its right flank 
by the coming-in of the Seventeenth Maine to the south edge 
of the Wheatfield, which struck the 3d Arkansas and diverted 
it from the attack upon the battery, at the same time menacing 
the left flank of Robertson, who fell back a short distance with- 
out securing the coveted prize. 

Robertson's next attack with his two regiments was directed 
more upon the right of Ward's line in an attempt to outflank 
him, which was spiritedly made but steadfastly resisted during 
a prolonged contest, ending by Robertson falling back again. 
In these first two attacks the Fourth Maine had taken no part 
except by about 70 men, with 3 oflicers, whom Colonel Walker 
had deployed south of Devil's Den as skirmishers ; these men, 
reinforced to some extent by the retiring U. S. Sharpshooters 
and the skirmishers of other regiments of Ward, had caused the 
on-coming Confederates much annoyance and delay, besides quite 
a loss, as the latter were taken in flank on their first advance ; 
these skirmishers were in fact one of the causes of the separation 
of Robertson's brigade into two parts, (a) and the detour made 
by Law's troops in getting to Little Round Top. These skir- 
mishers held their ground while Robertson attempted the battery 
position, and until at a later time when Benning came in, which 
will be seen further on. 

Meanwhile, Hood being wounded, the conmiand of his divi- 
sion fell to General Law, who with his brigade was moving upon 
Little Round Top. Finding as he advanced beyond the Plum 

(a) Ofiicisl report of Major Bane, 4th Tex., Rebellion Records, serial no. 44, p. 401. 



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FOURTH REGIMENT ENOAOED. 163 

Sun valley that insufficient strength was exerted against the 
Smith battery position to capture it, Law detached two regi- 
ments from his extreme right, the 44th and 48th Alabama, and 
directed them to move across to the left and attack the battery 
in reverse. Following out these instructions, the two regiments 
moved by their left flank to a point about two hundred yards 
from Devil's Den on its easterly approach, halting there in the 
thin growth which fringed Plum Run and in view of the Fourth 
Maine. Here the two Alabama regiments were swung into 
line facing the gorge. The 44th Alabama, being immediately 
opposed to the position taken by the Fourth Maine, became at 
once the particular antagonist of the latter. (See diagrams on 
pages 251 and 194.) 

The 48th Alabama, advancing northerly along the sloping 
side of Little Round Top, parallel with Plum Run, passed the 
position of the Fourth Maine after exchanging a few compli- 
ments, and presently had a duel with the 40th New York. 
When the Fourth Maine first stretched across the Plum Run 
gorge there were no Union troops on Little Round Top. 
Colonel Walker, mindful of his left flank, sent out some skir- 
mishers into the woods on the slope, but before they met the 
advancing enemy, Vincent had arrived upon the crest and the 
skinnishers of his 83d Penn., 16th Mich., and 44th N. Y. reg- 
iments advanced down the hill ; this advance of skirmishers, 
immediately engaging those of Law, induced Walker to believe 
a line of battle would follow to connect with him on his left, 
and so he drew in his flankers. The 4th Alabama of Law and 
the 4th and 5th Texas of Robertson passed up Little Round 
Top in their circling advance ; and the 47th and 15th Alabama 
up the slope of Big Round Top. The firing began on the slopes 
of Little Round Top fifty rods or so to the left and rear of the 
Fourth Maine, which, posted in the valley, had not yet fired a 
shot. It was now nearly 5 o'clock, perhaps nearer 4.45, when 
in the edge of the wood of small pines appeared the 44th Ala- 
bama, its right upon the flank of Colonel Walker and uncom- 
fortably near ; the latter immediately opened a destructive fire 
upon the enemy while he was forming his lines, and at the same 
time arranged the Fourth Maine as well as possible to confront 



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164 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

the advancing line, making use of the bowlders, which sprinkled 
the ground, as much as circumstances permitted. The Alabam- 
ians came on in a truly heroic manner, but were met with equal 
firmness by the Maine men, although the latter were much less 
in numbers. The advance was checked and they soon gave it 
up, retiring into the woods, where they were completely con- 
cealed behind trees and rocks. From behind these natural 
protections they kept up a biting musketry fire upon Walker's 
men, who in the open valley were placed at great disadvantage 
and suffered large loss (a) . 

It was now past 5 o'clock. The two contending forces were 
in a close grapple, extending from the left of the Union line, — 
which now was Vincent's spur on Little Round Top occupied 
by the Twentieth Maine, — around its south crest to Plum Run 
and thence southerly to Devil's Den ; and on the other side of the 
battery ridge Robertson's line had been prolonged westward 
by Anderson's Georgia brigade about half the distance to the 
Enmiitsburg road. The whole line was alive with burning 
powder. Smith's battery, at Devil's Den, was abandoned by 
orders of its captain. The other section of the battery, located 
up the valley northerly some distance, was now manned for 
action. All the desperate efforts so far made, from both sides 
of this flat-iron-shaped position, where the field pieces rested, 
to capture it had proved futile. Robertson was desperately 
anxious to take those guns, and finding that Benning's brigade 
of four Georgia regiments was nearly in his rear, as a support 
to the right of their lines, he asked Benning to help him. 
Benning had intended to support Law's brigade, and supposed 
the troops contesting with Ward to be Law's, not distinguish- 
ing them in the wooded lands. This error on his part, pos- 
sibly, saved the crest of Little Round Top from capture. 
Perhaps it seemed important to the Confederates to wrest 
this ridge from our troops in order to protect their own at 

(a) Colonel Walker has recently requested the Commissioners of the 
GettysDurg National Park to move the flanking stones marking the direction 
of his line at this period. The position of these stones as found Sept. 21, 
1897, would make the Fourth Maine face the Smith-battery position; whereas, 
as he stated to the Commissioners, at date named, upon the ground, his line 
fsLced a quarter-circle to the left of this; that he met the 44th Ala. in his 
front, at hrst a little upon his left flank, and that his line if prolonged to the 
left would strike upon Little Round Top. Stakes were then driven into the 
ground to mark the corrected places for the stones. 



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FOURTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 165 

OUT left rear on Little Round Top from being surrounded and 
captured by an attack from their rear, as was easily feasible by 
an enterprising general with a smart brigade, so long as they 
were only protected by two regiments, the 44th and 48th Ala- 
bama. The Confederates also desired to secure possession of 
a stone-fence which starts at the sunmiit of this ridge near the 
battery, and runs westerly, affording a complete curtain and 
breastwork to hold that ground and dominate the woods in 
front to the Wheat-field. (See diagram on page 194.) Robert- 
son had twice essayed to seize and hold this fence without suc- 
cess. After the second attempt. General Ward advanced his 
centre and right to take possession of it ; (a) this occurred just 
as Benning was also advancing. 

Without delay Benning had formed his brigade in a line 
east and west, perpendicular to the trend of the ridge, and 
moved forward, his left centre regiment aiming directly at the 
battery position, the right centre regiment having Devil's Den 
in its course, and the regiment on the right of that moving up 
Plum Run. Benning's left regiment as it advanced mingled 
with the 1st Texas of Robertson and they became amalgamated. 
As his lines, advancing through the growth that fringed the 
stream, emerged into view, they were subjected to a plunging 
shell fire from Hazlett's battery of 10-pounder rifles placed on 
the summit of Little Round Top. This battery played an 
effective part in the struggle, both against Longstreet's guns 
at the Enmiitsburg road and with its sweeping fire down the 
slopes, searching out the recesses where troops were ambushed, 
and demoralizing their charges. The 44th Alabama had felt 
its power, and, until night closed, this battery and its infantry 
supports on the crest completely dominated the southerly end 
of the gorge and the ridge near Devil's Den. Benning's rein- 
forcement to Robertson for attack, moving directly upon the 
point, thus taking both sides of the line of Ward in flank, must 
in the end be irresistible to the small and decimated regiments 
arraying themselves to meet it. A^ Benning advanced, the two 
wings of his brigade converged somewhat towards Smith's bat- 
tery. Taken unawares, the skirmishers of the Fourth Maine 
and other regiments, being virtually surrounded while hotly 

(a) Official Report of General Ward. — Rebellion Records, serial no. 48, psffe 408. 



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166 MAINE AT GBTTTSBURG. 

contesting the advance on the Den from one direction, were 
scooped up by Benning as prisoners. The 44th Alabama, seeing 
the column of Benning coming up the Run and through the 
rough fastness of Devil's Den, at once came forth to join in the 
fray. The Fourth Maine gallantly held them at bay, but in 
conjunction with this overwhelming force at his front, Colonel 
Walker became at length aware that others had advanced as far 
as his right flank, close up to the abandoned guns of Smith. 
What followed is well described by Colonel Walker himself in 
his address at the dedication of the monument, given on another 
page. 

The experienced eye of Colonel Walker at once convinced 
him that the key to the whole position rested at the battery, 
although the possession of the guns themselves amounted to 
nothing ; it formed the sharp angle to Ward's line, and once in 
the possession of the enemy he could rake the line of Ward, as 
first established, its entire length, and destroy the organizations 
that were attending to the advance of Anderson towards their 
front. Without hesitation Walker drew his small remaining 
force from the nest of bowlders in the gorge, hastily got it into 
line and charged home with the bayonet upon Benning's men, 
who had entered the battery, and drove them out in a fierce 
encounter. Assisted by the 99th Penn. (a) in keeping off 
the Confederates from the gorge side of the hill, and by the 
124th N. Y. on his right, he succeeded in repelling repeated 
assaults in a hand-to-hand contest for some considerable time, 
which enabled Ward to arrange the 6th N. J., (b) and 40th 
N. Y. regiments, that had been brought in to his left rear in 
Plum Run valley, so that a withdrawal of the brigade could be 
safely effected, its thrust-out angle being no longer of impor- 
tance as a tactical point. Colonel Walker claims with good 
reason, that after he recaptured the battery its guns might 

(a) Major Moore, oommandinK the 99th Penn., in his official report of the battle 
says: **• • * the enfiraflrement oecame very greneral with the enemy, who was 
throwing a large force aflrainst our brigade in hopes of breaking through our lines. 
I was now ordered by Qeneral Ward to march my regiment double-quick from the 
right to the left of the brigade. TMs movement rapidly executed placed my com- 
mand on the brow of a hilloverlooking a deep ravine, interspersed with large bowl- 
ders of rock. Here the conflict was fierce. I held my position for over thirty min- 
utes * * *." See Rebellion Records, serial no. 43, page 618. 

(b) The regiment commanded by Lieut.-Col. Gilkyson with others of the Third, 
or Jersey, brigade of the Second division had been sent by General Humphreys, 
under orders of General Sickles, to the support of the First division, and was made 
subject to the orders of General Bimey. -— Kebellion Records, serial no. 48, page 684. 



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FOURTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 167 

have been used safely and effectively in defending that position. 

The Fourth Maine and the brigade retired by order of Gen- 
eral Ward. After safely reaching the rear the command was 
turned over to Capt. Edwin Libby, the wound of the Colonel 
proving very severe. The retirement of the brigade from this 
advanced position, probably after 6 o'clock p. m., was not fol- 
lowed up by the enemy beyond the stone fence, and about the 
same time Cross' brigade of Caldwell's division of the Second 
corps advanced into the woods where the right of Ward had 
rested. This ended the fighting of the Fourth Maine on July 
second. 

July third the regiment was with the brigade in reserve. 
At the crisis of the assault upon our lines in the afternoon the 
regiment, together with the Third Maine, 99th Penn., and 20th 
Ind., all under Col. Lakeman, were hurriedly moved to the 
right to the support of the Second division. Second corps, and 
were ordered into a position in rear of a battery at that point. 
The enemy, however, had just been repulsed, and the regiment 
was not actively engaged. It remained here during the night, 
and early July fourth was advanced to the front on the skirmish 
line, having two men wounded. 

The regiment's entire loss was, killed and mortally wounded, 
4 officers, 19 men ; wounded (not mortally), 1 officer, 43 men ; 
missing and prisoners, 4 officers, 69 men. 



A MARKER 

to denote the position of the Fourth Maine when in support of the Second 
corps, afternoon of July 3d, at close of the enemy's assault, stands upon the 
east side of Hancock avenue in an easterly direction from ** High Water 
Mark " monument. It is cut from Maine granite, adorned with a red granite 
diamond, and has the following inscription: 

4th Maine Reodcbnt 

July 3 in Support hebe 

Captain Edwin Libby 

In Command. 

July 2 Enoaoed at Devil's Den 

Colonel Elijah Walkeb 

In command, wounded. 



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168 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



PARTICIPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF, AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Elijah Walker, Rockland. 

Major, Ebenezer Whitcomb, Searsport. 

Adjutant, Charles F. Sawyer, Rockland. 

Quartermaster, Isaac C. Abbott, Rockland. 

Surgeon, Seth C. Hunkins, Windham. 

Assistant Surgeon, Albion Cobb, Otisfield. 

Sergeant-Major, William H. Gardner, Belfast. 

Hospital Steward, Samuel S. Hersey, Belfast. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant, Henry C. Tibbetts, Rockland. 

Commissary-Sergeant, Lemuel C. Grant, Frankfort. 

Drum-major, Fred J. Low, Winterport. 

Fife-major, John F. Singhi, Rockland, leader division band. 

Company A. 
Second Lieutenant, Andrew J. Gray, Montville. 

SERGEANTS. 

Marcian W. McManus, Unity, Thomas H. Gurney, Waldo, 

Henry W. Ladd, Searsmont, Tolford Durham, Waldo. 

CORPORALS. 

Joseph P. Libby, Unity, Timothy W. Abbot, Freedom, 

Michael Dorsey, Bangor, Jeny Denning, Bangor, 

James Gall, Searsmont, Horace Speed, Pittsfield. 

PRIVATES. 

Allenwood, Ephraim F., Belmont, Bryant, Demetrius J., Montville, 
Buker, Alpha, Ellsworth, Cooley, Melvin, St. Albans, 

Colly, James M., Belfast, Crosby, William, Rockland, 

Curtis, Stephen O., Monroe, Daggett, Stephen, Liberty, 

Doten, Charles, Freedom, Flye, Daniel D., Unity, 

Hall, Henry C, Belmont, Hatch, Sylvanus, Lincoln, 

Hatch, Hiram H., Lincoln, Law, Melvin, Union, 

Lincoln, Llewellyn, Searsmont, Lord, Augustus S., Belfast, 

Nichols, Melvin, Bangor, Ordway, Lewis, Belmont, 

Philbrick, Benjamin F., Rockland, Piper, Albert, Waldo, 
Russ, George A., Belfast, Sidelinger, Manuel, Union, 

Sweeney, Dennis, Belfast, Sylvester, George W., Belfast, 

Sylvester, Sanford B.,*Lincolnville. Walker, Andrew P., Belmont, 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: John B. Smith, Bumham, 
brig, h'dqrs.; E. W. Stinson, Oldtown, div. h'dqrs.; Eben M. Sanborn, 
Belfast, amb. corps. Musician, William H. Clifford, St. Albans, amb. corps. 

Company B. 
Captain, J. B. Litchfield. Rockland. 
First Lieutenant, Arthur Libby, Rockland. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Havillah Pease, Rockland, 

Henry O. Ripley, Rockland, color bearer, Edgar L. Mowry , Rockland. 



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FOURTH REGIMENT PARTIC5IPANT8. 169 

CORPORALS. 

Otis G. Spear, Rockland, Thaddeus S. Pillsbury, Rockland, 

Henry T. Mitchell, Rockland, Wyman W. Ulmer, Rockland, 

George E. Wall, Rockland, Charles W. Hopkins, Bangor. 

PRIVATES. 

Bigdoll, Ellis, Dedham, Dow, Dana Y., Thomaston, 

Gardner, Andrew J., Lincoln, Goodwin, Albert, Monson, 

Grant, Robert, Bangor, Kallock, John J., Rockland, 

Maguire, Edward C, Glenbum, Norris, Daniel C, Pt. Tobacco, 

Philbrook, Levi A., Thomaston, Spear, Josiah C, Rockland, 
Stetson, George F., Rockland, Simmons, Hanson B., Rockland, 

Taylor George F., Rockland, Titus, John W., Rockland, 

Totman, Samuel S., Rockland, Turner, Charles A., North Haven, 

Ulmer, Alonzo N., Rockland, Willis, Aruna, Rockland, 

Wooster, Alden F., Rockland, Waterman, Edward K., North Haven. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: James W. Clark, Rock- 
land, and Morton A. Blackington, Rockland, brig, h'dqrs. team; Charles 
E. Gove, Union, and H. J. Dow, Rockland, div. h'dqrs. guard; G. H. 
Tighe, Rockland, ambulance corps. 

Company C. 
First Lieutenant, Charles H. Conant, Rockland. 
Second Lieutenant, Joseph R. Conant, Rockland. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Kendall K. Rankin, Rockland, 

Charles H. Miller, Rockland, Rufus O. Fales, Thomaston. 

CORPORALS. 

Warren W. Austin, Thomaston, John Colbum, Rockland, 

George G. Gardiner, Camden. 

PRIVATES. 

Brown, James M., Thomaston, Buder, Ephraim K., Thomaston, 

Brown, Orlando F., Rockland, Cain, James A. , Palermo, 

Collins, William J., Camden, Caswell, William, Warren, 

Cunningham, Alfred W., Jefferson, Cunningham, Austin, Warren, 
Cain, James A., Palermo, Knight, Francis E., Jefferson, 

Kellar, Thomas, Rockland, Martin, Patrick, Jefferson, 

Perry, Charles C, Rockland, Pottle, Andrew, Rockland, 

Snowdeal, Thomas E., S. Thomaston, Walker, John F., Rockland, 
Walter, Benjamin F., Warren, Wade, Edwin, Rockland. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeants: John H. 
Young, Rockland, Ord. Sergt. ammunition train; E. S. Rogers, Rockland, 
div. prov. guard. Privates: Leonard C. Rankin, Rockland, B. F. Palmer, 
Thomaston, and A. Shepherd, Jefferson, div. prov. guard; Alden Crockett, 
Rockland, charge of div. supply train; Horatio G. Collins, Rockland, J. G. 
Whitney, Rockland, James F. Tuttle, Rockland, G. A. Staples, Rockland, 
and O. F. Brown, Rockland, in div. supply train; James Bolcomb, Thomas- 
ton, brig, wagon-master; Nathaniel C. Matthews, Rockland, and Rufiis 
Robbins, Rockland, brig, train; Jacob Winslow, Rockland, amb. team; 
Walter Sutherland, Rockland, brig. cook. 

Company D. 
Captain, Edwin Libby, Rockland. 
Lieutenant, George R. Abbott, Thomaston. 



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170 



MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, James McLaughlin, Rockland, 
William Fountain, Rockland, 



John Witham, Washington, 
William Perkins, Thomaston, 



Clark, Abial B., Jefferson, 
Clark, Joseph E., Northport, 
Davis, Charles A., Rockland, 
Fields, Anthony, Washington, 
Hodges, Charles, Gardiner, 
Marshall, Henry P., Ruperts, 
Morrissey, John, Rockland, 
Pushor, Eben E., Pittsfield, 
Shepherd, Almon, Jefferson, 
Townsend, Appleton, Somerville, 
Jrim, Joseph O., Camden, 



Samuel L. Meservey, Rockland, 

CORPORALS. 

Levi G. Perry, Rockland, 
Edward Hall, Rockland. 

PRIVATES. 

Clark, John M., Belmont, 
Cunningham, Jacob C, Rockland, 
Eaton, Isaiah V., Deer Isle, 
Gray, John S., Deer Isle, 
Joy, Edward H., Washington, 
Martin, Christopher, Hope, 
Peasly, George, Somerville, 
Richards, Horatio, Rockland, 
Stickney, Alonzo H., Belfast, 
Taylor, Simon, Rockland, 
Watson, Jerome, Union. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant, Allen P. Far- 
rington, Rockland, brig, blacksmith. Privates: Mark Perry, Rockland, 
charge of amb. train; Joseph Thompson, Rockland, Charles P. Burns, 
Rockland, and Elias Davis, Warren, brig, teamsters; John Miller, Rock- 
land, div. prov. guard; Joseph Dunbar, Deer Isle, amb. corps; John R. 
Chase, Swanville, butcher. 

Company E. 
First Lieutenant, Jason Carlisle, Boothbay. 
Second Lieutenant, Charles S. McCobb, Boothbay. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Artemas Robinson, Damariscotta, 

Thomas B. Campbell, Thomaston, Zuinglas C. Gowan, Nobleboro. 

CORPORALS. 

Nathaniel B. Waters, Newcastle, Francis K. Chapman, Nobleboro, 
Ira A. Waltz, Damariscotta, Willard T. Barstow, Damariscotta, 

William B. Perkins, Newcastle, John P. Blake, Boothbay. 

PRIVATES. 

Bryer, Albert W., Boothbay, Chapman, Charles K., Newcastle, 

Chapman, Everett B., Nobleboro, Corey, John K., Boothbay, 



Fountain, Isaac W., Bristol, 
Gove, Oscar C, Newcastle, 
Hall, Harlow M., Waldoboro, 
Hodgkins, James H., Nobleboro, 
Lailer, Frank H., Bristol, 
Perkins, Thomas R., Newcastle, 
Smith, William M., Boothbay, 
Turner, Charles C, Bremen. 



Giles, Harvey H., Boothbay, 
Hall, Almond, Newcastle, 
Hatch, Moses W., Newcastle, 
Kinney, Jesse S., Newcastle, 
Mears, Joseph E., Bristol, 
Skinner, John R., Damariscotta, 
Thompson, John L., Damariscotta, 
Waters, Isaac T., Newcastle. 



On Special Duty or Detached Service: W. M. Hathom, Thomas- 
ton, D. E. Gammage, Damariscotta, and E. G. Snow, Nobleboro, div. 
prov. guard; John W. Lamour, Baltimore, Md., and Lucius B. Vamey, 
Bristol, amb. corps. 



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FOUBTH BEOIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 171 

Company F. 
Captain, George G. Davis. Brooks. 
First Lieutenant, Solomon S. Steams, Portland. 
Second Lieutenant, George M. Bragg, Lincolnville, commanding Co. K. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Albert H. Rose, Brooks, 

Henry Leach, Knox, Francis O. J. S. Hill, Newburg, 

Hiram G. York, Dixmont, Joseph G. Hilt, Lincolnville. 

CORPORALS. 

Charles B. Parsons, Newburg, Winthrop H. Chick, Dixmont, 

Rufus G. Bickford, Bangor, William C. Rowe, Monroe, 

Freeman M. Roberts, Jackson, George R. Hall, Brooks. 

PRIVATES. 

Barlow, Elisha J., Knox, Condon, Albert J., Dixmont, 

Crocker, Albert D., Dixmont, Evans, Amos, Brooks, 

Forbes, Francis M., Brooks, Gardiner, John H., Brooks, 

Hall, Harrison, Troy, Hines, James H., Unity, 

HoUis, James M., Thomdike, Jackson, Edward W., Washington, 

Nickerson, Daniel C, Swanville, Overlock, Warren, Liberty, 
Patterson, Nathan, Belmont, Pierce, Daniel, Jr., Monroe, 

Piper, Enoch F., Newburg, Rowell, Charles H., Montville, 

Rowe, Frank, Jr., Brooks, Shepherd, John J., Appleton, 

Stone, John F., Dixmont, Tasker. Ephraim D., Dixmont, 

Whitcomb, Thomas O., Knox, Wood, Charles A., Belfast. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: E. H. Bean, Hampden, 
orderly div. h'dqrs.; Robert Waterman, Jr., Montville, and Freeman Jones, 
Washington, hosp. attendants. 

Company G. 
First Lieutenant, William A. Barker, Rockland. 
Second Lieutenant, George L. Crockett, Wiscasset. 
Sergeant, James T. McKenney, Wiscasset. 

CORPORALS. 

John R. Rittal, Dresden, Bradford Lowell, Wiscasset, 

Crosby R. Brookings, Wiscasset, Nathaniel Stewart, Dresden. 

PRIVATES. 

Blum, Bradford H., Wiscasset, Call, Timothy, Dresden, 

Erskine, Joseph, Wiscasset, Fredson, Peter, Jr., Wiscasset, 

Howard, Daniel O., Alna, Howard, Elijah, Washington, 

Howard, Leander, Washington, Jones, Leonard, Washington, 

Light, El well, Washington, McCorrison, Thomas J., Knox, 

Mimsey, William, Wiscasset, Nelson, Joseph, Washington, 

Nute, Alexander, Wiscasset, Overlock, Eben, Washington, 

Piper, James R., Belmont, Rittal, James F., Dresden, 

Seavey, William, Wiscasset, Stewart, Thomas, Dresden, 

Tibbetts, George, Wiscasset, Young, Zealor W., Searsmont. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Onesimus Clark, Alna, 
regt hosp.; John Downey, Wiscasset, and John B. Carlton, Woolwich, with 
trains. 

Company H. 
Second Lieutenant, Nathaniel A. Robbins, Union. 



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172 



MAINE AT GBTTT8BURO. 



SBRGRANTS. 

First Sergeant, Francis P. Ingalls, Bluehill, 



Joseph B. Babson, Brooklin, 

Daniel W. Barker, Levant, 
Horace C. Clough, Rockland, 
William H. Tripp, Sedgwick. 



George P. Wood, Penobscot 

CORPORALS. 

John H. Thomas, Warren, 
Jared R. Reed, Mt. Desert, 



Allen, Charles W., Sedgwick, 
Brackett, Charles W., Belfiaist, 
Carter, Edwin J., Sedgwick, 
Crowley, Patrick, Rockland, 
Famham, Joseph E., Knox, 
Gilmore, William D., Hope, 
Higgins, Simon, Tremont, 
Jones, Silas S., Lincoln ville, 
McMahan, Daniel, Prospect, 
Mink, Edwin, Waldoboro, 
Page, Amos, Kenduskeag, 
Saunders, Thomas C, Rockland, 
Simmons, William H., Union, 



PRIVATES. 

Ames, George L., Camden, 
Blackington, Alfred, Thomaston, 
Cox, George, Bangor, 
Downes, Samuel N., Winterport, 
Furbish, Abram J. , Rockland, 
Grindle, Elijah H., Penobscot, 
Jackson, Joel, Montville, 
Keefe, John, Thomaston, 
Moore, Charles F. Knox, 
Noonan, James, Searsport, 
Rose, Charles, Bangor, 
Sherman, Frank A., Knox, 



Stahl, Isaac, Rockland, 
Wallace, Alexander M., Waldoboro, Whitney, Adolphus M., Bangor, 
Young, Harrison, Searsmont, Young, Morrison, Searsmont 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: James W. Page, Sedg- 
wick, coL's regtl. orderly; Stillman Mink, Waldoboro, brig, teamster. 

Company I. 
Captain, Robert H. Gray, Stockton. 
Second Lieutenant, Orpheus Roberts, Stockton. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Christopher C. Gray, Stockton, 

Ivory W. Baird, Camden, Daniel Carley, Prospect, 

Abiather S. Merrithew, Green Isle. 

CORPORALS. 

Clarendon W. Gray, Stockton, Elias B. Moore, Frankfort, 

Moses H. Witham, Plymouth. 

PRIVATES. 



Burgin, Augustus, Belfast, 
Calderwood, Henry D., Camden, 
Donahue, John, Bangor, 
Fillmore, Richard T., Swanville, 
Fowler, John C, Searsport, 
Kent, Edward E., Brewer, 
Parker, Charles P., St. Albans, 
Phinney, Charles A., Winterport, 
Sidelinger, Oliver P., Troy, 
Small, Samuel D., Swanville, 
Staples, Alvah, Prospect, 



Burgin, Chesbrook, Belfast, 
Chase, Nathan, Searsport, 
Doyle, Thomas, Searsport, 
Forbes. Frank, Vassalboro, 
Jellerson, Lemuel B., Frankfort, 
Millano, Juan, Plymouth, 
Pendleton, Lewis E., Frankfort, 
Rich, Wesley, Jackson, 
Sidelinger, Rufus P., Troy, 
Snow, Benjamin F., Orrington, 
Towers, William S., Searsport, 



Whittam, Clifton, Searsport. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Benjamin Nickerson, 
Eden, with Randolph's battery; Robert G. Ames, Searsport, brig. wagon- 



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FOUBTH BEGIMENT CASUALTIES. 173 

master; William H. Irving, Vassalboro, brig. h*dqrs.; Oscar F. Colson, 
Stockton, brig. hosp. cook; Prentice Colson, Frankfort, and Otis Colson, 
Winterport, brig. hosp. 

Company K. 
[Lieutenant George M. Bragg, of Company F, in conmiand.] 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Amos B. Wooster, Belfast, 

David H. Kimball, Belfast, John A. Toothaker, Belfast. 

CORPORALS. 

Sears Nickerson, Belfast, Silas M. Perkins, Belfast, 

Elisha Hanning, Belfast, James £. I>oak, Belfast, 

Dennis Moody, Monroe, Henry A. Davis, Belfast 

PRIVATES. 

Baker, Edward, Belfast, Carter, Preston J., Belfast, 

Collins, Charles C, Belfast, Deane, James E., Belfast, 

Gordon, Ephraim A., Frankfort, Hawkins, Aurelius, Waldo, 

Herrin, Andrew, Augusta, Hilton, Alvin, Appleton, 

Johnson, George F., Windham, Merrick, Isaiah B., Newport, 

Rariden, Michael, Belfast, Ray, Jacob D., Knox, 

Robinson, John A., Belfast, Rogers, Frederick H., Bangor, 

Sawyer, John K., Belfast, Shuman, John F., Belfast, 

Ware, Horace L., Northport, Whitehead, Robert, Belfast, 

Woodbury, William H., Frankfort 
Musicians, Frederick J. Low, Frankfort, Eleazer J. Young, Lincolnville. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: John A. Rines, Belfast, 
brig, teamster; A. A. Dailey, Searsmont, and B. F. Young, Lincolnville, 
amb. corps; £. B. Richards, Lincolnville, and Samuel Jackson, Rockland, 
brig, guard; George L. Feyler, Thomaston, regt. hostler. 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel Elijah Walker, wounded, tendo Achilles, 
Major Ebenezer Whitcomb, wounded, died Oct. 5th. 
Sergeant-Major William H. Gardner, prisoner. 

Company A. 

SERGEANTS. 

Marcian W. McManus, prisoner. Thomas H. Gumey, prisoner. 

Henry W. Ladd, leg wounded. Tolford Durham, prisoner. 

corporals. 
Jerry Dennmg, wounded, hip. James Gall, wounded, foot, the 4th. 

PRIVATES. 

Allenwood, Ephraim F., w*d, side. Cooley, Melvin, prisoner. 

Crosby, William, prisoner. Curtis, Stephen O., prisoner. 

Flye, Daniel D., prisoner. Hall, Henry C, prisoner. 

Hatch, Hiram H., prisoner, died. Hatch, Sylvanus, prisoner, died. 

Law, Melville, prisoner. Sweeney, Dennis, w'd, hand, the 4th. 

Sylvester, George W., pris'r, died. Sylvester, Sanford B., prisoner. 
Walker, Andrew P., wounded, slight. 



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174 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Company B. 
Captain J. B. Litchfield, prisoner. 

CORPORALS. 

Wyman W. Ulmer, wounded, shoulder and breast. 

Henry T. Mitchell, wounded, prisoner; died in Richmond Dec. 17, 1863. 

PRIVATES. 

Stetson, George F., w*d, shoulder Simmons, Hanson B., wounded, face, 
and breast. Turner, Charles A., wounded, hand. 

Ulmer, Alonzo N., wounded, face. 

Company C. 
Sergeant Rufus O. Fales, prisoner, died in Richmond, Nov. 12, 1863. 

CORPORALS. 

John Colbum, wounded, eye. George G. Gardiner, killed. 

privates. 
Brown, James M., prisoner. Butler, E. K., prisoner. 

Caswell, William, prisoner, died. Collins, William, Jr., prisoner, died. 
Cunningham, Austin, prisoner. Kellar, Thomas, prisoner, died. 

Martin, Patrick, wounded, shoulder. Pottle, Andrew, prisoner. 
Snowdeal, Thomas E., prisoner. 
Musician Alfred W. Cunningham, prisoner. , 

Company D. 
Corporal John Witham, killed. 

privates. 
Clark, John M., wounded, leg. Davis, Charles A., wounded. 

Dunbar, Joseph, amb. corps, w*d, arm. Eaton, Isaiah V., w*d, died in July. 
Fields, Anthony, prisoner. Gray, John S., wounded, died July 28. 

Hodges, Charles, prisoner. Martin, Christopher, wounded, hand. 

Peasly, George, prisoner, died in Ga. Richards, Horatio, pris'r, died in Ga. 
Shepherd, Ahnon, wounded, breast. Stickney, Alonzo H., killed. 
Townsend, Appleton, wounded, pris'r. Taylor, Simon, prisoner. 
Trim, Joseph O., wounded leg. Watson, Jerome, wounded, face. 

Company E. 
Second Lieutenant Charles S. McCobb, killed. 
Sergeant Zuinglas C. Gowan, prisoner. 

corporals. 
Ira A. Waltz, prisoner. Willard T. Barstow,w'd, died Aug. 28. 

William B. Perkins, wounded, leg. John P. Blake, wounded, hand. 

privates. 
Hatch, Moses W., wounded, arm. Turner, Charles C, prisoner. 

Company F. 
Captain George G. Davis, prisoner, escaped old Libby prison. 
First Lieutenant Solomon S. Steams, prisoner. 

Second Lieutenant George M. Bragg, commanding Co. K, w*d, died July 5. 
Sergeant Henry Leach, prisoner. 
Corporal William C. Rowe, wounded, side. 

privates. 
Bickford, Rufus G., prisoner. Forbes, Francis M., prisoner. 

Gardiner, John H., prisoner. Hall, George R., killed. 

Hall, Harrison, wounded. HoUis, James M., prisoner; died 

Not. 27, 1868, at Richmond, Ya. 



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FOURTH BEGIMENT CASUALTIES. 175 

Nickerson, Daniel C, prisoner. Overlock, Warren, wounded. 

Patterson, Nathan, prisoner. Rowe, Frank. Jr., prisoner. 

Shepherd, John J., prisoner. Stone, John F., wounded, arm. 

Tasker, Ephraim D., prisoner. Whitcomb, Thomas O., prisoner. 

Company G. 
corporals. 
John R. Rittal, killed. Bradford Lowell, prisoner. 

Crosby R. Brookings, w'd, died Aug. lo. 

PRIVATES. 

Blinn, Bradford H., prisoner. Erskine, Joseph, prisoner, 

died, Richmond. November SI. 
Fredson, Peter, Jr., wounded, head. Howard, Daniel O., wounded, leg. 

Howard, Leander, prisoner. McCorrison, Thomas J., wounded. 

Munsey, William, prisoner. Overlock, Eben, prisoner. 

Piper, James R., prisoner. Rittal, James F., prisoner. 

Seavey, William, wounded, head. ^*®^ Richmond, November 12. 

Company H. 
Lieutenant Nathaniel A. Robbins, prisoner. 
First Sergeant Francis P. Ingalls, killed. 
Corporal Daniel W. Barker, wounded, leg. 

PRIVATES. 

Brackett, Charles W., wounded, arm. Carter, Edwin J., wounded, shoulder. 
Emerton. Andrew L., captured at Gilmore, William D., prisoner, 

Emmitflburg. Higgins, Simon, wounded, back. 

Rose, Charles,wounded and prisoner. Simmons, William H., prisoner. 
Steele, George W., capt'dat Emmits- Young, Harrison, pris'r, died at Rich- 

bonr; escsped. mond. 

Company I. 
Second Lieutenant Orpheus Roberts, killed. 

SERGEANTS. 

Ivory W. Baird, prisoner. Daniel Carley, wounded, hand. 

PRIVATES. 

Burgin, Augustus, wounded. Calderwood, Henry D., prisoner. 

Chase, Nathan, wounded, died July 21. Donahue, John, prisoner. 
Doyle, Thomas,wounded, died July 5. Parker, Charles P., prisoner. 
Phinney, Charles A., prisoner. Rich, Wesley, prisoner. 

Small, Samuel D., prisoner. Towers, William S., wounded. 

Whittam, Clifton, prisoner. 

Company K. 
First Sergeant Amos B. Wooster, wounded in face, slight. 
Sergeant John A. Toothaker, wounded, died July 20. 

PRIVATES. 

Collins, Charles C, prisoner. Gordon, Ephraim A., w'd, ankle. 

Hawkins, Aurelius, wounded, arm. Herrin, Andrew, prisoner. 

Hilton, Alvin, wounded, died July 9. Johnson, George F., w'd, died July 9. 

Merrick, Isaiah B., w*d, neck, pris*r. Rariden, Michael, w*d, died July 24. 

Ray, Jacob D., wounded, hand. Rogers, Frederick H., killed. 

Sawyer, John K., killed. Shuman, John F., w'd, died July 15. 

Ware, Horace L., missing. Whitehead, Robert, wounded, foot. 
Woodbury, William H., missing. 



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176 IfAINE AT GETTT8BUKG. 

Note on the foregoing report of casualties. 

This nominal list shows a total loss in the battle of 140, men 
and officers. Of these 23 were killed or died of their wounds ; 
44 simply wounded; 73 prisoners, of whom 4 were also 
wounded. Of the prisoners, many died in southern prisons. 
The monument inscription of *'22 killed and died" did not include 
Isaiah V. Eaton, who died of his wounds, and lies in the 
National Cemetery. The disparity in the wounded is explained 
in the address of Colonel Walker. The inscription of 56 miss- 
ing was an error, the number being, according to the nominal 
list, too small by 17 ; an application has been made to the 
Gettysburg Park Conmiissioners to have the inscription of 
*'56 missing" rectified, if it can be done without marring the 
monument. 



REGIMENTAL DEDICATION OF MONUMENT, 

OOTOBBB 10, 1888. 

ADDRESS OF COLONEL ELIJAH WALKER. 
Comrades^ Ladies and Gentlemen : — 

I am not here to deliver an oration of such rhetorical finish 
as that which characterizes the efforts of my learned comrades 
at the exercises around the Seventeenth Maine regiment's monu- 
ment to-day on the Wheatfield, but as the representative of the 
Fourth Maine, to accept this granite shaft and turn it over to 
the protecting care of the Battlefield Memorial Association, 
pending a formal and more befitting dedication. You will par- 
don me if, as one speaking from personal knowledge and expe- 
rience, I take this opportunity to briefly review the Fourth 
Maine regiment's history, and tell of a few of the movements 
in which the command participated in the course of its long 
term of service in the field. 

In the latter part of April, 1861, four companies were 
enlisted and organized in Rockland, two in Belfast, one in 
Brooks, one in Searsport, one inWiscasset and one in Damaris- 
cotta. May 8th the officers of these companies met in Rockland, 



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rOUBTH REGDfENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 177 

in obedience to orders, and elected Hiram G. Berry as their 
colonel. The regiment went into camp in Rockland May 17th, 
was mustered into the United States service June 15th, left the 
state on the 17th, arrived in Washington the 21st, crossed the 
Potomac to Alexandria July 8th, and encamped at Bush Hill. 

On the 12th a reconnaissance was made by companies B and 
C, and three Confederate soldiers were captured with loaded 
muskets in their hands. On the 16th we marched in pursuit of 
the rebels. On the 21st we came upon and engaged them at 
Bull Run, where our army was defeated, with a loss to our r^- 
ment of 23 men killed, 3 officers and 24 men wounded, and 3 
officers and 38 men missing. Few are the regiments that suf- 
fered more by fatalities than this, on that hard-fought field. 
We returned to Alexandria and the camp we left, on the 16th. 
From that time until March 17th, 1862, the regiment was 
employed in drill, picket duty, felling trees and building forti- 
fications. We also made several reconnaissances, and were 
the first to report the retreat of the enemy from Manassas. On 
the 18th we were on board a steamboat en route for Fortress 
Monroe, whence we went to Hampton, Va. 

March 25th Colonel Berry, who had been promoted and 
assigned to the command of a brigade, took leave of the regi- 
ment, and I assumed command. April 4th we left Hampton, 
and arrived near Yorktown the next day. Here we remained 
until May 4th, when we followed the retreating enemy to Wil- 
liamsburg, where we found them, strongly fortified, on the 5th, 
Here we escaped without loss of men, although we were the 
first to occupy Fort Magruder on the morning of the 6th. The 
enemy were defeated and were followed to Fair Oaks, where 
the left of our army was attacked on the 31st. Here, for two 
days, our (Kearny's) division had severe fighting. June 15th, 
22d, and 25th the regiment had skirmishing on the picket line. 
On the 27th, a retreat having been ordered by the army com- 
mander, our regiment was assigned to prepare two roads across 
White Oak Swamp, and we were the last infantry troops to 
cross the swamp on the morning of the 30th. We held the 
advanced position in the battle of Glendale during that day, 
and when the retreat began at night were the last to leave 
the field. 



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178 MAINE AT GETTT8BUBG. 

At Malvern Hill, July 1st, with our food supply exhausted, 
we held the front line of our division, and were the last infantry 
to leave that famous battlefield. At Harrison's Landing we 
were obliged to endure miasma and bog water until Aug. 15th, 
when we marched to Yorktown, took a steamer for Alexandria, 
going thence by rail to Warrenton Junction, where we arrived 
on the 21st. We were sent five miles in advance, to Rappa- 
hannock Station, where on the 27th we were left, without 
rations, to serve as a " blind " and be captured by the enemy, 
if need be ; but we succeeded in extricating ourselves, by hard 
marching, with the loss of a few who became exhausted and fell 
into the hands of the rebels. These unfortunates were stripped 
of their outer garments, paroled and permitted to rejoin us. 
On the morning of the 29th we arrived on the Bull Run battle- 
field, where we had severe fighting nearly all day, losing 10 
men killed, 2 officers, the sergeant-major, and 33 men wounded, 
and 8 missing. I escaped without injury, but thereafter my 
horse carried Confederate lead in his flesh. On the 30th our 
division was on the reserve, but late in the day we had a lively 
time, and the Fourth Maine and 40th N. Y., were the last to 
leave the field. 

September 1st, at Chantilly, we were sent by General 
Kearny to open an attack on the enemy, and had desperate 
fighting, losing 12 men killed and 2 officers and 52 men 
wounded. My horse was shot and killed. We then fell back 
to Alexandria, moving thence up the Potomac to Point of 
Rocks, Md. October 12th we had a skirmish with Stuart's 
cavalry near the mouth of the Monocacy. The Third and 
Fourth Maine were under my command, and we were successful 
in turning the cavalry into a road leading to an ambush at the 
ford ; our troops, however, that were to spring the trap, hastily 
left on the approach of the horsemen, who crossed the Potomac 
in safety. On the 28th we left the upper Potomac and marched 
to Falmouth, arriving on the 20th of November. The first duty 
assigned us here was to load 300 wagons with logs. We then 
moved twelve miles down the river and built a corduroy bridge 
across a swamp. This work accomplished, we joined our divis- 
ion, by a forced march, and crossed below Fredericksburg, 



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rOUBTH REGIMENT : CX>L. WALKER'S ADDRESS. 179 

where, on December 13th, I led 211 men and officers in a charge 
upon the enemy's fortified position, having 3 officers and 19 
men killed, and 7 officers and 59 men wounded ; 36 men were 
reported missing, of whom 8 have never been heard from. Our 
army retreated on the morning of the 16th, when I withdrew 
and followed the last pickets across the river. 

At Chancellorsville, May 2d and 3d, we had our share of 
the fighting, taking the lead in the moonlight charge and being 
the last to cross the pontoon bridge on the retreat. Here we lost 
1 officer and 2 men killed, 3 officers and 15 men wounded, and 
7 men missing. Things remained quiet until June 11th, when 
we marched from camp to Bealeton Station, thence successively, 
to Catlett's Station, Manassas Junction and Blackburn's Ford, 
and on the 17th arrived at Centreville. On the 19th our Third 
corps bivouacked at Gum Springs, where we remained until the 
25th, when we again moved and bivouacked at the mouth of 
the Monocacy. On the 26th we marched to Point of Bocks, 
Md. ; on the 27th to Middletown ; on the 29th to Taneytown, 
and on the 30th to near Emmitsburg, occupying the village the 
next morning, July 1st, at 11 o'clock. At 1 p. m. our corps 
commander. General Sickles, led the larger part of his command 
to Gettysburg, arriving at 7 o'clock that evening. We heard 
there had been a severe engagement in which our troops encoun- 
tered a force much superior in point of numbers, and were 
driven back past Seminary Bidge, through the village of Gettys- 
burg, and having made a stand on Cemetery Hill, were there 
re-forming their lines. This was unwelcome news to us who 
had been so often defeated, but every soldier knew we were on 
the free soil of a free people, and all were determined to defend 
it or die in the attempt. 

The sun disappeared, and presently the stars became dimly 
visible through a vaporous and smoky atmosphere. The sol- 
diers were seeking rest for their wearied limbs, and the officers 
were engaged in readjusting the lines and forming new ones, 
and in seeing that their men were supplied with ammunition. 
With my regiment of about 300 men and 18 officers I made a 
bed of that soil destined to become the Union veterans' Mecca, 
and to be immortalized in song and story ; and we were trying 



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180 MAINE AT GETTT8BURG. 

to get a little sleep in preparation for the morrow when I heard 
a familiar voice inquiring for Colonel Walker, and I answered, 
** I am here, captain. Is it our turn to establish a picket line ? " 
^ Yes, it is the order of General Sickles that youi* regiment 
establish a picket line, the right to connect with the First corps 
pickets and the left with those of the Second corps." 

I reluctantly obeyed, moved to the front about half a mile 
and established a line by a rail fence, some 30 or 40 rods west 
of the Emmitsburg road, making connection with the First 
corps pickets^ as directed, but I failed to find any troops on 
my left, except a few cavalry scouts. The enemy's pickets, at 
this time, occupied the woods directly in our front, 30 and 50 
rods from our line, in which woods the enemy were assembling 
throughout the night. All was quiet until daybreak, when they 
opened fire upon us and several times advanced into the open- 
ing, but were as often glad to regain the shelter of the woods. 
Early that morning I reported a large force in the woods in 
front of me, but the report was disregarded by my superiors, 
and I was twice ordered to advance and drive the enemy's pickets 
out of the woods. These orders I did not attempt to execute. 
At 9 o'clock Colonel Berdan reported to me with 250 of his 
Sharpshooters with orders to join me in dislodging the rebels. 
I soon convinced Colonel Berdan that it would be foolhardy 
to make the attempt, and he agreed with me that an attack on 
the rebels' flank was the only practicable move that could be 
made, if our superiors could not be otherwise convinced of the 
strength of the concealed Confederates. He left, saying he 
would report the result of his observations, and at about 9.30 
the Third Maine and the Sharpshooters did attack the rebels' 
flank, as I had suggested, by which movement the correctness 
of my conclusions was soon demonstrated. From that time 
until 2.30 P. M. it was quiet in our front, but there was some 
sharp fighting on our left, and we were then relieved by the 1st 
Mass. We at once joined our brigade, which we found pack- 
ing up to move, advanced with it to the front and were assigned 
a position on the high ground to the left of the corps and, at 
that time, the left of the army, connecting with the 124th 
N. Y. At my front and centre was the 4th N. Y. battery, 
Captain Smith. 



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rOUKTH BEGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 181 

It was now 3 o'clock and my men were hungry, having drank 
water for supper, breakfast and dinner. Fires were kindled, 
a heifer was found near by and slaughtered, coffee was steeped 
and beef impaled on sticks was warmed over the blaze. We 
drank our coffee and ate the very rare and thoroughly smoked 
meat, sprinkling it with salt, of which condiment every soldier 
carried a little in his pocket. 

At 3.45 the enemy came out of the woods half a mile from 
us and opened fire with their artillery, Smith's battery respond- 
ing. Their infantry appeared in large numbers. They first 
met the 2d U. S. Sharpshooters, commanded by Lieut.-CoL 
Stoughton, who checked the advance, but fell back as the strong 
rebel force came on. I was ordered to the left, leaving Smith's 
guns without support and creating a space of about two hun- 
dred yards without infantry. To this move I objected, but was 
assured by the adjutant-general of the brigade, who brought 
the order, that other troops would take my place to protect the 
battery. I unwillingly moved to the low ground, — the valley 
now memorable in history, — sending a few skirmishers, com- 
manded by Capt. Arthur Libby, into the woods between the 
two mountains, and also a strong line of skirmishers to my 
front. I soon withdrew the men from the woods, as troops were 
coming down Little Round Top in the rear of Libby's line. 
The line in front had a severe time with the advance of the 
enemy, but was not dislodged. 

The troops of the Fifth corps had occupied Little Round 
Top and were advancing down its southern slope, being 40 or 
50 rods to my rear and left, when they met the enemy. Mus- 
ketry fire commenced with severity. At this time I had not 
been engaged, except with my skirmish line in the valley, but 
in a moment the 44th Ala. regiment appeared at the edge of a 
wood of small pines on our left flank. The colonel of that regi- 
ment says that while he was getting his men into position, and 
before they fired a shot, one-fourth of them had been killed or 
disabled ; but when he did open fire upon us we soon found, to 
our sorrow, that we had no mean foe to contend with. They 
soon gave up and retired into the woods, where they were com- 
pletely concealed. 



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182 MAINE AT GBTTT8BURG. 

Smith, on the high ground, abandoned his guns, and the 
rebels came over on my right flank and in rear of my skirmish 
line, many of the latter surrendering. I moved back about 100 
yards, fixed bayonets, and charged forward by the right oblique, 
driving the enemy from Smith's guns and connecting with the 
124th N. Y. We had a sharp encounter on our left, at the 
brow of the hill, a little to the right of Devil's Den. It was 
at close quarters. I was on foot and wounded, my horse hav- 
ing been killed. My sword was wrenched from my hand, but 
my men saved me and I recovered the sword. At this critical 
moment the 99th Penn. came to our assistance, forming on 
our left along the brow of the hill, and the enemy fell back, 
taking cover behind the rocks and bowlders and in Devil's Den. 
The 6th N. J. regiment soon arrived, taking position to the 
left of the 99th Penn. and the 40th N. Y., extending the line 
further to the left, swinging their right and advancing into the 
low ground. The low, wet ground, which we had been obliged 
to abandon, was occupied by large numbers of the advancing 
enemy, but that valley, which we had christened, had received 
its name for all time, — the ** Valley of Death." 

We held our position until about sunset, when our brigade 
fell back and the troops from the Second and Fifth corps had 
a line in our rear. When I gave the order to fall back I was 
unable to walk, but was saved from prison, and possibly from 
death, by Sergeant Mowry of company B and Corporal Roberts 
of company F, who wrested me from the foe and assisted me 
to the rear. Our flag was pierced by thirty-two bullets and two 
pieces of shell, and its staff was shot off, but Sergt. Henry 0« 
Ripley, its bearer, did not allow the color to touch the ground, 
nor did he receive a scratch, though all the others of the color- 
guard were killed or wounded. 

I turned the regiment over to Capt. Edwin Libby, a tried, 
brave and faithful officer, and took my first ride in an ambu- 
lance. July 3d the regiment was with the brigade, in reserve, 
and with the Third Maine, 99th Penn. and 20th Ind., under 
Colonel Lakeman, moved to support the Second corps when 
the enemy was assaulting it. On the 4th it was on picket. 

The Fourth Maine was with the troops that followed the 



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FOURTH regiment: col. walker's address. 183 

defeated enemy into Virginia, our division meeting and engag- 
ing the rebels at Wapping Heights on the 23d. I was absent, 
but I rejoined the regiment in time to be with it in the manoeu- 
vres from Culpeper to Centreville, in October. 

At Kelly's Ford, November 7th, I commanded the second 
attacking brigade, composed of 99th Penn., 86th and 124th 
N. Y., Third, Fourth, and Seventeenth Maine. I had the 
Fourth Maine in support of Randolph's Rhode Island battery, 
but it escaped without casualties. At Orange Grove, Novem- 
ber 27th, seeing the supports leaving Randolph's battery, I 
took my regiment to his assistance, dragged his guns out of 
the mud, placed them on high ground, and the enemy were 
repulsed with great slaughter. At Mine Run, November 29th 
and 30th, the Fourth Maine and 20th Ind. had special orders 
to charge the rebel batteries, at a signal gun announcing 
General Warren's attack on the left ; had the signal gun been 
fired we would have been given over to destruction, but Warren 
refrained from assaulting. 

During the winter of 1864 I was reconmiended by my 
superior officers and a long list of Maine officials, including the 
governor, for promotion; having, in an unguarded moment, 
expressed my favoritism for George B. McClellan, our repre- 
sentative, who had been intrusted with my cause, failed to 
present the recommendations. 

May 5th we were the first of the Second (Hancock's) corps 
to meet and attack the enemy, losing 1 officer killed and 3 mor- 
tally wounded ; 4 other officers were wounded, 1 of whom being 
disabled; 17 men were killed, 104 wounded and 2 missing. 
Myself and horse were wounded, but I remained on duty. 

May 6th I was in conmiand of the brigade. We had severe 
fighting all day, the Fourth Maine losing 1 officer killed, and 
myself and another slightly wounded but not disabled ; also 4 
men killed, 26 men wounded and 6 missing. On the 7th, 4 
men were wounded and 1 missing, probably killed, as he was 
never heard from. 

Small engagements often afforded as critical situations as 
great battles. One such occasion befell me on May 10th, when 
I was ordered to cross the Po River and, using the Fourth and 



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184 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

part of the Seventeenth Maine and the picket men, to force 
the enemy's outposts and learn what force he had. The stream 
was some 10 or 12 feet broad, bordered with swamps, and 
varied in depth up to six feet. With Captain Briscoe, of Gren- 
eral Bimey's staff, I crossed and reconnoitered ; decided to 
advance the Seventeenth and pickets on the road nearest the 
river^ while I led the Fourth by another road farther out, run- 
ning nearly parallel. The enemy's mounted videttes retired as 
we approached them. During our advance of about two miles 
we wounded and took two of them with their horses. While 
scouting in advance of my men, I suddenly came within 150 
yards of a gray-appareled line of battle which a scrub growth 
had concealed from view. We then retraced our steps to the 
road on which Briscoe had advanced and was now skirmishing 
with the " graybacks," as I wanted to recall him and cross the 
stream, for I knew they would be after us in large numbers. 
But an order came from division headquarters to go in and 
assist Briscoe's force to drive back the enemy's pickets. I pro- 
tested but could not disobey the order. Sending my color- 
guard and prisoners across the river, and leaving Lieut. Henry 
O. Ripley with a squad of men to guard the road, I attempted 
to carry out my instructions. Captain Briscoe was then a mile 
away. Advancing about half a mile I received an order to 
rejoin the division on the other side of the river. Sending out 
Capt. Arthur Libby with a few men to learn whether our road 
was open, he found that the "woods were full of them," and 
commanding the road. This was one of the situations that tests 
a man's nerves. I formed my men under the brow of a hill, 
where they bravely held the enemy in check while I got word 
to Briscoe to retreat across the river. We then dashed through 
the swamp and into the water, which with the mud was up to 
our armpits ; this was our only chance, as the enemy had gained 
the river on our right and left. My horse followed the men, 
and both he and his rider were safely landed on the other side 
with the assistance of two gallant boys. 

Here my beloved and reliable Lieutenant Ripley was brought 
in a blanket, fatally wounded. On the enemy's approach to 
the point where he had been stationed, he had rallied his men 



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FOUBTH BEGIMENT MONI7MENT DEDICATION. 185 

to check their advance, and the next instant a bullet had passed 
through his neck. His men retreated and crossed on the road. 
In this spirited affair two enlisted men of the regiment were 
also wounded, — one mortally, — and four were missing. Rip- 
ley was the sixth officer of the regiment killed or mortally 
wounded since this short campaign began, the others being Cap- 
tains Amos B. Wooster and Edwin Libby , kiUed ; Major Robert 
H. Gray and Lieutenants C. C. Gray and J. R. Conant, mor- 
tally wounded ; four others besides myself had been wounded, 
but only one disabled from duty. 

On the 12th, at Spotsylvania, we were exempt from casual- 
ties. On the 15th one man was wounded. On the 23d, at 
North Anna, in a successful charge upon the enemy's works, 
which, on the north side of the river, defended a bridge, we 
had 5 men killed and 19 wounded. I was again hit by a rebel 
bullet, adjutant Sawyer was also wounded, — both continued on 
duty. On the 24th one man was killed, private Juan Millano, the 
last on our long " roll of honor." June 2d, at Cold Harbor, two 
men were wounded. June 14th we crossed the James River, 
and on the 15th I turned over to the Nineteenth Maine the 217 
re-enlisted men and later recruits, and with the balance of my 
command, including 4 staff and 9 line officers and 113 men, 
proceeded to Maine, where we were mustered out of the service 
July 19, 1864. 

When General Berry was called to a more exalted position, 
he recommended me for the colonelcy of the regiment he so 
dearly loved. I accepted the honor reluctantly, conscious of 
my inability to adequately fill his place ; but I am satisfied that 
while under my conmiand the name and fame of the regiment 
were bravely upheld, and that fresh laurels were added to those 
it had already won. 

[I desire to say here, that the 99th Pennsylvania monu- 
ment stands on ground from which that regiment did not fire a 
shot July 2, 1863. Their right was where their left marker is 
now placed, and extended along the brow of the hill. The 
Fourth Maine are entitled to the ground from the 124th N. T. 
to the base of Little Round Top, except that occupied for a 
time by Smith's 4th N. Y. battery.] 



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186 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

The number of wounded recorded on our regimental shaft 
includes only such as were seriously disabled. 

In conclusion, I desire to say that, as a Commissioner 
appointed by the governor, I accept this monument (which is 
of my own design) from the granite and lime district of Maine 
in which the regiment whose heroism it conmiemorates was 
raised, and to you. Major Erauth, representative of the 
Battlefield Memorial Association, I entrust it, with the fervent 
hope that when the stone shall have yielded to the disintegrat- 
ing hand of time, our flag will still be floating over an undi- 
vided country and a free people. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH. 

The Fourth Maine regiment of infantry was composed of 
volunteers mainly from Knox, Lincoln and Waldo counties. 
It was raised and organized under an act of the legislature of 
Maine approved April 25, 1861, authorizing the raising of ten 
regiments in anticipation of requirements that were soon to be 
made by the general government to aid in suppressing the 
rebellion. 

The original oi^nization when mustered into U. S. service 
was as follows : 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONBD STAFF. 

Colonel, Hiram G. Berry, Rockland. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas H. Marshall, Belfast. 
Major, Frank S. Nickerson, Belfast. 
Adjutant, Jabez B. Greenhalgh, Rockland. 
Quartermaster, Isaac C. Abbott, Rockland. 
Surgeon, William A. Banks. 
Assistant Surgeon. Elisha Hopkins. 
Chaplain, Benjamin A. Chase, Unity. 
Sergeant-Major, S. H. Chapman. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, John H. Crowell, Winterport. 
Commissary-Sergeant, Julius S. Clark. 
Hospital Steward, Charles S. McCobb, Boothbay. 
Principal Musician, Isaac Prince, Belfast 
Fife-major, Henry E. Burkmar, Belfast 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, Henry W. Cunningham, Belfast. 

First Lieutenant, Richard S. Ayer, Montville. 
Second IJeutenant, Isaac C. Abbott, Rockland. 



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FOURTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 187 

Co. B. Captain. Elijah Walker, Rockland. 

First Lieutenant, Orrin P. Mitchell, Rockland. 

Second Lieutenant, Julius B. Litchfield, Rockland. 
Co. C. Captain, Oliver J. Conant, Rockland. 

First Lieutenant, Charles A. Rollins, Thomaston. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles B. Greenhalgh, Rockland. 
Co. D. Captain, Lorenzo D. Carver, Rockland. 

First Lieutenant, Thomas B. Glover, Rockland. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles L. Strickland, Rockland. 
Co. E. Captain, Stephen C. Whitehouse, Newcastle. 

First Lieutenant, James O. Dow, Newcastle. 

Second Lieutenant, Frederick E. Hussey, Newcastle. 
Co. F. Captain, Andrew D. Bean, Brooks. 

First Lieutenant, James S. Huxford, Brooks. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles H. Burd, Belfast. 
Co. G. Captain, Edwin M. Smith, Wiscasset 

First Lieutenant, William H. Clark, Wiscasset 

Second Lieutenant, Gustavus Rundlett, Wiscasset 
Co. H. Captain, G. J. Bums, Rockland. 

First Lieutenant, John C. Cobb, Rockland. 

Second Lieutenant, B. P. Brackley, Rockland. 
Co. I. Captain, Ebenezer Whitcomb, Searsport 

First Lieutenant, William E. Burgin, Searsport. 

Second Lieutenant, James N. Fowler, Searsport. 
Co. K. Captain, Silas M. Fuller, Belfast. 

First Lieutenant, Alden D. Chase, Belfast. 

Second Lieutenant, Horatio H. Carter, Belfast 

The organization, after the first battle of Bull Run, began to 
change by resignation. The vacancies in the company officers 
were filled by promoting non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates, so that by January 1, 1862, the regiment got firmly upon 
a war basis. Captain Elijah Walker had become Major, and 
before the spring campaign of 1862 opened, was promoted to 
the colonelcy. The original company H was disbanded Sep- 
tember 21, 1861. The officers left the service ; but the enlisted 
men were not discharged, they remained in service, and faith- 
fully performed their duties to the end. To take the place of 
this a new company H was recruited at Bangor and Belfast, 
and in November, 1861, organized with Willimn L. Pitcher for 
Captain, and Albert L. Spencer and George F. Bourne, as 
Lieutenants, all from Bangor. 

The active service in the field performed by the Fourth 
Maine is so fully outlined in the dedication address of Colonel 
Walker, which appears on the preceding pages, that a recount- 
ing of the same is omitted here. 



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188 liAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 



ROSTER. 

The following information relating to officers of the Fourth 
Maine regiment is obtained from the Volunteer Army Register 
(part 1), published by the War Department, August 31, 1865, 
and other reliable sources. 

Opficbrs at Muster-out, July 19, 1864. 

Colonel: Elijah Walker, March 17, 1862. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: George G. Davis, May 10, 1864. 

Captains: Julius B. Litchfield, August i, 1862, prisoner of war, dis- 
charged March 3, 1865; Ezra B. Carr, April 2, 1863; William A. Barker, 
September i, 1863; Arthur Libby, December 9, 1863; Jason Carlisle, Decem- 
ber 23, 1863; Charles H. Conant, December 31, 1863; George R. Abbott, 
January 13, 1864, — while Lieutenant of company D served as Quartermaster 
from July 22, 1863, to January 13, 1864; after muster-out with Fourth Maine 
he served as Captain in ist Maine S. S. and as Major Twentieth Maine 
r^ment; brevet Colonel. 

First Lieutenants: Charles F. Sawyer, Adjutant, February 26, 1862, 
afterwards Captain Twentieth Maine, brevet Major; Solomon S. Steams, 
May 12, 1862; Edward D. Redman, October 9, 1863; Elisha S. Rogers, 
October 16, 1863; George L. Crockett, December 8, 1863; Artemas Robin- 
son, January i, 1864; Kendall K. Rankin, January 13, 1864,— served as 
Quartermaster until muster-out 

Second Lieutenants: Nathaniel A. Robbins, March 12, 1863, pro- 
moted to Quartermaster, not mustered, prisoner of war, discharged March 
15, 1865; Mardan W. McManus, July 23, 1863. 

Surgeon: Seth C. Hunkins, June 14, 1861. Assistant Surgeon: 
Albion Cobb (a. w, m.). 

Chaplain: Benjamin A. Chase, June 15, 1861. 

(Dates given above refer to rank or commissions, those given hereafter 
refer to date of the event.) 

DIED. 

Majors: William L. Pitcher, killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 13, 1862; Ebenezer Whitcomb, October 5, 1863, of wounds 
received at Gettysburg; Robert H. Gray, May 9, 1864, of wounds received 
in battle of the Wilderness. 

Captains: Daniel H. Adams, April 29, 1863, of disease; Andrew J. 
Gray, August 22, 1863, of disease; Edwin Libby, killed at battle of the Wil- 
derness, May 5, 1864; Amos B. Wooster, killed at battle of the Wilderness, 
May 6, 1864. 

First Lieutenants: George F. Bourne, killed at battle of Fredericks- 
burg, Va., December 13, 1862; Joseph R. Conant, May 8, 1864, of wounds 
received May 5; Christopher C. Gray, May 29, 1864, of wounds received 
May 5, Wilderness; Henry O. Ripley, June 13, 1864, of wounds received in 
action of Po river. 

Second Lieutenants: Walter S. Goodale, killed in battie of Fred- 



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B08TEB OF THE FOUBTH BEOIMENT. 189 

ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; Sheridan F. Miller, killed in battle ol 
Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863; Orpheus Roberts, killed in battle of Gettys- 
burg, July 2, 1863; Charles S. McCobb, killed in battle of Gettysburg, July 

2, 1863; George M. Bragg, July 5, 1863, of wounds received at Gettysburg. 

PROMOTED OUT OP REGIMENT. 

Col. Hiram G. Berry, March 17, 1862, to Brig.-General of Vols.; Lieut- 
Col. Thomas H. Marshall, Sept 9, 1861, to Colonel 7th Maine Vols.; Lieut- 
Col. Frank S. Nickerson, November 29, 1861, to Colonel 14th Maine Vols.; 
Capt. Edwin M. Smith, April i, 1862, to Captain and A. A. G.; First Lieut 
and R. Q. M. Isaac C. Abbott, July 8, 1863, to Captain and A. Q. M. 

RESIGNED AND DISCHARGED. 

Resigned: Lieut.-Col. Silas M. Fuller, March i, 1862. 

Captains: Oliver J. Conant, September 9, 1861; Stephen C. White- 
house, October 31, 1861; Henry W. Cunningham, December 16, 1861, 
became Lieutenant-Colonel 19th Maine regt. ; Joseph L. Havener, April 3, 
1862; Charles B. Greenhalgh, April 27, 1862; Andrew D. Bean, May 12, 1862; 
Orrin P. Mitchell, July 31, 1862; Gustavus Rundlett, August 12, 1862; Levi R. 
Bisbee, September 30, 1862; Thomas B. Glover, October 28, 1862; James 
D. Erskine, November 29, 1862; Charles A. Rollins, January 7, 1863; Albert 
L. Spencer, January 23, 1863; William H. Clark, January 27, 1863; Richard 
S. Ayer, March 22, 1863, — afterwards Captain in Inv. corps; George F. 
Crabtree, June 21, 1863; John G. Auld, December 14, 1863. 

First Lieutenants: James O. Dow, July 8, 1861; Alden D. Chase, 
July 15, 1861; William E. Burgin, August 15, 1861; John C. Cobb, Septem- 
ber 27, 1861; James S. Huxford, October 28, 1861; Benjamin Kelley, Jr., 
February 22, 1862; Charles L. Strickland, May 4, 1862; James N. Fowler, 
July 18, 1862; Alonzo E. Libbyf November 13, 1862; Otis C. McGray, April 

3, 1863; Jabez B. Greenhalgh, May 27, 1863; William Shields, September 
27, 1863, — became Lieut. U. S. Army; Frank D. Ames, October 8, 1863. 

Second Lieutenants: Fred E. Hussey, July 8, 1861; Horatio H. 
Carter, August 12, 1861; Beniah P. Brackley, September 19, 1861. 

Surgeon: Abial Libby, July 17, 1862. Assistant Surgeon: William 
R. Benson, September 30, 1862. 

Discharged: Lieut.-Col. Lorenzo D. Carver, December 16, 1863, 
for disability; 2d Lieut. Charles H. Burd, January i, 1862; Surgeon George 
W. Martin, May 12, 1863; Surgeon W. A. Banks, July 18, 1861; Asst. Sur- 
geon Elisha Hopkins, July 18, 1861. 

OTHERWISE LEFT THE SERVICE. 

Surgeons : Freeland S. Holmes, never joined regiment, commissioned 
into 6th Maine; Capt G. J. Bums dismissed October 10, 1861; 2d Lieut 
Eben Harding dismissed April 27, 1863. 



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190 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 



. . MONUMENT 

OF 

SEVENTEENTH MAINE REGIMENT. 

This monument, of Hallowell granite, stands at the south edge of the 
Wheat-field, between the Peach Orchard and Devil* s Den, by the stone fence, 
where its colors were July 2, 1863, at the position where the r^^iment suc- 
cessfully resisted all assaults of die enemy upon it Two square bases of 
single blocks support a four-sided shaft or die, which, inlaid with diamond- 
shaped blocks of red granite, rises to the capital with a projecting cornice. 
This forms a platform on which is a sculptured group, chiseled from a block 
of white granite, representing a section of stone-wall, with wheat, and the 
statue of a typical soldier of 1863, true in every detail, posed alert, resting 
upon one knee in the wheat, holding his rifle, at the ** ready,*' across the wall. 

Admeasurements: ist base, 8 feet by 8 feet by 2 feet 3 inches; 2d base, 
6 feet by 6 feet by 2 feet 8 inches; shaft, tapering from 4 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 
8 inches, each side, by 9 feet; cap, 4 feet 9 inches by 4 feet 9 inches by 2 feet; 
statue, 4 feet 9 inches by 4 feet 9 inches by 4 feet 6 inches. Total height, 20 
feet 5 inches. 

Upon two sides are the following inscriptions: — 

130 Ejlled and Woxjnded, 350 Engaged. 
July 2, 1863. 

17th Maine 

Infantry. 

Lt. Col. Chas. B. Merrill, 

Commanding. 

3rd Brigade, 

IST Division, 

3rd Corps. 

Wheat-Field, 

July 2, 1863; 

Pickett's Repulse, 

July 3, 1863. 



— See page 191 for legend upon the monument 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT MONUMENT. 191 



LEGEND. 

Upon a bronze panel set into the north side of the 
second base is this legend: — 



The Seventeenth Maine fought here in the 

WhEATFIELD 2 1-2 HOURS, AND AT THIS POSITION FROM 

4:10 TO 5*45 p. M., July 2, 1863. On July 3, at time 

OF THE enemy's ASSAULT, IT REINFORCED THE CENTRE 

and supported artillery. loss, i32. killed or 
mortally wounded, 3 officers, 37 men, wounded, 5 
officers, 87 men. 

This regiment of volunteers from western 
Maine was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice AT Portland, August 18, 1862, for three years. 
It took part in the battles of Fredericksbu^ig, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, 
Auburn, Kelly's Ford, Locust Grove, Mine Run, 
Wilderness, Po River, Spottsylvania, Fredericks- 
burg Road, North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, 

I^ETERSBURG, JERUSALEM ROAD, DeEP BOTTOM, PeEBLE'S 

Farm, Fort Hell, Boydton Road, Siege of Peters- 
burg, Hatcher's Run, Fall of Petersburg, Detons- 
viLLE, Sailor's Creek, Farmville, Appomattox. 

Aggregate actual strength in service, 91 offi- 
cers, 1,475 MEN. Killed and died of wounds, 12 offi- 
cers, 195 MEN. Died of disease, 4 officers, 128 men. 
Died in Confederate prisons, 31 men. Wounded, not 
mortally, 33 officers, 519 men. missing in action, 
fate unknown, 35 men. total loss, 957. mustered 
OUT June 4, 1865. 



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SEVENTEENTH MAINE REGIMENT, 

THIRD BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, THIRD ARMY CORPS, 

AT THB BATTLE OF OBTTTSBUBQ. 



WE have followed the fortunes of the Third and Fourth 
Maine regiments, the one upon the right and the other 
upon the left of Bimey's line. At a point near the 
centre of this line another Maine regiment, the Seventeenth 
infantry, of de Trobriand's brigade, defended a no less impor- 
tant position* This was one of the two brigades which Sickles 
left near Emmitsburg to guard the mountain passes while he 
pressed on to Gettysburg, eleven miles away, with the rest of 
the corps, in response to Howard's call for assistance. But 
before daybreak of July 2d Colonel deTrobriand received orders 
to come up to Gettysburg. The brigade inarched rapidly, but 
cautiously, up the Emmitsburg road, arriving near Gettysburg 
late in the forenoon. The regiment was under command of 
Lieut.-Colonel Merrill, ably seconded by Major West. As it 
passed northerly along the road beyond the Peach Orchard it 
received a fire from the Confederate skirmishers, screened by 
the woods in which they were posted, west of the road. The 
regiment filed off the road to the east and, passing through 
grass fields and across lots, halted near a growth, where the 
hungry boys made a hasty luncheon of hard tack and coffee. 

In the line, which Sickles was forming, de Trobriand first 
occupied the ridgy, wooded ground between the Peach Orchard 
and the Wheatfield. The Wheatfield was of triangular shape, 
about 400 yards each side ; the highest portion was bounded 
by a cross road running along by the Peach Orchard and east- 
erly across the north slope of Little Round Top. The Wheat- 
field sloped down southerly from this road, and along its 
westerly side by a wood, to quite low ground, making a comer 
near a branch of Plum Run, with a thick alder gi*owth on the 



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• ••• • ••• 

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• • • • 
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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 193 

west; the third or southerly side was bounded by an open 
growth of sizable trees, a stone-wall intervening, and this wood 
separated the Wheatfield from Devil's Den. 

The Seventeenth was at first placed south of the Peach 
Orchard, supporting the skirmish line of the 3d Mich. De 
Trobriand had two regiments at the front, to the left of the 
latter, — ^the 5th Mich., whose skirmishers connected to the 3d, 
near the Rose bam, also the 110th Penn., a small regiment. 
The largest regiment in the brigade, the 40th N. Y., was in 
the wood, in reserve, behind these. 

The ball opened by a shot from a battery at the Peach 
Orchard, soon taken up by Smith's battery at Devil's Den, the 
latter drawing fire from the enemy's batteries near the Emmits- 
burg road farther south. Ward's brigade extended from Devil's 
Den, through the wood, nearly to the Wheatfield. The advance 
of the enemy's line of battle was such that Ward received the 
first contact, on an attempt by the enemy to capture Smith's 
battery. There was a gap between Ward and de Trobriand at 
the south comer of the Wheatfield. To occupy this gap the 
Seventeenth Maine was hastened upon the double-quick by 
the left, taking up its position at the stone-wall, the right of 
the regiment extending beyond the wall to the alders. Some 
time after, the 40th N. Y. was also taken from de Trobriand 
and sent to Ward's left rear, in the Plum Run valley. 

Shortly after 4 p. m. the Seventeenth planted its colors at 
the stone-wall on the southern edge of the historic Wheat- 
field (a). There were no immediately connecting troops upon 
its left or right. The regiment took position just in time to 
receive the first and furious attack made by the enemy on that 
part of the line. This was made by Robertson's brigade of 
Hood's division, and the first struggle of the Seventeenth was 
with the 3d Ark. regiment. The latter, advancing towards 
the battery, struck the line of the Seventeenth obliquely ; the 
Seventeenth overlapping its left flank, threw it into confusion 
by a spirited enfilading fire. Their line recoiled. After a short 
delay they made a change of front, and brought in some of the 

(a) The authority for this account of the Seyenteenth's battle is Captain George 
W. Verrill, a participant in the battle as Second Lieutenant of company G. He is 
alio the author of all that part relating to the battle in the Wheatfield. 



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194 MAINE AT GETTY8BUBG. 

1st Texas from their right. Advancing again they made an 
effort to dislodge the Seventeenth from its position, but without 
avail. Their lines were again broken, causing a partial with- 
drawal of their attacking forces here, and likewise at that part 
of the line where they had previously pressed hard upon Ward's 
brigade (b) . 



DIAGRAM 1. Dnwn bj G. W. YeRlIL 

SEVENTEENTH MAINE IN THE WHEATFIELD. 

The enemy re-formed his lines and brought in Anderson's 
Georgia brigade with these scattered portions of Robertson's, 
making another determined assault. As this developed an 
attack extending from Little Round Top westward, and beyond 
the right of the Seventeenth, it brought into action the 5th Mich, 
and 110th Penn. regiments, which were posted on the wooded 
ground west of the Wheatfield, as well as some regiments 
of the Fifth corps, posted on the right of these. As the 

(b) General Ward said in his official report, "The yaluable seryices rendered by 
Col. T. W. Efiran, Lieut-Col. Merrill and their noble resriments (40th N. Y. and Seven- 
teenth Maine), at an opportune moment, cannot be overestimated. Also see Rebel- 
lion Records, Vol. 27, part 2, page 408, reports of 8d Ark. and 1st Texas. 



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SEVENTEENTH BEGIMENT ENGAGED. 195 

right wing of the Seventeenth, prolonging the course of the 
stone-wall beyond its west end, extended obliquely towards 
the enemy, in advance of the general position, and was thus 
in the air, the Georgians outflanked it when they advanced. 
Perceiving this, the Seventeenth promptly took measures to 
avert disaster. One-third of the regiment from its right was 
swung back to a slight rail fence which, starting from the stone- 
wall at nearly a right angle, formed the boundary of the real 
wheat field. Thus two fronts were presented by the regiment, 
forming a salient angle at the stone-wall. The movement was 
accomplished, although with considerable loss, so quietly that 
the rest of the regiment, engaged as they were with the enemy, 
were not aware of it, a steady fire being kept up. The tables 
were turned. As the veterans of Georgia moved directly for- 
ward upon the 5th Mich, and 110th Penn., who received 
them face to face, this new line of the right wing of the Seven- 
teenth took them in flank. They changed front to match the 
flank line of the Seventeenth and again advanced, and thus 
exposed their left to the reliable men of the 5th Mich. Mean- 
while the enemy, that was not affected by this flanking fire, 
pressed forward, even up to the stone-wall, and a desperate 
struggle at close quarters ensued for this coveted position. At 
the salient angle was company B, with H, K and C at the 
right ; at the left of B was G the color company, and on its 
left, along the stone-wall, were D, I, F, A and E. All received 
a raking fire, particularly G, B and H, but all remained stead- 
fast, and routed the enemy, some of whom were taken prisoners, 
their color-bearer, who had advanced nearly to our line, nar- 
rowly escaping capture. On that portion of the line the enemy 
had made no impression, and Anderson's brigade retired out of 
range. The fight had continued over an hour ; many had fallen, 
but success inspired confidence. 

To complete his line so as to attack the Peach Orchard in 
reverse, Longstreet now brought in Kershaw's South Carolina 
brigade of McLaws' division, which advanced, holding its left 
upon the Emmitsburg road and pushing forward its right to 
gain ground to the east, so as to assault the Orchard from the 
south, as it advanced, and at the same time secure a foothold 



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196 BiAINB AT GETTTSBUBG. 

at the Wheatfield, thus taking de Trobriand in the right flank 
and rear. Semmes' brigade, on the right of Kershaw, was ex- 
pected to assist Kershaw and connect with Anderson's brigade. 
The troops of Barnes' division of the Fifth corps that had 
taken an excellent position on the right of de Trobriand, and 
had assisted in repulsing the last previous assault, were in a 
situation to receive a part of Kershaw's force in line. Ker- 
shaw's advance, at about 5 : 30 p. m. could be plainly seen as his 
regiments gained the Rose building ; as they advanced, Ander- 
son's brigade also made another attack. The assault was most 
desperate, with a strength at least double that of ours ; if suc- 
cessful it would sweep directly across the Wheatfield, converg- 
ing as it advanced. Again the Seventeenth at the stone-wall 
held the enemy at bay ; at its angle it repelled the attempts of 
Anderson after a long and persistent struggle ; but Kershaw 
forced back the Fifth corps forces at the " loop " and struck the 
flank of de Trobriand's brigade in the woods. Pushing ahead 
for a junction with Anderson, a portion of the assailants made 
for the west comer of the Wheatfield through the thick alder 
growth, happily there, which both impeded their rush and broke 
the solidity of their ranks ; they emerged through the alders 
within fifty paces of the flanking right wing of the Seventeenth, 
which awaited them at the rail fence. Here were a hundred 
muskets, in the hands of steady veterans, to receive them: 
" Aim low, boys I make every shot tell ! " With the most 
frantic efforts to re-form his lines for a charge, the enemy was 
unsuccessful; the men dropped as they emerged from the 
alders ; in a few minutes they gave it up and retreated out of 
sight. The Seventeenth breathed easier. But the attack of 
Kershaw, forcing Barnes away, in turn compelled the 5th Mich, 
and 110th Penn. to move rearward. Kershaw thus gained 
lodgment in the woods west of the Wheatfield, considerably in 
rear of the position of the Seventeenth. Winslow's battery, 
posted at the north side of the field, withdrew from its posi- 
tion. The Seventeenth was thus left alone, far in advance of 
its brother regiments and well outflanked upon its right by 
Kershaw. It was ordered back across the field in line of battle 
to the cross road before spoken of. Another attack followed 
before a new general line could be arranged. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 



197 



The enemy seeing the retrograde movement across the 
Wheatfield, at once moved up to the abandoned stone-wall and 
over it, and also to the edge of the woods west of the Wheat- 
field. General Birney rode up, saw the desperate situation, 
and also saw the Seventeenth Maine near him, which had just 
squatted down in the cross road and had sent for ammunition. 
It had expended already over forty of the sixty rounds with 
which it was provided (a) . Birney called upon the Seventeenth 
for a charge. He placed himself at the head of the regiment, 




DIAGRAM i. DnwB bj O. W. Vmffl. 

SEVENTEENTH MAINE IN THE WHEATFIELD. 

and with a cheer and a rush it moved down into the Wheat- 
field. The enemy disappeared over the stone-wall and into the 

(a) Sergeant Pratt of company C (afterwards a captain), and some 
others, carried So rounds into the fight Captain Pratt has positive knowl- 
edge that he fired 60 rounds from the stone-wall position, although there were 
lulls in the battle, a change of position by the company, and a slight wound- 
ing, to interrupt him in his work. This proves the time that the regiment 
remained at the wall to have been nearly two hours. The Sergeant did not 
quit the field until he received his third wound, after the charge under Birney. 



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198 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

woods. Placing the Seventeenth about midway of the Wheat- 
field he ordered it to remain there and keep back the enemy, (a) 

The Seventeenth took upon itself without flinching this task 
of a forlorn hope. It was past 6 o'clock. General Sickles had 
just been wounded. Bimey was notified and took command 
of the corps. Leaving the Seventeenth, he went to another 
part of the field, but he was not unmindful of the situation he 
left ; (b) the gallant 5th Mich, was brought up and extended 
the line of the Seventeenth to the right ; the two small brigades 
of Barnes, who had retired from the front woods, were now 
resting in the woods one hundred yards in rear of the Wheat- 
field, but not engaged (c) ; General Bimey had sent to Himcock 
for Second corps troops. Meanwhile the raking musketry fire 
of the enemy at short range, both from the stone-wall in front 
and the wood nearer and to the right, was making sad inroads 
upon the attenuated ranks of the Seventeenth and its brother 
regiment, as there was no protection of any sort ; occasionally 
the enemy would form a line and emerge from the woods as 
for a charge, but the firmness and confidence displayed by the 
Seventeenth and the 5th Mich., ready to meet him with the 
bayonet, apparently disheartened him. 

The cartridges were giving out ; every box of a dead or 
wounded comrade was appropriated to eke out the supply. 
Twenty minutes, — a half-hour, — passed, and still no signs of 
help ; the last cartridge was gone and the men were grimly 
told by the commanding officer that the Seventeenth would 
stay there and hold the ground with the bayonet until the last 
man had fallen ! (d) This small band of Third corps men suc- 
cessfully held the line at this critical time without assistance 

(a) Of this Gettysborar oharare General Bimey said in his official rex>ort, conoera- 
Inff the Seventeenth : ' ' This reffiment behaved most gallantly, and evinced a high 
state of discipline. Their enthusiasm was cheering, and the assistance rendered by 
their charge most imx>ortant." 

As aocoonts of various military writers have injected several regiments into this 
charge led by General Bimey, it is desired to emphasize the fact, that no other regi- 
ment took part in it, and no troops were brought up to aid the Seventeenth except 
as here narrated.— o. w. v. 

(b) See de Trobriand's report,— Rebellion Records, serial no. 4S, page sao. 

(c) See Bimey's report,— Rebellion Records, serial no. 43, page 488; also Sweit- 
ser's report,— n>id., page 611. 

(d) See Lieat.-Col. Merriirs official report,— Rebellion Records, serial no. 43, p. OStS. 



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SEVENTEENTH BEGIMENT ENGAGED. 199 

from other infantry. The batteries in and to the east of the 
Peach Orchard nobly performed their work and helped to keep 
Kershaw's men under cover by their rapid and well-aimed fire. 

At last, at just about 6 : 40 o'clock, deliverance came. 
Caldwell's division of the Second corps readily assumed the 
battle on that portion of the line. Cross' brigade went in 
where Ward's right had rested; after this, Kelly's brigade 
advanced, in line of battle, through and beyond the small rem- 
nant of the Seventeenth Maine and 5th Mich., into the edge of 
the wood, with a rush upon Kershaw's troops, with whom the 
Maine and Michigan veterans had been contending. 

The Seventeenth, thus relieved, collected and took along 
its wounded who were disabled on the field, and then, in good 
order, finally left the Wheatfield, handing it over, still intact, 
into the keeping of other Union troops. 

[It may not be amiss to state briefly the events of that 
evening, on this part of the field, after the Seventeenth was 
relieved. Cross' brigade advanced upon the enemy posted 
behind the west end of the Wheatfield stone-fence, and the wall 
running westerly from Devil's Den. A hot contest ensued for 
thirty or forty minutes, the enemy holding his ground, when 
the regulars of Ayres' division. Fifth corps, came in up to the 
east side of the Wheatfield and relieved Cross' brigade. Kelly's 
brigade, with that of Zook upon its right, fought fiercely with 
Kershaw in the woods where we left him, finally driving the 
latter out. About this time Brooke, with his brigade of Cald- 
well's division, charged across the Wheatfield, almost unre- 
sisted by the used-up and disconnected troops of Anderson, 
Kershaw and Semmes. By these three brigades of Caldwell 
the line was advanced to the farthest point held by the Third 
corps and extended farther south. This was about 7 p. m., 
when, Barksdale having pushed back our regiments and bat- 
teries just north of the Peach Orchard, Longstreet brought up 
Wofford's fresh brigade, which advanced through the Orchard 
and easterly on the cross road. There was nothing to resist 
him ; Tilton's brigade of Barnes' division had been resting in 
Trostle's grove, in an excellent position to defend from Wof- 
ford, but had retired. Kershaw joined to Wofford, and taking 



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r 



200 MAINE AT GETTY8BUBG. 

our lines about the Wheatfield in the right flank and rear, 
easily whirled out the three brigades of the Second corps, 
Sweitzer's brigade of the Fifth corps which was then in the 
Wheatfield, also the regulars of Ayres, causing heavy loss, 
and advanced the Confederate line to the Plum Run valley, 
west of Little Round Top. Here it was met by a charge of 
about three brigades of the Sixth and Fifth corps. These with 
the timely aid rendered at this point by McGilvery^s batteries, 
in driving back Barksdale's troops, not far distant, north of 
the cross road, turned the tide of battle. This was about 7 : 30 
p. M. The Confederates retired to the southerly and westerly 
sides of the Wheatfield, about where they were when the Sev- 
enteenth was relieved, nearly an hour before.] 

On July 3d, when Longstreet's assault was made upon the 
centre of Hancock's line, the Seventeenth was brought into the 
general line to receive it, at a point where Wilcox's colimm 
would have struck, had it got so far, but our batteries pounded 
this column to pieces before it reached our infantry line ; lying 
there, supporting the batteries, the regiment was exposed to a 
severe artillery fire, losing in it two killed and ten wounded, — 
snmll loss compared to that of the day before. 



A MARKER 

located upon the ground held by the regiment July 3d, during the charge, 
stands upon the west side of Hancock Avenue, near the monument of the 
9th Mich, battery and to its right. This marker, cut from Maine granite, 
assumes the size and appearance of a small monument. The upper portion 
of the die shows rather more than the half of a square block, with one of 
its angles making the apex. Upon the face, matching the angles of the top, 
a red granite diamond, or lozenge, is inlaid, beneath which is the following 
inscription: 

Position of the 17th Maine Intty. July 3, 1863. 

Losing Here Killed 2, Wounded, 10. 

This Regt. Fought July 2, in the Wheatfield, 

As Shown by Momument There, Losing 120. 



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B c « .^" e ^ e 



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SEVENTEENTH BEGDiENT PAETICIPANT8. 201 

PAETICIPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles B. Merrill, Portland, commanding regiment 

Major, George W. West, Somerville, Mass. 

Adjutant, First Lieutenant Charles W. Roberts, Portland. 

Quartermaster, First Lieutenant Josiah Remick, Portland. 

Surgeon, Nahum A. Hersom, Sanford. 

Assistant Surgeon, William Wescott, Standish. 

Chaplain, Jeremiah Hayden, Raymond. 

Sergeant-Major, Henry L. Bartels, Portland, acting 2d Lieut, see company F. 

[Acting Sergeant-Major, Frederick W. Bosworth, Portland, Private co. A.] 

Quartermaster-Sergeant, John Yeaton, Jr., Portland. 

Commissary-Sergeant, John F. Putnam, Lewiston. 

Hospital Steward, Nathaniel B. Coleman, Portland. 

Company A. 
Captain, Charles P. Mattocks, Portland. 
istSergt., act'g 2d Lieut Grenville F. Sparrow, Portland (com., not must* d). 

SERGEANTS. 

AlvinF. Blake,Portland,act*gistSerg. Fayette M. Paine, New Vineyard, 
Benjamin Doe, So. Berwick, Edward H. Crie, Portland. 

CORPORALS. 

Jesse A. Stone, Portland, Robert M. Low, Pownal, 

Joseph F. Lake, Portland, color-bearer, George T. Jones, Richmond. 

PRIVATES. 

Andrews, Albert H., Jr., Portland, Armstrong, Jacob L., Portland, 
Barker, Alonzo J., New Vineyard, Bodkin, Peter P., I^rtland, 
Brown, Daniel W., Baldwin, Brown, Jacob C, Portland, 

Bums, Michael, Portland, Chick, William H., So. Berwick, 

Delihanty, Thomas, Portland, Dresser, Albion K. P., Pownal, 

Goodenow, Charles, Gray, Herrick, Ira J., New Vineyard, 

Hodsdon, Joseph A., Falmouth, Ingraham, Octavius C, Portland, 

James, John W., Portland, Joy, Granville W., So. Berwick, 

Marston, Edward H., Falmouth, Marston, Horace G., Falmouth, 

Marston, Joseph S., Falmouth, McDonald, Peter, Compton, Can., 

Miller, Alonzo, Portland, Milliken, Charles, Portland, 

Pettengill, Albion C, Portland, Pratt, Jeremiah L., New Vineyard, 

Pray, Ivory, So. Berwick, Sawyer, Alonzo W., Westbrook, 

Sawyer Henry H., New Gloucester, Spaulding, David M., New Vineyard, 
Skillings, Franklin, Portland, Totman, John F., Portland, 

Tuttle, John F., Freeman, Waterhouse, Robert, Portland, 

Wilkinson, Frederick N., So. Berwick. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: 2d Lieut Edwin B. Hough- 
ton, Portland, act*g A. D. C. brig, staff, commiss'd ist Lieut., not mustered. 
Corporal Anson F. Ward, Portland, div. provo. guard. Privates: Frederick 
W. Bosworth, Portland, act'g Sergt.-Major, see Field and Staff; Robert Ham- 
ilton, Portland, corps provo. guard; Samuel D. Roberts, Portland, 4th N. Y. 
batt*y ; Henry C. Allen, New Gloucester, corps amm'n train; Edward Fabyan, 



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202 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Portland, teamster; Cornelius Boyle, Portland, regt'l pioneer; John B. Miles, 
New Vineyard, cattle guard; Obed W. Paine, New Vineyard, blacksmith; 
Jonas Reynolds, So. Berwick, cook; Mark H. Sawyer, Portland, and George 
H. M. Taylor, Portland, div. supply train; James S. Spaulding, Anson, Oliver 
Waite, Anson, and Oliver Walker, So. Berwick, brig. amb. train. Musicians: 
Henry B. Berry, Portland, and Augustus Vaughn, New Vineyard, hosp. dept 
Wagoner Charles R. Hale, Portland, div. supply train. 

Company B. 
First Lieutenant, Benjamin C. Pennell, Portland, conunanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, William H. Green, Portland. 

SERGEANTS. 

Horace A. Smith, Portland, acting First Sergeant, 

Edwin J. Hawkes, Portland, Daniel Gookin, Portland, 

Cyrus M. Hall, Portland. 

CORPORALS. 

David C. Saunders, Sweden, color gd., George W. Jones, Portland, 
Edward A. Roberts, Portland, Charies H. Merrill, Portland, 

George W. H. Roach, Portland, Aaron Hubbard, So. Berwick. 

PRIVATES. 

Brackett, Byron, Sweden, Carruthers, Charles E., Portland, 

Charles, Frank C, Fryeburg, Davis, Samuel C, Pordand, 

Doughty, John, Jr., Portiand, Duran, George E. H., Portland, 

Elliot, William S., Portland, Emery, Moses D., Stowe, 

Fabyan, Charles H., Portland, Flannagan, James, Portland, 

Foster, R. G. W., Albany, Grover, Alpheus, Portland, 

Holt, James G., Fryeburg, Lehane, John, Portiand, 

Libby, Seth B., Portiand, McKeen, James, Stowe, 

McKenzie, Matthew, Portiand, Morton, Sidney G., Fryeburg, 

Morton, William B., Fryebvu-g, Norton, George L., Portiand, 

Noyes, Alvin A., Portland, Quint, Monroe, Stowe, 

Smith, Daniel, Jr., Fryeburg, Walker, Alden B., Fryeburg, 

Wiley, Gardner B., Stowe, Wiley Joseph, Fryeburg, 

Winn, Andrew, Portland. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal John Witham, 
Portiand, provo. guard. Privates: Augustus A. Kimball, Portland, 6th R. 
L batt'y; Edwin G. Thome, Portiand, Smith's 4th N. Y. batt*y; Samuel 
Buxton, Portiand, amm*n train; Samuel C. Holden, Fryeburg, surgeon's 
detail; Orlando Hooper, Portland, George F. Moulton, Portland, and Joseph 
Wescott, Windham, brig. amb. corps; Edward Kelly, Portiand, cook. Musi- 
cians: James F. Bartiett, Portland, and William H. Colby, Portiand, assisting 
wounded. Wagoner Samuel E. Silsby, Portiand, tools wagon. 

Company C. 
First Lieutenant, Edward Moore, Portland, commanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, George W. Verrill, Norway. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Jordan M. Hall, Casco, Asa L. Downs, Minot, 
William F. Morrill, Durham, Gustavus C. Pratt, Oxford. 

CORPORALS. 

Josiah G. M. Spiller, Casco, Cyrus T. Pratt, Poland, 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



203 



Jas. F. Strout, Raymond, color guard, James L. Fuller, Minot, 
George B. Dunn, Poland. 



Allen, Joseph A., Raymond, 
Black, Lawson S., Bethel, 
Campbell, Alexander, Minot, 
Dean, Abraham, Jr., Oxford, 
Durgin, George A., Minot, 
Graffam, Henry, Casco, 
Hawley, John, Farmington, 
Mills, Fessenden M., Norway, 
Perkins, George F., Minot, in part, 
Ricker, Wentworth P., Poland, 
Strout, Charles W., Minot, 
Welch, Stephen S., Casco, 



PRIVATES. 

Berry, James, Naples, 
Brown, Horace J., Poland, in part, 
Churchill, Allen M., Poland, 
Duran, Josiah, Poland, 
Faunce, William, Oxford, 
Haskell, Samuel F., Poland, 
Maybury, Enoch, Naples, 
Pattee, Andrew J., Poland, 
Pratt, Addison B., Minot, 
Strout, Albert, Raymond, 
Verrill, Richard, Raymond, 
Witham, Henry, Casco. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Preble Soper, 
Hebron, in provo. guard; George G. Bridgham, Poland, hosder brig, h'dqrs; 
Orrin Downs, Oxford, teamster supply train; Chester J. Dunn, New Glouces- 
ter, assist, to wounded; John B. Evans, Raymond, cook; D. S. N. Thurlow, 
Raymond, regtM pioneer. Musician Stephen W. Ganunon, Poland, in charge 
of stretcher bearers. Wagoner James E. Fulton, Raymond, supply train. 

Company D. 
Captain, John C. Perry, Portiand. 
First Lieutenant, Newton Whitten, Portland. 
Second Lieutenant, Stephen Graffam, Portland. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Franklin I. Whittemore, Portland, 

Daniel J. Chandler, Lewiston, Newton W. Parker, Lewiston. 

CORPORALS. 

Bernard Hogan, Lewiston, color guard, George A. Parker, Lewiston, 
Melvin Davis, Lewiston, George F. Hanna, Portland. 

PRIVATES. 

Austin, Joseph, Lewiston, Baker, Edwin G., Lewiston, 

Bickford, Nathaniel G., Lewiston, Chadderton, Joseph, Lewiston, 

Currier, George O., Lewiston, 



Cobb, Daniel, Windham, 
Dwelley, Samuel L., Lewiston, 
Faunce, Oilman, Lewiston, 
Gammon, Samuel H., Portland, 
Groves, Laphorest, Lewiston, 
Holt, John, Lewiston, 
Lane, William N., Lewiston, 
Parker, George I., Lewiston, 
Rogers, Ezra P., Lewiston, 
Skillin, Hiram B., Portland, 
Toole, Tliomas, Lewiston, 



Fall, Melvin, Lebanon, 
Fowler, Levi, Lewiston, 
Goodwin, Henry G., So. Berwick, 
Hays, Charles H., Portland, 
Hulme, James, Lewiston, 
Mills, Joseph N., Portland, 
Penley, Henry H., Lewiston, 
Rounds, Isaac, Lewiston, • 
Sweeney, Michael, Lewiston, 



Winter, Amos G., Lewiston. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Charles H. Pink- 
ham, Lebanon, Livingston's N. Y. battery; Charles W. Peasley, Lewiston, 
div. provo. guard; William Bodge, Lewiston, orderly div. h*dqrs; Warren 
S. Butler, Lewiston, regt'l hosp. nurse; Thomas M. Dennett, Portland, 



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204 MAmE AT GETTYSBURG. 

hostler; Edmund D. Field, Portland, in amb. corps, stretcher bearer; John 
Hogan, Lewiston, regt'l pioneer, stretcher bearer; Thomas C. Haley, Lew- 
iston, and John E. Newman, Portland, div. supply train; Elijah P. Harmon, 
Lewiston, hostler div. h'dqrs; Frank A. McDonald, Lewiston, and Bradford 
Stevens, Lewiston, div. amb. train; Charles McCarty, Portland, guard at 
hospital; Isaiah G. Mason, Lewiston, brig, blacksmith. Wagoner Frank C. 
Houghton, Lewiston. 

Company E. 
Captain, Ellis M. Sawyer, Cape Elizabeth. 
Second Lieutenant, Frederick A. Sawyer, Portland. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Herman Q. Mason, Portland. 

Charles F. Vanhom, Portland, Oliver E. Jordan, Cape Elizabeth. 

CORPORALS. 

George F. Small, Cape Elizabeth, William M. Loring, Yarmouth, 
Herbert Soule, Yarmouth, Albert O. Baker, Yarmouth, color gd. 

PRIVATES. 

Adderton, Josiah M. , No. Yarmouth, Allen, Albion S. , Freeport, ( part July 2 ) . 
Anthoine, Edwin D., Cape Elizabeth, Baker, Charles W., Yarmouth, 
Barstow, Jeremiah R., Cumberland, Blackstone, Jordan, Pownal, 
Blake, Elijah, No. Yarmouth, Brown, John N., Cape Elizabeth, 

Bruce, Rufus S., Yarmouth, Colley, Charles L., No. Yarmouth, 

Doughty, George W., Cape Elizabeth, Goff, Lucius S., Gray, 
Hall, James H., Yarmouth, Harmon, Arthur A., Cajje Elizabeth, 

Hayes, David P., No. Yarmouth, Hayes, Francis E., No. Yarmouth, 
Holyoke, Charles G., Yarmouth, Huff, Samuel, Jr., Portland, 
Johnson, Albert A., Freeport, Jordan, Simon, Cape Elizabeth, 

King, William H., Woolwich, Eng., Lombard, John T., Cape Elizabeth, 
Loring, Joseph H., Yarmouth, Marston, E. Greeley, Yarmouth, 

Milliken, Samuel, Cape Elizabeth, Mitchell, Tristram P., Yarmouth, 
Pargade, Cheri, No. Yarmouth, Plowman, Oliver, Scarborough, 

Rideout, Joseph M., Cumberland, Ross, George E., Gray, 
Seabury, Ammi D., Yarmouth, Soule, George O. D., Yarmouth, 

Sparks, James E., Yarmouth, Thompson*, Charles H., Gray, 

True, HoUis, Pownal, Whitney, William J., No. Yarmouth. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Standish P. 
Reed, Yarmouth, R. L battery; Aaron Hodgdon, Pownal, cook; Francis H. 
Hale, Paris, and Moses McKenny, Cape Elizabeth, div. provo. guard; Will- 
iam H. Gore, Gray, and Lewis A. Simpson, Gray, amb. corps; David V. 
Lovell, Pownal, and William F. Roberts, Cape Elizabeth, teamsters. Wag- 
oner Lewis W. Lombard, Portiand, with trains. 

Company F. 
First Lieutenant, Joseph A. Perry, Portland, commanding. 
[Act'g Second Lieut., Serg.-Major Henry L. Bartels, com'd, not mustered.] 
First Sergeant, Hannibal S. Warren, Norway. 
Sergeant, Charles P. Jackson, Woodstock. 

corporals. 
Zephaniah E. Sawtelle, Paris, Asa G. Charles, Norway, 

George R. Fickett, Portland, William D. Merrill, Norway, color gd., 

Albert C. Gammon, Norway, Austin Hanson, Hiram, 

Otis H. Dyer, Paris. 



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SEVENTEENTH BEGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



205 



Allen, George H., Shapleigh, 
Burgess, Joseph P., Brownfield, 
Day, Henry, Jr., Brownfield, 
Famham, Luther B., Woodstock, 
Gannon, William, Greenwood, 
Kenniston, George G., Brownfield, 
Libby, Richard L., Windham, 
Morse, Moses H., Paris, 
Newcomb, Charles A., Sebago, 
Parker, Isaac, Hiram, 
Stone, Henry F., Lebanon, 
Thome, Edgecomb N., Brownfield, 
Washburn, Almon T., Paris, 
Whitman, George W., Woodstock, 



PRIVATES. 

Ames, Willard O., Greenwood, 
Curtis, Oliver G., Paris, 
Estes, Joshua P., Bethel, 
Farr, Solomon, Greenwood, 
Holt, Calvin, Norway, 
Knapp, James H. S., Paris, 
Morse, Edward F., Norway, 
Morton, Melville, Westbrook, 
Newhall, Eugene P., Paris, 
Pratt, Levi A., Paris, 
Thome, Bamett, Woodstock, 
Twitchell, Charles H., Paris, 
Washbum, Linas G., Paris, July 2, 
Woodman, John M., Hiram. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant Frank L. Berry, 
Paris, amb. corps; Privates: Hosea R. Allen, Hiram, and William Spencer, 
Baldwin, hospital nurses; William H. Day, Brownfield, in 4th N. Y. battery; 
Ephraim H. Brown, Norway, corps provo. guard; Lemuel B. Carter, Paris, 
and William H. Gray, Brownfield, amb. corps; William H. Downs, Paris, 
teamster supply train; Isaac E. Osgood, Hiram, guard to convalescents; 
William H. Thome, Bridgton, amb. train; Cyrus S. Tucker, Norway, brig, 
saddler; Wentworth H. Shaw, Bridgton, provo. guard; Seth Wadsworth, 
Hiram, surgeon's detail. Musician John C. McArdle, Paris, assistant for 
wounded. Wagoner Nathaniel LeBarron, Greenwood, quartermaster's dept. 

Company G. 
Second Lieutenant, Hiram R. Dyar, Farmington, commanding company. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, John N. Morrill, Strong, 

Walter F. Noyes, Jay, James Snowman, Weld, 

Stephen H. Roberts, Berwick, Lloyd W. Lamos, Berwick. 

CORPORALS. 

Johiel B. Blethen, Madrid, Albert L. Bradbury, Avon, 

Jeremy P. Wyman, Strong, Benjamin F. Huff, Buxton, color guard. 

PRIVATES. 

Amold, Edgar W., Farmington, Bean, Nelson O., Industry (July 3d), 

Butterfield, Augustus F., Farmington, Colomy, Elbridge, Berwick, 



Dunnell, Alvah L., Buxton, 
Frederic, George A., Temple, 
Ham, Charles H., Berwick, 
Houston, Elbridge L., Weld, 
Kannady, George H., Phillips, 
Kimball, John H., Jay, 
Manson, John S., Buxton, 
Pinkham, Francis, Berwick, 
Rollins, Albert G., New Sharon, 
Steams, Albert M., Weld, 



Eastman, George A., Berwick, 
Hackett, Sumner S., Strong, 
Hanscomb, Eben B., Buxton, 
Hurd, Francis E., Berwick, 
Kannady, Warren, Avon, 
Lawrence, James B., Weld, 
Norton, Oliver D., Industry, 
Roberts, James A., Berwick, 
Sawyer, Isaac D., Buxton, 
Thompson, John, Madrid, 



Vaughan, Sylvester, New Vineyard, Wallingford, George, Berwick, 
Wentworth, Henry R., Berwick, Whitehouse, Charles T., Berwick, 

Wilder, Silas, Temple. 



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MAINE AT GETTT8BURG. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal John W. Cope- 
land, Worcester, Mass., provo. guard. Privates: Francis O. Bean, Industry, 
teamster div. train; Luther Childs, Salem, R. I. batt'y; George L. Hosmer, 
Farmington, regt*l detail; Asa Jennings, Farmington, hosp. nurse; Joseph 
L. McLaughlin, Weld, 4th N. Y. batt'y; John Plaisted, Temple, stretcher 
bearer; James E. S. Pray, Berwick, field hosp. ass't; Charles M. Rand, Weld, 
cook; Ebenezer Roberts, Berwick, div. provo. guard; John Vaughan, Ber- 
wick, hosp. attend* t. Wagoner Leonard T. Vosmos, New Sharon, with trains. 

Company H. 
Captain, Almon L. Fogg, Westbrook. 
Act*g 2d Lieut, istSergt. George A. Whidden, Westbrook; com*d not must' d. 

sergeants. 
Stephen P. Hart, Westbrook, acting First Sergeant, 
William H. Sturgis, Standish, Charles J. Bond, Windham, 

James H. Loring, Westbrook, color bearer. 

CORPORALS. 

Sumner Winslow, Westbrook, James M. Webb, Westbrook, 

George Barrows, Harrison, Robert B. Whitcomb, Standish, 

Charles R. Meserve, Hallowell. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, Frank, Westbrook, Barber, William, Westbrook, 

Bond, Benjamin F., Gorham, Brackett, Horace N., Harrison, 

Chute, Charles A., Westbrook, Cobb, Solomon, Westbrook, 

Cobb, Uriah, Windham, Crosby, Leonard E., Westbrook, 

Davis, Albert S., Standish, Davis, John S., HoUis, 

Dow, Benjamin A., Standish, Dyer, Roscoe G., Sebago, 

Hatch, Royal S., Westbrook, Hicks, Ephraim, Gorham, 

Jones, Edward H., Westbrook, Libby, Darius S., Falmouth, 

Martin, Ira L., Sebago, Plaisted, Trafton S., Westbrook, 

Rand, Royal, Windham, Sanborn, Charles W., Otisfield, 

Scribner, Bourdon, Harrison, Small, Oliver F., Limington, 

Spurr, Llewellyn, Otisfield, Thomas, Charles W., Westbrook, 

Thomas, Manuel, Windham, Winslow, Nathaniel P., Westbrook. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal Albion P. Stiles, 
Gorham, corps postmaster. Privates: Andrew Saunders, Sebago, 3d R. L 
batt'y (wounded July 2d); John G. Scott, Westbrook, Smith's 4th N. Y. 
batt'y; Franklin E. Morse, Otisfield, battalion of convalescents; Cyrus Chap- 
lin, Naples, and Luther E. Hall, Harrison, stretcher bearers; William S. 
Hanscomb, Windham, div. hosp. nurse; Andrew J. Larrabee, Westbrook, 
and Mesach P. Larry, Windham, surgeon's detail; Charles A. Warren, Stan- 
dish, amb. corps; Leonard Pride, Westbrook, cook; James G. Sturgis, Stan- 
dish, hosp. ass't; Daniel W. Haskell, Harrison, and Van R. Morton, West- 
brook, div. provo. guard; Horace B. Cummings, Portland, and Thomas D. 
Emery, Standish, quarterm'r dept.; Jabez Marriner, Westbrook, commiss*y 
dept.; Alonzo Moses, Standish, hostler; Thomas Sands, Standish, brig, 
h'dqrs; Alphonzo A. Spear, Standish, teamster; Henry C. Hatch, Sebago. 

Company L 
Captain, William Hobson, Saco. 
First Lieutenant, James O. Thompson, Portland. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



207 



SERGEANTS. 

ist Sergeant, Frank C. Adams, Saco, Charles C. Cole, Hiram, 
Oliver D. Blake, Biddeford, Charles J. Goodwin, Saco. 

CORPORALS. 

Samuel E. Jenness, Biddeford, Charles H. Parcher, Biddeford, 

Aurelius A. Robertson, Bethel, Owen Stacy, Saco, 

Frederick A. Mitchell, Saco, color guard. 

PRIVATES. 

Bradbury, Thomas C, Biddeford, 



Benson, Robert, Saco, 
Brand, Tliomas, Saco, 
Goodwin, Charles E., Saco, 
Harmon, Andrew J., Saco, 
Holmes, Hiram G., Biddeford, 
Jordan, Charles A., Saco, 
Kimball, George, Saco, 
Richardson, George A., Limington, 
Rounds, Walter, Scarborough, 
Simpson, John H., Scarborough, 
Sweetsir, James F., Biddeford, 



Brown, James B., Gorham, 
Haley, John, Saco, 
Hill, Joseph, Saco, 
Irish, Melville, Gorham, 
Jose, James W., Saco, 
Libby, Henry H., Scarborough, 
Roberts, John H., Gorham, 
Sawyer, Charles F., Baldwin, 
Small, Edwin, Limington, 
Tasker, George F., Saco, 



Waterhouse, Winfield S., Scarboro*, Wentworth, David A., Brownfield, 
White, Charles M., Standish. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Musician William H. Atkin- 
son, Limington, clerk brig, h'dqrs. Privates: Allen H. Abbott, Saco, brig, 
h'dqrs; James C. Blaisdell, Lebanon, amb. corps; Thomas Clark, Saco, 
hosUer; Alvin Hodge, Biddeford, 4th N. Y. batt*y; John A. Kilham, Saco, 
amm'n train guard; Michael McGrath, Biddeford, teamster; William H. H. 
Pillsbury, Shapleigh, regt'l surgeon's clerk; Thomas F. Perkins, Biddeford, 
at corps h*dqrs; Benjamin P. Ross, Biddeford, brig, quarterm'r dept; Eli- 
phaz Ripley, Buckfield, blacksmith div. h'dqrs. 

Company K. 
Captain, Milton M. Young, Lewiston. 
First Lieutenant, Putnam S. Boothby, Biddeford. 
First Sergeant, Isaac O. Parker, Kittery. 
Sergeant, Harry Crosby, Kittery. 

corporals. 
Andrew J. Miller, Auburn, William H. Neal, Kittery, 

Robert H. Mathes, Durham, N. H., Edwin A. Duncan, Kittery, color guard, 
James A. Bennett, Auburn, George J. Strout, Auburn. 

PRIVATES. 

Austin, Robert W., Gardiner, 
Bunker, Daniel B., Kittery, 
Butland, F. Augustus, Kittery, 
Cotton, John H., Auburn, 
Grace, Andrew J., Jr., Kittery, 
Hatch, Samuel O., Auburn, 
Keith, Augustus H., Auburn, 
Lunt, Horace, Kittery, 
Phillips, Hiram B., Kittery, 
Wardwell, Cyrus T., Oxford, 



Achom, Casper, Kittery, 
Beals, Charles A., Auburn, 
Bumham, John C, Kittery, 
Churchill, Robert J., Kittery, 
Goodwin, Valentia H., Kittery, 
Hall, Silas P., Oxford, 
Hussey, Daniel H., Kittery, 
Lord, Oren, Waterford, 
Lyon, George W., Auburn, 
Remick, John H., Kittery, 
Young, Augustine, Auburn. 



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208 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBO. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: John M. Crocker, 
Auburn, div. provo. guard; George H. Holt, Albany, at corps h*dqrs; John 
Holden, Kittery, corps provo. guard; Elisha Hall, Auburn, amm*n train 
guard; John F. Hewey, Auburn, and Nathan B. Lord, Abbott, teamsters; 
Addison A. Miller, Auburn, cook. Musician Wesley D. Rowell, Kittery, 
ass*t to wounded. 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Adjutant Charles W. Roberts, right leg, amputated. 

Company A. 
Acting First Sergeant Alvin F. Blake, wounded, died Aug. 2. 
Sergeant Fayette M. Paine, wounded, both legs. 
Corporal George T. Jones, wounded, leg. 

PRIVATES. 

Brown, Jacob C, killed. Hodsdon, Joseph A., killed. 

Marston, Horace G., wounded, foot Milliken, Charles, wounded, arm. 
Skillings, Franklin, wounded, thigh. Spaulding, David M., wounded, leg. 
Tucker, George W., missing, fell out before battle. 

Company B. 
Second Lieut. William H. Green, July 3, shell concussion; resumed duties. 

SERGEANTS. 

Horace A. Smith, wounded, leg. Cyrus M. Hall, July 3, killed. 

Corporal George W. Jones, wounded, leg; died July 23. 

PRIVATES. 

Brackett, Byron, wounded, head. Carruthers, Charles E. , w* d ; died July 9, 
Davis, Samuel C, w*d; died July 4. Duran, George E. H., July 3, w*d. 
Elliot, William S., wounded, shoulder. Emery, Moses D.,w*d, hip; died July 9. 
Flannagan, James, wounded. Lehane, John, wounded, leg. 

McKeen, James, July 3, w'd, head. McKenzie, Matthew, wounded, arm. 
Morton, Sidney G., wounded, foot Norton, George L., July 3, w'dsh'lder. 
Noyes, Alvin A., wounded, groin. Quint, Monroe, killed July 3. 
Walker, Alden B., wounded, groin. Wiley, Joseph, wounded, leg. 

Company C. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Verrill, wounded, thigh. 

SERGEANTS. 

William F. Morrill, wounded, leg. Gustavus C. Pratt, three wounds, arm. 

CORPORALS. 

James F. Strout, color guard, w*d, thigh. George B. Dunn, wounded, shoulder. 

PRIVATES. 

Black, Lawson S., wounded. Dean, Abraham, Jr., wounded, thigh. 

Faunce, William, wounded, side. Mills, Fessenden M., w*d; died July 3. 
Pattee, Andrew J., w*d; died July 9. Pratt, Addison B., wounded, thigh. 
Strout, Charles W., July 3, w*d, neck. Witham, Henry, killed. 

Company D. 
First Lieutenant Newton Whitten, July 3, wounded, foot. 
Second Lieutenant Stephen Graffam, wounded, arm. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 209 

CORPORALS. 

Bernard Hogan, color guard, w*d; died July i8. Hanna, George F., w'd, leg. 

PRIVATES. 

Bickford, Nathaniel G., wounded, leg. Cobb, Daniel, wounded, head. 
Dwelly, Samuel L., w*d; died July 8. Fowler, Levi, killed. 
Hulme, James, wounded, leg. Hays, Charles H., wounded. 

Company E. 
Sergeant Oliver E. Jordan, wounded, leg. 

corporals. 
George F. Small, wounded, thigh. Albert O. Baker, color guard, w'd, hand. 

PRIVATES. 

Baker, Charles W., wounded. Brown, John N., July 3, wounded, leg. 

GoflF, Lucius F., wounded, hand. Harmon, Arthur A., killed. 

Hayes, Francis E., wounded, breast. Johnson, Albert A., wounded, arm. 
Sparks, James E., wounded. Whitney, William J., wounded, side. 

Company F. 
Sergeant Charles P. Jackson, killed; first man hit; reported w'd and missing. 

CORPORALS. 

ZephaniahE.Sawtelle,wounded,hand. William D. Merrill, color g*d, w'd, hand. 
Austin Hanson, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Ames, Willard O., w'd; died July 24. Day, Henry, Jr., wounded, leg. 
Day, William H., w'd; died Aug. 31. Farr, Solomon, wounded, head. 
Holt, Calvin, w'd; died Jan. 6, 1864. Kenniston, George G., w'd, bowels. 
Libby, Richard L., wounded, arm. Morse, Moses H., wounded, hand. 
Twitchell, Charles H.,w'd,arm and leg. Washburn, Almon T., wounded, side. 

Company G. 
Second Lieutenant Hiram R. Dyar, killed. 
Sergeant James Snowman, July 3, wounded, hip. 
Corporal Benjamin F. HuflF, color guard, wounded. 

PRIVATES. 

Arnold, Edgar W., wounded, arm. Childs, Luther, det'd R. I. batt'y, w'd. 
Colomy Elbridge, wounded. Eastman, George A., wounded. 

Hackett, Sumner S., wounded, arm. Hanscomb, Eben B., wounded, hand. 
. Houston, Elbridge L., wounded. Hurd, Francis E., killed. 

Lawrence, James B., w'd and prisoner. Rollins, Albert G., killed. 
Sawyer, Isaac D., killed. Thompson, John, wounded. 

Company H. 
Captain Almon L. Fogg, wounded, abdomen; died July 4. 

SERGEANTS. 

Stephen P. Hart, acting First Sergeant, wounded, leg. 

Charles J. Bond, wounded, leg. James H. Loring, color bearer, killed. 

CORPORALS. 

George Barrows, killed. Robert B. Whitcomb, wounded, leg. 

Sumner Winslow, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Cobb, Solomon, wounded, arm. Dyer, Roscoe G., killed. 

Hicks, Ephraim, killed. Jones, Edward H., wounded, breast 

Martin, Ira L., wounded; died Aug. 9. Rand, Royal, w'd July 2; died July 3. 
Sanborn, Charles W., wounded, foot Saunders, Andrew, det'd R. I. batt'y, 
Spurr, Llewellyn, wounded, leg. wounded. 



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210 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Company I. 
First Sergeant, Franklin C. Adams, wounded, hand. 

CORPORALS. 

Aurelius A. Robertson,w'd;diedJuly5. Owen Stacy, wounded. 

Frederick A. Mitchell, on color guard, wounded, leg amputated; died July lo 

PRIVATES. 

Brand, Thomas, wounded, leg. Jordan, Charles A., wounded, leg. 

Kimball, George, wounded, leg. Small, Edwin, wounded, shoulder. 

Wentworth, David A., wounded, leg. White, Charles M., wounded, arm. 

Company K. 
Captain Milton M. Young, wounded July 2; died Aug. 13. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant Isaac O. Parker, wounded; died July 7. 

F. Aug^tusButland,w*d; died Sept. 6. Harry Crosby, wounded, left leg. 

CORPORALS. 

William H. Neal, killed. James A. Bennett, wounded, hand. 

PRIVATES. 

Austin, Robert W., wounded. Beals, Charles A., July 3, wounded. 

Bunker, Daniel B., killed; Grace, Andrew J., Jr., July 3, w'd, hip. 

reported wounded and miMlnar. j^all, Silas P., wounded, hand. 

Hatch, Samuel O., w'd; died July 5. Hussey, Daniel H., wounded, leg. 
Lord, Oren, wounded, chest. 



REGIMENTAL DEDICATION OF MONUMENT, 

October 10, 1888. 

Brevet Lieut.-Col. Edward Moore, President of the Seven- 
teenth Maine Regiment Association, called the large assembly 
to order at the monument in the Wheatfield and introduced 
Rev. Charles G. Holyoke, late Sergeant-Major of the regiment, 
who offered the following 

PRAYER. 

Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, we have reason to thank thee that 
thou hast spared our lives until this day. We thank thee that in thy good 
providence we are permitted to gather here to pay this tribute of respect to 
the memory of our departed comrades. O God, we thank thee for our land, 
the land bequeathed to us by our forefathers, the land of liberty and freedom. 
We thank thee that when war broke forth upon our land, with all its ruin, 
terror and woe, and there were those who would gladly have torn asunder 
our country, that there came forth from their homes and firesides friends and 
dear ones, those who were loyal and true, to defend our beloved land. And 
we are here to-day to dedicate this monument to the memory of those who 
on this sacred spot shed their blood and laid down their lives in defending 
our flag and nation. We would remember what they endured and sufiFered 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 211 

for the cause of freedom. Grant that, as in time to come, to all who shall 
visit this ground and this region made sacred by the blood of patriots shed, 
they shall remember at what cost and sacrifice our Union, our Country, was 
preserved. God bless our land, and may peace evermore prevail throughout 
all our borders, for thy name's sake. Amen. 

ADDRESS BY BREVET LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MOORE. 

Comrades: — 

A quarter of a century has passed by since you were upon 
this field, a field which you helped to make historic by your 
deeds of valor on July 2 and 3, 1863. You visit this field 
to-day for the purpose of dedicating this beautiful monument, 
erected by our state to commemorate the gallant deeds of her 
sons, and to perpetuate the memory of those of the Seventeenth 
Maine regiment who fell upon this decisive battlefield of the war. 

You will pardon me if, on this occasion, I refer briefly to 
the war record of the regiment, aside from the part it took in 
the battle of Gettysburg. During its term of service the regi- 
ment took part in twenty-seven battles, besides doing duty in 
petty engagements and on the picket line during one-fifth of 
the whole term of enlistment. In the statistical tables by W. 
F. Fox of losses in battles, we find a list of " 300 fighting regi- 
ments," comprising those whose aggregate deaths by battle 
amounted to 130 or more ; we also find his list of 45 infantry 
regiments that lost over 200, killed or died from wounds in 
battles ; we also find a list of 22 regiments out of all the regi- 
ments of the Union armies whose mortality by battle exceeded 
fifteen per cent of their enrolment. In regard to the last list 
he says : "The regiments in this list can fairly claim the honor 
of having encountered the hardest fighting in the war. They 
may not have done the most effective fighting, but they evi- 
dently stood where the danger was thickest, and were the ones 
which faced the hottest musketry. They were all well-known, 
reliable commands, and served with unblemished records. The 
maximum of loss is reached in this table." We find the Seven- 
teenth Maine in all these lists. 

Your connection with the battle of Gettysburg dates back 
to June 11, 1863, when you left "Camp Sickles," Va. After 
tedious marches, covering over 200 miles, you arrived at the 



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212 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

college near Emmitsburg, the afternoon of July 1st. On the 
morning of July 2(1, at 1 : 30 o'clock, the regiment received 
orders to assemble for a march. At 4 : 30 a. m. it started for 
Gettysburg, and at 10 o'clock arrived on the field of battle, 
having marched thirteen miles in five and a half hours. Lee 
was just extending his lines to his right, his skirmishers threat- 
ening the Enunitsburg road. A little after noon the regiment 
was placed at the left of the Peach Orchard to support the brig- 
ade skirmish line, where it remained until the battle began. 
A few minutes after the first shot was fired, at about 4 o'clock 
p. M., we entered this Wheatfield with 350 rifles, 20 officers 
and 3 acting as officers, commissioned but not mustered, and 
became actively engaged with the troops of Hood's division of 
Longstreet's corps. We moved at double-quick across this 
Wheatfield under fire, until we gained possession of this stone- 
wall in our front. Our right extended some distance beyond 
the rivulet, our colors resting on the spot where this monument 
stands, our left along the wall as far as a large bowlder. 

The contest for this wall became very severe along our 
whole front, the lines of battle being not over one hundred 
yards apart, and a number of times during the contest the 
enemy were upon one side while the Seventeenth was upon the 
other. Winslow's battery, which was located in rear of our 
left flank, on the ridge up there, did splendid service, and 
assisted the regiment to drive the enemy back. Shortly after 
the regiment became engaged, a small conmiand, said to be the 
rallied portions of two regiments, was brought up in rear of 
the right flank of the Seventeenth, with the evident intention of 
placing them in line, connecting on our right ; but while they 
were yet some seventy-five yards in our rear, the mounted 
officer leading them fell from his horse, wounded, and these 
troops disappeared from our sight without delay. Our right 
flank being unprotected, the enemy attempted to gain our rear, 
but his movements were discovered, and our right wing was 
refused to nearly a right angle with this wall. Those of the 
enemy who attempted to gain our rear were exposed to a mur- 
derous fire from our right wing, and they retired. After every 
repulse the enemy would re-form, bringing up fresh troops abd 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT: MOORE'S ADDRESS. 213 

extending his lines for fresh assaults, and so the fight continued 
along this wall until about 6 o'clock, when we received orders 
to fall back across this field to the cross road on the ridge, and 
replenish our ammunition. Our boys left this position, which 
they had so long and successfully defended, with reluctance, 
but the enemy had gained ground on both our right and left, 
and Winslow's battery had been withdrawn. The enemy fol- 
lowed up and attempted to gain our flanks. His movements 
were noticed, just as we reached the road, by our gallant divis- 
ion conmiander. Gen. David Bell Bimey, who rode up, took 
the Seventeenth, and led it in a charge. With cheers the regi- 
ment, in line of battle, came down this Wheatfield and forced 
the enemy back over this wall. Although our ammunition was 
low, the fighting was continuous and of a most deadly character. 
The loss in officers and men was very severe in this part of the 
fight. After a contest prolonged until about dusk, our men 
being in the open field without shelter, but yielding no ground, 
the regiment was finally relieved by other troops, and was 
ordered to withdraw from the Wheatfield. 

The colors of the regiment, our two flags, had their stand 
in two places in this field, as the manoeuvres of the battle car- 
ried the regiment. First, here at the wall, where this monu- 
ment stands ; later on, after our upheld standards advanced, 
at the centre of the regimental line, in that glorious charge 
under Bimey, they found their stationary place to be nearly in 
the centre of this field, about 100 yards east of the woods 
which yet bounds it on the west. The colors of the regiment, 
— the national and the state, — our glory and our pride 1 em- 
blems of progress and of achievements I And the Color-Guard 1 
let us recall our Color-Guard: National Color-Bearer, Cor- 
poral Lake of A ; State Colot-Bearer, Sergeant Loring of H ; 
the others were Corporals Saunders of B, Strout of C, Hogan 
of D, Baker of E, Merrill of F, Huff of G, Mitchell of I and 
Duncan of K, — ten in all, counting the bearers. The first to 
be hit was Strout, almost as soon as we reached this wall, — 
wounded, and left for dead on the field ; here he lay, part of 
the time unconscious, as the lines and missiles of warfare passed 
back and forth over him ; at length, on July 4th, to be restored 



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214 MAIHE AT OETTTSBURO. 

to US, not mortally wounded. Then Baker's turn came, and he 
lost a portion of his hand ; then Mitchell, mortally wounded. 
And so the guard grew less, the casualties being about equally 
divided between the two positions. At the second position. 
Sergeant Loring was instantly killed. The color, crimsoned 
with the blood of his fallen companion, was seized by Lake, 
who for a minute held both standaixls in his grasp, and then 
handed Loring's over to Corporal Merrill; the latter was 
wounded, and he in turn passed the color over to Corporal 
Duncan, who got it safely into bivouac that night. Corporals 
Huff and Hogan were wounded, the latter mortally ; only three 
of the ten were unscathed. Lake and Duncan were promoted 
to Sergeants on the field. This is what it meant to belong to 
the Color-Guard at Gettysburg. 

On the morning of July 3d the regiment was moved to 
the right, and assembled with the division in reserve. It so 
remained until noon, when we were startled by two signal guns 
from the Confederate side, which were the prelude to the most 
terrific cannonading our army ever experienced. For nearly 
two hours 160 guns sent shot and shell into our ranks, prepar- 
atory to Longstreet's assault upon the centre of the Union line. 
During this artillery duel we received orders to move to the 
right and reinforce the lines of General Doubleday. Proceed- 
ing at double-quick, we were soon at the front in position to 
aid in repelling the assault generally known as Pickett's charge. 
The regiment was formed in line supporting the 9th Mich, bat- 
tery. Throughout the assault the regiment was exposed to a 
severe artillery fire, and suffered a loss in both officers and men. 

At 9 p. M. you were sent to the front to perform picket 
duty, where you remained for the night. On the morning of 
the 4th the regiment, relieved from picket, was set to work 
throwing up earthworks. On the morning of July 5th, the 
Confederate army was on the retreat, and the battle of Gettys- 
burg was at an end. 

The list of casualties in the regiment during the engage- 
ments of July 2d and 3d ntunbered 132 killed and wounded. 
I deem it appropriate to read this roll of honor. [The killed 
and mortally wounded appear in the whole nominal list of cas- 
ualties following the list of " participants," on another page.] 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT: VERRILL's POEM. 215 

With justice to the memory of those heroes of the Seven- 
teenth Maine who here laid down their lives, defending this 
position as if it typified their country ; and speaking for its sur- 
vivors, sixty of whom, participants in this battle, being now 
present and ready to bear witness to the truth, I cannot close 
without stating that no circumstance, condition or act occurred 
on this Wheatfield July 2, 1863, that would warrant the plac- 
ing of that monument where it now stands, a few paces to the 
west of this of the Seventeenth Maine, as marking a place in 
line of battle ; for upon that very spot the ranks of the Seven- 
teenth stood July 2d, and fought from the opening of the con- 
test until nearly 6 o'clock that afternoon. We protest against 
the placing of that monument of the 115th Penn. on that spot, 
or within 200 feet of it. We also protest against the inscrip- 
tion upon that monument which, without justification, recites 
that July 2d "this regiment" [115th Penn.] "engaged the 
enemy here at 4.30 p. m." 

POEM. 

THE SEVENTEENTH MAINE IN THE WHEATFIELD. 
BT CAPTAIN QBOBOB W. VBBBILL. 

The foe! the foe advances! Mark you now his course, 
Straight for the Union left, where half-formed lines are seen. 
He aims to hurl his columns with resistless force 
Upon and through the Orchard, blushing with its fruit. 
The Hillock, slumbering in the shadow of its trees. 
Across the Wheatfield, happy with its ripening grain. 
Over the crags and pits and sloughs of Devil's Den, 
Around and up the steeps of Round Top's rugged sides; 
To smite, to pierce and crush, to tear and sweep away, 
The slender thread of Blue stretched out to bar his way! 

This only done, yea less, for at the Wheatfield' s verge 
The thread its centre finds; — ^unchecked even here the surge, 
And on and through will pour the torrent of the foe. 
To wreck the Union lines, engulf and overthrow. 

The foe comes on! and now the Wheatfield bare of troops! 
Haste, Bimey and de Trobriand! fill up the gap— 
This open gateway— quick! or you will be too late! 
Even now the skirmish challenge rings through rifle tube, 
And spatters of the coming storm fall here and there! 
Nearer the Southron comes, — a mighty wave of Gray! 
No line of Blue, no Northern breasts his course to stay! 



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216 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Up now, ye sons of Maine! — in double-quick go in 

And fill the gap! — ^though thin your line, stretch out and fill! — 

Ah, none too soon! for even while the bending grain 

Still kisses Northern feet that press it as they speed, 

The angry Southern missiles clip its nodding plumes! 

Stand firm, O Pine Tree Sons; — upon you now is laid 
The safety of the whole!— Guard well the Wheatfield gate, 
You boys with Diamond Red and *' 17 *' shining there, 
Laughing in face of foe! — Can you be brave as gay ? 
To stand, though comrades none, on right or left, are nigh ? 
To stand, till succor comes ? If so it chance, to die ? 

Breaks now the storm! the iron bolts of war fly free! 
Mercy affrighted flies to Heaven! — ^but leaves a wall, — 
Blest wall of precious stones, with sparkling jets of fire! — 
Fierce flashes gleam; the leaden hail pours in; 
Thunder of guns, shrieking of shell, and hissing ball! 
Death and Destruction rampant in the sulphurous air; 
The Rebel yell, the Union cheer; and face to face 
The bayonet! — ^This is the hour that calls for manhood's best! 

And is the Seventeenth Maine still there ? — ^It wavers not; 

Its colors still, though rent in shreds, defiant float 

Its veterans firm! the earth beneath them quakes with dread! 

Hearts strong, nerves tempered in the flame of battle, theirs; 

Their true aim reaps its harvest; death and crippling wounds 

They deal to foe. But what they give, they take. 

Alas! by ones and tens our noble lads go down. 

The weeping grain wraps its soft mantle round the slain, 

And tenderly supports the wounded on its breast 

No succor yet! — ^and thin and thinner are the ranks. 
And fast the lessening store of cartridge goes — 
No aid! though eager thousands wait the word to come! — 
But more the honor due, as aid is less, in strife. 

Still there, our boys! Though foiled, recoiling from the shock, 
The foe, persistent, gathers up his scattered strength, 
Compact, full four to one, determined now to gain 
The field still firmly held by sturdy boys from Maine! 
Still held as if each stalk of grain with life-blood red, 
Were precious as the living hearts this life-blood shed. 

Again the yell! More withering now the battle blast! 
Lead to the tender flesh, iron to the brittle bone! 
Foes at the front charge in, and from the left and right 
Focus their fury here; — ^rages and roars the fight! 

By ones and tens and scores our best and bravest fall. 
Yet still undaunted there the rest! — ^Secession's wave 
Breaks on the Northern rocks! Disaster here is curbed 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 217 

In mid career! — hurled back the foe! — ^the Wheatfield saved! — 
Your duty done, O Seventeenth! here come two lines of Blue 
To guard and keep the ground, thus long hours held by you, 
The red-stained Wheatfield at immortal Gettysburg! 



Upon the spot where these men fought, to manhood true, 
Raise high the granite shaft, nor art nor treasure spare, 
To evidence, in lasting stone, the honor due 
To them, who battled thus, for love of country there; — 
And register the debt of gratitude, anew. 

ORATION. 

BT BRSVBT BBIQADIBB-aBNBBAL WILLIAM HOBSON. 

Comrades and Fellow dHzens : 

If a stranger from foreign lands should finish his inspection of our famous 
battlefields of the late war by a visit to Gett3rsburg, he might ask why this 
only of those many fields is covered with monuments of various designs, but 
all tasteful and elegant, and why this field in special manner is the Mecca of 
pilgrimage to all lovers of our Constitution and Union. The answer is not 
far to seek. The battle of Gettysburg enjoys a distinction which cannot be 
accorded to any other of the g^at conflicts of which the history of the war is 
full. It has been well said that it marks the high water of the tide of rebel- 
lion. The waves of fire which surged around these heights on the first three 
days of July, 1863, ever after receded until they sank into an eternal calm at 
Appomattox. Again, it was the only battle of magnitude which was fought 
on distinctively free soil, never again to be vexed by the tread of hostile 
armies. It was fought, too, at a point not far distant, at that time, from the 
centre of population of the United States, and at a time not far away from the 
middle of the four years' conflict All previous battles led up to Gettysburg; 
all subsequent battles led away from it. 

Still further, the fighting of the battle at this point was not the work of 
human design. Neither General Meade nor General Lee had the least inten- 
tion or idea of making this the scene of conflict. As the meeting in the sum- 
mer sky of two little clouds differently charged with electricity calls in all the 
neighboring forces of nature on either side until earth and heaven resound 
with the roar of nature's artillery, so the accidental meeting on the first day 
oi July, 1863, of Buford*s cavalry with the forces of the enemy, naturally and 
irresbtibly drew to the conflict on both sides all the powers of the oppos- 
ing armies. 

As to no General belongs the credit of causing the battle to be fought 
here, so to no one in particular more than another belongs the credit of con- 
ducting it to a successful issue. General Reynolds' orders on the first of 
July were not to bring on a general engagement He did not know when he 
moved to Buford's assistance that he was bringing on a general engagement, 
and, unfortunately for him and his country, he never knew it. Whether, if 
he had known it, he would have done differently, we never learned from him. 
This much we do know, that he was not a man to march away from the sound 
oi the enemy's guns, or to remain quiet when his comrades needed his 
assistance. 



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218 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

To General Howard, when he arrived upon the field, a serious problem 
was presented, the preservation of the shattered remnants of Reynolds* corps, 
and the selection of a position where that corps, united with his own, could 
make a stand against the forces of the rebels already flushed with victory. 
His keen, practised military eye rested upon Cemetery Hill, and to him 
belongs the credit of first placing our forces in position there. The arrival 
of the Twelfth corps, which was stationed on his right on Gulp's Hill and 
Rock Creek, the arrival of the Third corps which was put in position on his 
left, only later to be moved further to the left to let its first position be occu- 
pied by the Second corps, put our army in array for the movements of the 
second day. * 

Of those movements it is hardly necessary to say to any one who is at 
all conversant with strategy, and has studied the topography of the country, 
that the action of Major-General Sickles, our gallant and beloved corps com- 
mander, in advancing a portion of his forces to the Emmitsburg road, and 
there meeting the first brunt of the rebel attack, was the salvation of our 
army in that second day's fight. It shattered their lines in the first onset; it 
retarded their advance, and when they finally swung around and met our 
obstinate resistance here, in the Wheatfield, and that of the 124th N. Y., 
the Fourth Maine, the 40th N. Y. and other reg^ents on our left, by the 
** Devil's Den " and in the *' Valley of Death," time had been gained for the 
Fifth corps to come up, hold and successfully defend the ** Round Tops" 
and other points on our left. If Sickles had formed his line on the prolonga- 
tion of the line of the Second corps, in the depression of the land which you 
see, and had there awaited the rebel attack, with their outnumbering forces 
they would have gained possession of the ** Round Tops," and our left fiank 
would have been irretrievably turned. So, too, is due to the gallant and 
accomplished General Warren the credit of seeing the strategic importance 
of the *' Round Tops," and of ordering them to be occupied by the Fifth 
corps, which, after as brave and desperate fighting as was ever seen on any 
field, completed the repulse of the rebels on our left. On our right, the 
morning of the 3d, by attacking and driving back Ewell's corps, General 
Slocum made amends for his still unexplained failure to come to the help of 
Reynolds and Howard on the afternoon of the ist, while General Hancock's 
magnificent repulse of Pickett's charge in the afternoon is too well known to 
need praise or comment here. Each of these general officers, with the pos- 
sible exception hinted at, did the right thing at the right time. Together, 
but not simultaneously, they forged a chain of defense in which the breaking 
of any link would have been disastrous to the Union cause. 

As to no general officer belongs the special credit for what was accom- 
plished here, so no particular corps, division, brigade or regiment can claim 
precedence of its fellows in contributing to the successful result There was, 
probably, no batde in the war where the fighting was more evenly distributed 
among the troops engaged. With the exception of the Sixth corps, which, 
through no fault of its own, did not arrive on the field until late in the after- 
noon of the second day, and was only partially engaged on our left, every 
corps in all its parts was actively engaged at some period of the battle, as 
the ofifidal reports of losses show. It is worthy of note, too, in the light of 
the subsequent history of the war, that this battle was fought entirely by 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT: HOBSON'S ORATION. 219 

troops who had voluntarily enlisted for the defense of their country. No 
conscript nor bounty jumper aimed here his unwilling musket at his country's 
foes. The cohorts of the lame, the halt, the deaf, the blind, and the aged, 
with their gray hair dyed to the semblance of youth, who, from the follow- 
ing fall to the close of the war, filled our ambulances and hospitals, and 
obstructed the prosecution of the war, had not then made their appearance. 
The rapacious and unscrupulous recruiting officer had not then sent forward 
his levies from the slums of the cities and the jails of the counties. None of 
these can claim any share in this glorious victory. It was won by men who 
had a personal interest in the issue, who knew what that interest was, and 
were willing to risk their lives for the success of the cause for which they 
fought. For this reason, and because they recognized the supreme impor- 
tance of the crisis, I think there was no battle in the war where it was so 
littie necessary for officers to look out for, or watch over, their men. Every 
man was an officer to himself. So it can be said, in all truth, and must be 
said that to the humblest rear rank private, who fought here, is due as much 
honor and reverence for what he did, as even to the commander-in-chief. 

In addition to the special characteristics of the battle heretofore men- 
tioned, it may also be said that, if we consider the extent of territory covered 
by the conflict, the number of troops engaged, the proportion of losses to the 
number engaged in the action, the length of time the contest continued, the 
skill and bravery and even the desperation shown on both sides, and last 
and greatest of all, the magnitude of the issues involved, it must be reckoned 
as one of the greatest and most important battles ever fought upon the face 
of the globe. I said the magnitude of the issues involved. The other ele- 
ments to be considered can be weighed with almost mathematical accuracy, 
but no human scales can determine the weight and value of the victory at 
Gettysburg. Fortunately for us, fortunately for the world, we shall never 
know what the result would have been if victory had perched on the other 
banners. We only know that the hands on the dial which mark the progress 
of civilization would have been turned back tor an indefinite period. 

The history of that one word, civilization, in its primary and derived 
meanings, would give a more complete idea of the world's progress than 
all the histories that have ever been written. In its primary, active sense it 
denotes simply the making a man a citizen. In its later, derived and passive 
sense it includes all those advances and improvements in the arts, sciences, 
literature and morals which entitle a nation to call itself civilized. That word 
civilized has no synonyms, nor does it need any. You all know what 
it means. 

Now, I undertake to say, that there is a logical and historical connection 
between the active and the passive sense of this word; that in all ages and in 
all nations the development and advance of what we call civilization, in its 
ordinary sense, has been in direct ratio to the exercises of the rights, duties 
and powers of a citizen on the part of all the inhabitants of the different 
nations. And as, in a democracy only, does a citizen obtain the full exer- 
cise of his rights, duties and powers, so only in a democracy can be found 
the highest development of civilization. 

All the forms of government which have ever existed may be brought 
under one of three classes, a theocracy, an aristocracy, or a democracy. Of 



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220 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

these three forms theocracy is suited to man's lowest, and democracy to 
his highest, development. The failure of the republics of Greece and Rome 
was owing to the fact that they did not recognize the vital principles of 
democracy, the equality of all people before the law. They undertook to 
reconcile liberty and slavery under the same form of government, a mis- 
take which must always prove fatal to a democracy. It was the same 
mistake which came so near proving fatal to our form of government, and 
which culminated in the war of the rebellion. The founders of our government 
saw this danger, and, if they had forecast the future, would undoubtedly have 
made the abolition of slavery one of the conditions of the formation of the 
Federal Union. They knew perfectly well, from the logic of ethics and from 
the lessons of history, that liberty and slavery could not co-exist for any length 
of time under the same form of government But the necessity of superseding 
the old confederation, which was a mere rope of sand, by a Union which 
should create a Nation, and the fact that slavery was dying out from natural 
causes, and at that time bade fair to be eliminated before many years, led to 
a compromise in the formation of the Constitution which flatly contradicted 
the first clause of the Declaration of Independence, the foundation principle 
of the Revolutionary struggle, by recognizing the institution of slavery, 
and throwing certain safeguards around it, without even mentioning the 
word slave. 

It is needless to recount how the hopes and expectations of the founders 
of the Constitution were disappointed. The history of the country from 1789 
to 1861 is familiar to you all, as also that slavery, from being regarded as an 
institution merely to be tolerated for a limited time, came to claim, and did 
actually obtain, a dominant influence in national politics, as a matter of right. 
The history of the compromise in the formation of the Constitution was the 
same as the history of all compromises between right and wrong. It merely 
postponed the evil day. Wrong intrenched itself, and only made it more 
difficult for right to prevail, when it was finally forced to the conflict, as it 
always must be. 

The inevitable tendency of the existence of slavery, in the midst of insti- 
tutions otherwise free, had not been unobserved. More than fifty years ago, 
De Tocqueville, the eminent French statesman, visited this country and spent 
two years in the careful study of the working of our institutions. He seems 
to have been the only foreigner who ever thoroughly understood them, and 
in his famous book, " Democracy in America/' published after his return, 
he pointed out slavery as the chief source of our danger, and foretold the 
troubles to which it would give rise. He could only foretell, however, nor 
could any one prevent. Moral laws work as certainly and as remorselessly 
in the domain of politics as do the laws which govern the operations of nature. 

** Mute thought has a sonorous echo," says an eminent French writer. 
He might have added that the reverberations of the echo are proportioned 
to the moral power of the thought. The thunders of the artillery at Gettys- 
burg, louder than had ever before been heard on an open field of battle, were 
the echoes of the preamble to the Declaration of Independence. They pro- 
claimed that none but free men should live in a free country, and that they 
all should have equal rights and power under the laws. Only in this way 
can a free government exist, as the framers and signers of the Declaration 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT: HOBSON'S ORATION. 221 

well understood. The war of the rebellion was» then, a contest on the part 
of the government for self-preservation, a duty as incumbent on a democracy 
as upon an individual. 

The nation had shown its power to resist foreign foes; would it be able 
to overcome those of its own household? Should the balance between the 
centripetal and centrifugal forces, under which it had been intended that the 
members of our political system should move in harmony around a common 
centre, be disturbed, and these members be allowed to drift oflF into space at 
their own will, perhaps hereafter to be constantly coming into collision with 
one another? These questions were decisively answered at Gettysburg. The 
end did not come then, but it was made certain. No rational person doubted 
the outcome after Gettysburg. The red-handed perjurer and usurper who 
then sat on the throne of France, waiting and wishing and plotting, but not 
daring to interpose for the destruction of a government which his own nation 
had helped to establish, concealed more carefully, if he did not cease, his 
machinations. The tories of England, the enemies of everybody but them- 
selves, confined their assistance to the Confederates to such acts as could 
not be made the pretext for war. Thenceforward to a much greater extent 
than before, the sympathies and the moral support of the civilized world were 
on the side of the Union. The battle of Gettysburg had shown the possi- 
bility and the probability, ay, the certainty, of the fulfillment of Bishop Berke- 
ley's famous prophecy: 

"Westward the course of empire takes its way, 
The four first acts already past: 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day, 
Time's noblest offspring is the last.'*^ 

The fulfillment of this prophecy will result from the lessons taught by the 
war, lessons which ought to be self-evident, that a democratic form of gov- 
ernment can be permanent only when all men living within it have equal 
rights under the laws, and have sufficient intelligence and moral sense to 
exercise those rights and discharge the duties arising from them. The gov- 
ernment being under obligation to prolong its own existence, as the expressed 
wish of the people, has the right and the power to enforce the performance 
of these conditions. An education sufficient to enable a man to transact the 
ordinary business of life, which shall include those principles of morals which 
underlie all religions, should be made compulsory upon those who hereafter 
may aspire to the privilege of suffrage. Intelligence and morality are the 
foundation of republican institutions. Beyond that every man may safely 
exercise his own belief, be he heathen or Christian, Hebrew or Mohamme- 
dan, or, to speak in a paradox, even have no religious belief at all. Recent 
developments seem to make plain also that it is the duty of the government 
in the exercise of the instinct of self-preservation to prevent the immigration 
of those misguided people who are hostile to all forms of government. Their 
belief may be due to the unfortunate conditions under which they were bom 
and bred in foreign lands, but it is clearly not the duty of this country to 
harbor those who confess allegiance to none. 

In considering the supreme importance of the victory at Gettysburg, I 
could not help making these suggestions. They seem naturally to arise from 
the subject They might be expanded into volumes, but I can trust the 



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222 BfAINE AT GETTY8BUBG. 

common sense of this audience to take them and work them out to their 
proper conclusion. 

One more peculiarity of the victory at Gettysburg, considered as the 
turning point of the war. Although only twenty-five years have elapsed, yet 
already, both victors and vanquished unite in expressions of satisfaction at 
the result Nowhere else in the past history of the world can this be paral- 
leled. It was hundreds of years after the conquest of England by William 
the Conqueror before Anglo Saxon and Norman grew together into a homo- 
geneous nation, and the Frenchman of to-day has still an antipathy to ** per- 
fidious Albin,** because it humbled the eagles of Napoleon at Waterloo. 
This heretofore has always been the case between conquerors and con- 
quered. Family quarrels have ever been proverbial for their bitterness, and 
this was bitter enough while it lasted. The era of fraternal feelings between 
north and south, which has already arrived, is an auspicious omen for the 
future. 

And here let me say, we could take no credit for what we did on this 
field if we had not been confronted by men as brave as ourselves. I saw the 
famous charge of Pickett's division on the third day. A more magnificent 
sight I never saw than when, after forming, they advanced across the fields 
towards the Emmitsburg road. I have read the history of many famous 
charges, but never of one that marched so far and so steadily into the very 
jaws of hell. No straggling, no falling out, except by those disabled by our 
merciless fire, they advanced till further advance was an impossibility. As 
the Seventeenth Maine lay on picket that night on the ground over which 
they advanced, and I saw, the next morning, eight or ten files front lying on 
their faces, side by side, as evenly as if placed by hand, where our canister 
had swept through them, ending their forward movement and their lives at 
the same time, I realized more than ever the horrors of war and the bravery 
of the men we had been fighting. 

So, with all honor to the men we fought here, and with no desire for 
self-laudation, we have come to dedicate this monument, set up in the interest 
of history to mark the spot where the Seventeenth Maine regiment, the first 
in the famous ** Wheatfield,** the ** Whirlpool," as it has been aptly called, 
did its duty to the best of its ability. We should be doing injustice to them 
and to ourselves did not those monuments do honor also to the brave men 
who here gave up their lives. The pathetic and eloquent words of our mar- 
tyred President, chiseled upon the stone in yonder cemetery, immortal as 
the deeds they commemorate, will never be equalled; but it is a question 
whether those who die for their country, even as he also died, are not rather 
to be congratulated. *' Du/ce et decorum estpro patria mori^*^ " It is pleas- 
ant and honorable to die for one's country," said the Latin poet, 2,000 years 
ago, and modem sentiment echoes his words: 

'* Come to the bridal chamber, death! 
Come to the mother when she feels, 
For the first time, her first-bom's breath; 
Come when the blessed seals 
That close the pestilence are broke. 
And crowded cities wail its stroke; 
Come in consumption's ghastly form. 
The earthquake shock, me ocean storm; 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 223 

Come where the heart beats high and warm, 

With banquet sons^, and dance, and wine; 

And thou art terrible — the tear, 

The groan, the knell, the pall, the bier, 

And all we know, or dream, or fear. 

Of agony are thine. 

** But to the hero, when his sword 
Has won the battle for the free, 
Thy voice sounds like a prophet* s word, 
And in its hollow tones are neard 
The thanks of millions yet to be." 

After the oration was concluded remarks were made by 
Colonel Bachelder, in which he highly complimented the Sev- 
enteenth regiment. 

Brevet Brig.-Gen. George W. West, formerly Major and 
Colonel of the Seventeenth, also made a few remarks, describing 
the movements of the regiment in the Wheatfield, and his great 
gratification that this worthy memorial had been erected to 
conmiemorate the services of those who fell here, and likewise 
of those who survived. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Merrill, the representative of the Seven- 
teenth as one of the Maine Commissioners, sent a letter of 
regret that illness prevented his attendance. 

The monument was then turned over to the Gettysburg 
Memorial Association by Colonel Moore, to be cared for until 
such time as the State of Maine should present this and the 
monuments of the other organizations in a more formal manner. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH. 

BY CAPTAIN GEORGE W. VERRILL. 

(NSCROLOOIBT OF BBYBMTKSTH MAINS BBOIMBNT ASSOCIATION.) 

The Seventeenth Maine Regiment of Volunteers was raised 
by voluntary enlistments under President Lincoln's call of July 
2, 1862, for three hundred thousand for three years' service. 
Those in the most western part of the state naturally gravitated 
to an appointed rendezvous at Portland, Me. The ranks were 
full and overflowing within about thirty days after the procla- 
mation went forth. The following counties contributed to 
make up the thousand strong which formed the organization : 



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224 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Androscoggin, 152 ; Cumberland, 398 ; Franklin, 84 ; Kenne- 
bec, 6 ; Ejqox, 17 ; Oxford, 168 ; Sagadahoc, 2 ; Somerset, 3 ; 
York, 178 ; Aroostook, Lincoln, Penobscot and Piscataquis, 1 
each ; 7 were residents of other states and 3 out of the country. 
Few had seen service ; some had belonged to military com- 
panies. All were anxious to learn and the "awkward squad" 
was apparent about " Camp King," our rendezvous, across Fore 
River from Portland. Some of the officers had been selected 
in advance— Thomas A. Roberts, for our Colonel, had been 
Captain of an independent military company of Portland ; his 
son, Charles W., a Lieutenant serving in the Tenth Maine, for 
our Adjutant. We were also fortunate in securing Captain 
Greorge Warren West from the Tenth Maine, for our Major, a 
strict disciplinarian and a thorough military man. Charles B. 
Merrill, a lawyer of Portland, for our Lieutenant-Colonel ; his 
patriotic fervor impelled him into the service. As was cus- 
tomary, the line officers were mostly selected in recognition of 
recruiting services. By the time the regiment was mustered 
into the United States service it could perform some simple 
evolutions ; with its long line formed in dress parade it greatly 
edified the ladies who graciously attended the function. The 
muster-in occurred August 18, 1862. The following was the 
original organization: — 

FIELD, STAFF, AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Thomas A. Roberts, Portland. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles B. Merrill, Portland. 
Major, George W. West, Somerville, Mass. 
Adjutant, First Lieutenant Charles W. Roberts, Portland. 
Quartermaster, J. T. Waterhouse, Portland. 
Surgeon, H. L. K. Wiggin, Auburn. 
Assistant Surgeon, William Wescott, Standish. 
Chaplain, Harvey Hersey, Calais, Vt. 
Sergeant-Major, Henry L. Bartels, Portland. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Charles W. Richardson, Portland. 
Commissary-Sergeant, Josiah Remick, Portland. 
Hospital Steward, Nathaniel B. Coleman, Portland. 
Drum-Major, John C. McArdle, Paris. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, William H. Savage, Portland. 

First Lieutenant, Charles P. Mattocks, Portland. 
Second Lieutenant, James M. Brown, Portland. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 225 

Co. B. Captain, George W. Martin, Portland. 

First Lieutenant, Willard M. Jenkins, Fryeburg. 

Second Lieutenant, Benjamin C. Pennell, Portland. 
Co. C. Captain, Augustus Goldermann, Minot. 

First Lieutenant, Otho W. Bumham, Poland. 

Second Lieutenant, Joseph A. Perry, Portland. 
Co. D. Captain, Isaac S. Faunce, Lewiston. 

First Lieutenant, Milton M. Young, Lewiston. 

Second Lieutenant, John C. Perry, Portland. 
Co. E. Captain, Ellis M. Sawyer, Cape Elizabeth. 

First Lieutenant, George W. S. Fickett, Cape Elizabeth. 

Second Lieutenant, William Roberts, Yarmouth. 
Co. F. Captain, Albion Hersey, Paris. 

First Lieutenant, Uriah W. Briggs, Norway. 

Second Lieutenant, James M. Safford, Portland. 
Co. G. Captain, Edward I. Merrill, Farming^on. 

First Lieutenant, Benjamin G. Ames, Phillips. 

Second Lieutenant, Prescott Newman, Phillips. 
Co. H. Captain, Almon L. Fogg, Westbrook. 

First Lieutenant, Dudley H. Johnson, Presque Isle. 

Second Lieutenant, Edward Moore, Portland. 
Co. I. Captain, William Hobson, Saco. 

First Lieutenant, Putnam S. Boothby, Biddeford. 

Second Lieutenant, James O. Thompson, Portland. 
Co. K. Captain, Andrew J. Stinson, Kittery. 

First Lieutenant, John P. Swasey, Canton. 

Second Lieutenant, Madison K. Mabry, Hiram. 

The new regiment made a brave show when on August 21st 
it broke camp, marched through the streets of Portland lined 
with enthusiastic people, and started south "for three years or 
the war." We journeyed to Washington by rail and boat 
without interruption or accident, except the shock occasioned 
by finding ourselves packed into box cars at Baltimore instead 
of ordinary passenger cars as previously. We survived the 
shock, however, as we did many others afterwards, conmion to 
a soldier's life. August 23d relieved the 9th R. I. in a line 
of forts on east branch of the Potomac, running up from the 
main river. The situation was admirable, — an ideal camping 
ground. Sickness, however, incident to change of climate, 
prevailed. We drilled with the heavy ordnance, as well as in 
infantry tactics. While we were here the battles of Second 
Bull Run and Antietam both occurred. The boom of cannon 
and steady roll of small arms in both engagements were plainly 



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226 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

heard, although in a direct line they were distant from us 
thirty-five and fifty miles respectively. 

Joining the Army. — October 7th we bade adieu to fort 
life to join the Army of the Potomac in the field. On the cap- 
itol steps we rested three hours before crossing Long bridge. 
Our course was up the Potomac. At Upton's Hill joined 
Berry's brigade, Bimey's (First) division, Third corps. The 
brigade was then composed of 1st, 37th, 55th N. Y., 2d, 5th 
Mich, and Seventeenth Maine, regiments. The square, red 
patch marking Kearny's men was proudly worn by the veterans. 
Raw troops were not allowed them until proof of worthiness 
in battle was shown. 

October 11th crossed into Maryland over Chain bridge, and 
arrived two days later near Edward's Ferry, where we remained 
picketing the river and canal until October 28th. Our regiment 
had not been supplied with tents or " shelter pieces " until Octo- 
ber 26th, although the weather all along was cold and rainy. 
The hardships endured thus far doubtless lessened the effective 
strength of the regiment by more than 100 men, equivalent to 
a large battle loss, many being permanently used up. Thus 
we became soldiers. A remaining badge of our rawness, how- 
ever, was the knapsack, bloated with relics of a past refinement, 
weighing from twenty pounds upwards. The knapsack became 
obsolete in our division in the 1864 campaign. 

October 28th forded the Potomac at White's Ford, where 
the river was waist-deep and about one-third mile wide. The 
army, under McClellan, moved along the foot-hills, keeping 
pace with Lee, who moved up the Shenandoah valley beyond 
the Blue Ridge. We marched via Middleburg, White Plains 
and Salem to Waterloo on the north fork of the Rappahannock, 
and we remained in this vicinity several days, during which 
time Bumside succeeded McClellan in command of the army. 
Here a new plan of operations was made, with Falmouth, on the 
Rappahannock, as a point for concentration. Accordingly, 
on November 16th the march began ; on the 2 2d we went into 
camp around Falmouth. The time in camp was fully occupied 
in drills, inspections and ineffectual attempts to keep comfort- 
able and in health, during a very cold spell in a bleak situation, 
until December 11th. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTOMCAL SKETCH. 227 

Battle of Fredericksbubg. — Early on December 11th 
the regiment, under Col. Thomas A. Roberts, numbering 628 
men and officers, broke camp and marched towards Fredericks- 
burg, remaining on the north side of the river that night. 
Next morning we moved down the river to the left of our lines. 
Crossed the Rappahannock on Saturday, December 13th, at 
noon, on a pontoon bridge, and marched to our allotted place 
under shelling from the enemy's guns. Soon the enemy made 
an advance of infantry to turn Bimey's left or seize his batteries 
posted in our front. To repel this attack General Berry threw 
out the Seventeenth to the left of the batteries in line of battle, 
speedily checking the onset with a few rounds. We lay on the 
field subjected to frequent shelling until our army retired on 
the night of December 15th. Our loss was three killed and 
mortally wounded, and seventeen wounded. 

Next day returned to our camp, when General Bimey 
declared in orders that the new regiments had shown themselves 
** fully worthy of the ' Red Patch,' and I, in the name of the 
division, acknowledge them as members in full standing." 
General Berry also complimented the Seventeenth in his official 
report. Nevertheless, there was a feeling of disappointment 
in the air ; visions of valiant deeds and fierce personal encoun- 
ters faded unrealized. A soldier appreciates his individuality 
never so much as in his first battle. The regiment changed camp 
ground twice during the succeeding inactivity of the army. 

January 20, 1863, Burnside's second campaign began. His 
general order was read to each regiment announcing that we 
** were about to meet the enemy again." Fortified with this 
assurance we started out, and at night brought up at Scott's 
Mill, near the Rappahannock, where we went into bivouac with- 
out any fires or loud sounds, for it was intended to surprise the 
enemy, and next morning our brigade was to lead and force the 
crossing. With this pleasing anticipation, and a drizzling rain, 
and no coffee, we slept the sleep of the just. The rain con- 
tinued, and it is matter of history that we did not meet the 
enemy ; but we could read the derisive placard of the Johnnies 
across the river : " Stuck in the mud." 

General Hooker succeeded Burnside January 26th in com- 



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228 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

mand of the army. Improvement in rations and morale followed 
the change. We lost General Berry by his promotion to Major- 
General and command of the Second division of our corps. 

Before the spring campaign opened many deaths occurred, 
and many were discharged for "disability," including several 
officers who resigned. Promotions followed, to fill vacancies, 
and the Seventeenth was "boiled down," well-seasoned and pro- 
ficient in drill. 

The Cedars and Chancellorsville. — April 28th the 
Third corps, under General Sickles, moved down the river as 
a feint ; thence on the 30th we marched rapidly up river, in a 
tortuous course, to United States Ford, arriving after midnight, 
and crossed the river early on May 1st. The men carried on 
the person eight days' rations and sixty rounds of ammunition. 
May 1st the regiment numbered nearly 500, rank and file, under 
command of Lieut.-Colonel Merrill (Colonel Roberts being 
absent on sick leave) . The brigade was under Colonel Hay- 
man, a regular army officer. The day passed in manoeuvring, 
and that night we lay upon the Plank Boad, connecting to left 
of Eleventh corps. May 2d Sickles pushed forward several 
miles on a reconnaissance in force ; a lively and successful skir- 
mish with the enemy ensued until sundown, taking prisoners. 
At dusk word came of the crushing attack of Jackson upon the 
Eleventh corps, reporting the latter to be destroyed, and that 
we were cut off by Jackson from the rest of our army. We 
silently and gloomily retraced our steps to Hazel Grove, an open 
plateau about a half mile from the Chancellor House. From 
this plateau our division made a night attack, known as the 
" midnight charge," upon Jackson's troops lying between us 
and the Plank road. The operations of Sickles' corps May 2d 
were known as the battle of The Cedars. Stonewall Jackson 
was mortally wounded in the evening, and this great loss to 
the Confederate cause is directly traceable to General Sickles' 
operations. Sunday, May 3d, about 5 o'clock. General Stuart, 
who succeeded Jackson, resumed the battle, the weight of it 
falling upon Sickles' corps and a division of the Twelfth, the 
Eleventh corps infantry having been re-formed near the river. 
The battle raged furiously and incessantly until about noon. The 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 229 

Seventeenth, with its brigade, was placed south of the Chan- 
cellor House, in an advanced position, lying flat on the ground, 
supporting a battery, when the onslaught was made. The enemy's 
artillery played upon and over us from many cannon at Hazel 
Grove, and our own artillery fired over us in reply. Musketry 
fire from two directions also came into us from beyond our 
infantry lines. The, enemy at one time broke through in front, 
and came for the battery. Our brigade at once, under the lead 
of General Bimey, made a counter-charge, putting them to rout 
and taking a batch of prisoners. We then took up a new position, 
as the battery was withdrawn. The Seventeenth was the last 
infantry to go from the field south of the Chancellor House. 
Later in the day it was placed in a line of works at the White 
House. Except by heavy shelling we were not greatly molested 
there. At 4 p. m. our brigade was advanced outside the breast- 
works, prepared to charge if the enemy broke our skirmish line 
in the woods ; but the battle in that vicinity was over. 

May 5th Colonel Roberts returned. May 6th we recrossed 
the river, our division being the last withdrawn from the front 
lines, and thence returned to our camp, as likewise did all others 
to their own. The loss in the Seventeenth in this battle was : 
killed and mortally wounded, 1 officer (1st Lieut. Dudley H. 
Johnson) and 10 enlisted men; wounded, 5 officers (Capt. 
Augustus Goldermanh, acting as field officer, Capt. Edward I. 
Merrill, 1st Lieuts. James M. Brown, Putnam S. Boothby ; 2d 
Lieut. Thomas W. Lord) and 54 men ; also 41 taken prisoners. 
Total, 111. 

June 11th broke camp and began the march northward 
which culminated in the battle of Gettysburg, our route taking 
us to Manassas Junction, Centreville and Gum Springs, Va., 
from thence, on June 25th, to the Potomac, which we crossed 
at Edwards Ferry, on a pontoon bridge, continuing along the 
canal towpath to the Monocacy, where we bivouacked for the 
night. This day's march of thirty miles was the highest record 
of the regiment. Next day proceeded to Point of Rocks ; thence 
to Jefferson Village, Middletown, Frederick City, Taneytown, 
Emmitsburg and Gettysburg. The regiment took an active 
part in the battle of Gettysburg ; engaged in the Wheatfield 



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230 MAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 

July 2d for two hours and a half ; July 3d supported Daniel's 
9th Mich, battery, under severe shelling. A narration of this 
battle is given on another page, with an account of our losses. 

In the pursuit of Lee's army after Gettysburg the Third 
corps started from the field July 7th. The regiment was 
reduced, through casualties and sickness, to about 150 men. 
The march was through Emmitsburg, Frederick City, Middle- 
town and South Mountain Pass, reaching Antietam battlefield 
on the 10th. The enemy made a stand, covering Williamsport, 
which nearly paralyzed Meade, and caused a halt. It was a 
question whether to attack or not. The rank and file were eager 
to pitch in, but uncertainty or timidity at headquarters lasted 
several days, during which time Lee decamped across the Poto- 
mac into the Shenandoah Valley. 

Our army crossed the river on the 17th and marched on 
east side of Blue Bidge, reaching Manassas Grap July 22d. 

Wapping Heights. — July 23d we ran into the rear guard 
of Lee. The Seventeenth was in the second line, supporting 
the skirmishers. Our only casualty was the mortal wounding 
of Sergt.-Major Fred W. Bosworth by a shell. 

Besuming the march the army passed through Salem and 
Warrenton, and on July 31st went into camp at Sulphur Springs, 
on the north fork of the Bappahannock. The Confederate army 
encamped beyond Culpeper; ours around Warrenton. Both 
settled down to rest and recuperate. To fill our ranks three 
officers, Capt. Charles P. Mattocks, Lieuts. J. A. Perry and 
W. H. Green, with a recruiting squad, had been sent to Port- 
land for recruits July 24th. 

September 15th our army advanced down to Culpeper ; Sep- 
tember 23d we received 160 recruits from Maine. They proved 
to be of good material. October 11th General Lee took the 
bit in his teeth. Very adroitly deceiving Meade, he got a good 
start upon the right flank of the latter, and a complicated race 
began for Centreville or some intermediate point. 

AuBUKN. — In a blind fashion both Union and Confederate 
columns occasionally attempted to march on the same road at 
the same time. This occurred on October 13th, when Stuart's 
cavalry got upon our road at Auburn on Cedar Bun. Our 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 231 

brigade ran into a brigade of this cavalry and a brisk skirmish 
ensued for a couple of hours, engaging both arms of the service. 
The enemy was routed, leaving his dead and some prisoners and 
horses behind. The Seventeenth had one man wounded and 
three missing. This astounding retrograde movement ended 
when our troops reached Fairfax Court House on the 15th of 
October. Lee did not attack our forces, but spent a couple of 
days destroying the railroad track. On the 19th he disappeared, 
and Meade moved forward. Our division went into camp near 
Catlett's. Maj . George W. West, having been commissioned as 
Colonel, was mustered to that grade October 22d, and assumed 
command of the regiment, which had now acquired a strength 
of about 375, rank and file. 

Kelly's Ford. — November 7th our army advanced across 
the Rappahannock, the Seventeenth crossing at Kelly's Ford 
where, behind works, some resistance was made and a few hun- 
dred prisoners secured who appeared glad to be taken in out of 
the cold. Next day pushed forward in line of battle to Brandy 
Station, from which our southern neighbors fled at our approach. 
We prepared comfortable quarters and enjoyed them until 
Meade, doubtless remembering the ides of October, attempted 
a counter-stroke upon Lee's right, beyond the Rapidan. 

Locust Grove and Mine Run. — ^We crossed the Rapidan 
at Jacob's Ford in the evening of November 26th, and stopped 
for the night about a mile farther on. Next day, November 
27th, the Third division took the lead and struck the enemy. 
Our (First) division moved forward, formed, and was held in 
support. Those in front gave way. Advancing in line beyond 
these men, new to battle, we met the enemy, and a fierce mus- 
ketry conflict ensued, until every round of our ammunition was 
expended. Just at this moment a brigade of the Sixth corps 
(in which was the Sixth Maine regiment) came up, moved 
beyond our right flank, turned that of the enemy, gave him 
some volleys routing him, and the field was ours. This action 
occurred at a villa called Locust Grove. This stand-up fight 
caused us a grievous loss, inflicted unnecessarily through the 
incompetency or recklessness of some officer, superior to the 
regimental, who directed the Seventeenth to take the place of 



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232 MAINE AT GETTTSBUKG. 

the regiment it relieved ; thu8 bringing the line of the regiment 
nearly perpendicular to, and in front of, that of the enemy, 
who, at short range, made great havoc with our right compa- 
nies, while the left of the regiment was untouched. Our loss 
was : killed or mortally wounded, eleven, of whom were Capt. 
Ellis M. Sawyer (acting as Major) and 1st Lieut. James M. 
Brown ; and thirty-nine wounded, of whom was 1st Lieut. F. 
A. Sawyer. Our picket, under Lieut. W. H. Green, scooped 
in about a dozen prisoners the next morning. 

On the 28th we moved some miles and came to our general 
line, confronting the enemy posted and waiting for us on the 
heights, in his works, beyond the Mine Run, a stream of some 
width but generally fordable. Remained here the 29th and 
30th ready to assault the works, which were of a most formid- 
able character, at sound of a signal gun. We formed on both 
days to make this hopeless sacrifice, momentarily expecting the 
signal to advance. It did not sound, and the enterprise was 
abandoned. We marched all night, from dusk to sunrise, and 
recrossed the river without molestation; many stragglers 
doubtless fell into the enemy's hands. We lost one, taken 
prisoner. Returned to encampment at Brandy Station and 
went into winter quarters. 

A new stand of colors, in silk. National and State, with 
eagles, presented by the merchants of Portland to the Seven- 
teenth, was received February 2 2d. These were safely borne 
through the campaigns of 1864. March 24th the unwelcome 
order of consolidation was received. The Third corps was 
merged into the Second, under command of General Hancock ; 
the First and Second divisions becoming the Third and Fourth 
divisions of the Second corps. General Bimey retained com- 
mand of our division. The veterans of the Third corps 
retained their diamond patches. Brigades were also consoli- 
dated. Ours, to be commanded by Gen. Alexander Hays, 
thus became the Second brigade of Third division. Second 
corps, and was composed of the Fourth and Seventeenth Maine, 
3d and 5th Mich., 63d, 57th and 105th Penn., 93d N. Y. and 
1st U. S. Sharpshooters. 

Lieutenant-General Grant joined the army in April. We 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 233 

vacated the winter huts on the 26th of that month, encamping 
in shelter tents in open fields. We lay here until the general 
movement began on May 3d. 

Grant's Campaign. — The Seventeenth Maine began this 
campaign with 21 officers, 5 acting officers (commissioned but 
not mustered) and 439 enlisted men in the ranks. The officers 
were : Colonel, George W. West ; Captains, John C. Perry (act- 
ing as Field officer), Joseph A. Perry, Benjamin C. Pennell, 
William H. Green, Isaac S. Faunce, Sumner S. Richards, 
George W. Verrill ; First Lieutenants, Frederick A. Sawyer, 
John N. Morrill, James S. Roberts, Grenville F. Sparrow, 
George A. Whidden, Henry L. Bartels, Wellington Hobbs ; 
Second Lieutenants, Stephen Graifam, Franklin C. Adams, 
Gustavus C. Pratt, Robert H. Mathes, William H. Sturgis, 
Benjamin Doe. Acting officers : Sergeant-Major, Edward H. 
Crie ; Sergeants, Charles C. Cole, Jordan M. Hall, Joseph S. 
Hobbs, and Newton W. Parker. In addition to these the fol- 
lowing combatant officers of the regiment were on detailed duty 
in the division : Maj. Charles P. Mattocks, commanding Ist 
U. S. Sharpshooters ; Capt. Edwin B. Houghton, acting A. I. 
G. on First brigade staff ; Second Lieut. Walter F. Noyes, 
commanding brigade pioneers (these went into action) . 

Taking up the line of march at midnight. May 3d, we 
crossed the Rapidan on morning of the 4th at Ely's Ford; 
proceeded thence to the battle ground of Chancellorsville, 
remaining there during the day and night. 

Battle op the Welderness. — May 5, 1864, marched and 
reached Todd's Tavern about noon. The enemy — Hill's corps 
— Shaving struck the Sixth corps, marching on the Brock road, 
we were turned upon that road and inarched northward to the 
point where it crosses the Orange Plank road. The Seven- 
teenth was on the right of the Second corps. About 4 p. m. 
we advanced in line of battle, parallel with the Brock road 
through thick undergrowth, until we felt the enemy. In an 
unsuccessful effort to find connections upon our right, as 
ordered, the regiment became separated from the troops on our 
left, but advanced upon Hill and forced him back at his left 
flank, after a fierce stand-up fight, lasting until dark, taking 
about thirty prisoners. 



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234 MAINE AT GETTYSBUBG. 

May 6th, at 5 o'clock a. m., in the same formation, we 
advanced again, in a general attack in line of battle, capturing 
a line of breastworks, routing the enemy and driving him 
before us a mile and a half. The Seventeenth and Fourth 
Maine, side by side, pushing forward, had become the point of 
a wedge, well driven through the enemy's lines. Arriving at 
an opening, crossed by the Plank road, we halted under a sharp 
infantry fire, and that of a couple of unfriendly field pieces, for 
our connections to come up. The broken lines of the enemy 
on our right rear, finding we had outflanked them, retreated in 
a mob, hundreds of them falling into our hands as prisoners, 
whom we directed to the rear, as we had directed those taken 
in the advance. Doubtless all of them were claimed by troops 
at our rear as their captures. Colonel West, who had already 
lost his horse, — shot under him, — was severely wounded and 
helped to the rear. Longstreet, having made dispositions, put 
in his corps. We successfully resisted his attack in front, but 
he forced an opening somewhere on the left and towards our 
rear, which caused our line to fall back, under orders of Colonel 
Walker of Fourth Maine, then conmianding the brigade. Thus 
a glorious victory was allowed to slip which we had held firmly 
in our grasp ; a single brigade at the front, with us, could have 
secured the harvest. At noontime our whole line, thus out- 
generaled, retired, fighting, in good order to the Brock road, 
along which breastworks were built. Later in the day we 
received an assault upon this line by Longstreet's corps, which 
was repulsed. ^ 

May 7th advanced with the division, massed by brigades in 
columns of regiments, to find the enemy, — and we found him, 
lively enough with his buck shot and artillery, behind works. 

The regiment lost in the three days 201. Of this number 
62 were killed outright or died of their wounds. The loss of 
officers was : killed, 2d Lieut. Benjamin Doe and acting 2d 
Lieut. Newton W. Parker ; wounded, Col. George W. West, 
Capt. Joseph A. Perry, 1st Lieuts. George A. Whidden (re- 
joined for duty May 16th), Wellington Hobbs (rejoined for 
duty June 28th), Henry L. Bartels, Frederick A. Sawyer, 
2d Lieut. Franklin C. Adams and acting 2d Lieut. Joseph S. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 235 

Hobbs (rejoined for duty May 11th). Major Mattocks was 
captured on the skinnish out-posts, May 5th, at the first col- 
lision ; had this not occurred the regiment might have regained 
this field officer, after the loss of Colonel West. Owing to 
our lack of officers. Major Moore of the 99th Penn. was tem- 
porarily assigned to command the Seventeenth, the word coming 
from General Bimey that he had so high a regard for the Sev- 
enteenth that he gave us the best available field officer in the 
division. Major Moore gallantly led us until May 16th. 

May 8th moved towards Spotsylvania as far as Todd's Tav- 
ern, where we built works ; not engaged, although under fire. 
May 9th marched southward towards the Po river. The greater 
portion of the regiment was sent on picket across the river 
under Capt. W. H. Green, senior of the regimental detail. 

Po River. — May 10th the picket line with some supports 
advanced as skirmishers and drove the enemy's cavalry a long 
distance, back upon their infantry supports. A large force of 
the latter rapidly advanced upon our scattered line and upon 
its flanks, intending to capture the whole. Our detachments 
and the Fourth Maine, the whole under command of Col. Elijah 
"Walker of that regiment, were skillfully, although with diffi- 
culty and some loss, withdrawn, rejoining the brigade on north 
side of the stream. The remainder of the 10th and the 11th 
was employed in supporting charging columns, batteries and 
skirmishers. Loss in the two days was one mortally wounded, 
seven wounded (including Capt. S. S. Richards), and two miss- 
ing (never heard from and probably killed). 

Spotsylvania. — Roused from sleep at 10 o'clock in the 
evening of May 11th, we silently moved out of our works on 
the right of the line, and marched away in the darkness and rain. 
The regiment reached its destination just before daybreak May 
12th, and was inmiediately placed in the column already formed 
to charge the enemy's works at the "Salient." A short rest 
while waiting for the heavy fog to clear. About daybreak the 
charging column, composed of Barlow's (First) division and our 
own division, moved forward side by side, without noise until 
the picket line was reached and captured, when some shots were 
fired. Then with loud cheering we rushed forward for the 



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236 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

works, through the obstructions and up over the steep glacis, 
without a halt. The Seventeenth entered in the first line at the 
very angle of the Salient, on the inner side of which were deep 
traverses, a long line of hitched-up artillery, and a mass of 
Confederates paralyzed with consternation, probably both at 
our appearance and the previous disappearance of most of their 
comrades into our protection. Gren. Edward Johnson's division 
was extinguished ; about 5,000 men of it captured and he him- 
self and his subordinate, General Steuart, prisoners of war in 
our hands. General Johnson was taken by Sergeant S. Frank 
Haskell and Private J. F. Totman of the Seventeenth Maine, 
and escorted by them to General Hancock. The six batteries 
and horses fell into our hands. "Without stopping to re-form 
we pushed forward for an inner line of works, but were met 
by a wide-awake enemy defending it, and by the advance of 
converging formations. We retired, fighting, back to the cap- 
tured works, and from the outside used them as a breastwork. 
One of the bloodiest encounters of the war, in a hand-to-hand 
struggle, ensued across the works, continuing all day and until 
nearly midnight, when the determined foe gave ^t up, leaving 
eighteen cannon and the whole Salient in our possession. 

A part of the Sixth corps at the proper moment came in on 
Our right at the west angle of the Salient, and gallantly took 
and carried on the fierce battle. To 'these heroic veterans an 
equal share of glory and credit is due for holding fast the cap- 
tured position and artillery. 

We took into the battle 225 muskets, with 13 officers and 
4 acting officers. Our loss: 12 men killed or mortally wounded; 
41 wounded, of whom were 1st Lieut. John N. Morrill and 2d 
Lieut. Stephen Graffam ; 5 taken prisoners ; 1 missing, prob- 
ably killed ; Captain Houghton, detailed on First brigade staff, 
also wounded. Sergt. Edward G. Parker, carrying our national 
color, was killed, and Sergt. Edwin Emery, bearing the state 
color, was badly disabled by two wounds, the Color-guard nearly 
annihilated. Acting Sergt.-Major G. A. Parker was wounded. 

Maine was well represented here : the Third, Seventeenth, 
Fifth, Sixth and Seventh regiments all fought at the Salient. 
The Sixteenth, Nineteenth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second also 
co-operated by assaults upon the works near by. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 237 

From the 13th to 19th not engaged, except on picket. On 
the 16th Lieut.-Colonel Merrill returned to duty, taking com- 
mand. Capt. Edward Moore also returned from a leave of 
absence. 

Fredericksburg Road. — On the 19th, at 2 a. m., the divis- 
ion marched about five miles to the Anderson House, on the 
Fredericksburg road. The army supplies came this way. 
Ewell circled our right to strike this road in our rear. Near 
the trains he ran against the First Maine heavy artillery regi- 
ment, used as infantry, and another of same kind, who fought 
with steadiness, holding the enemy. Our division went at 
double-quick to the rescue, supporting the line and advancing 
the battle. The Seventeenth relieved the First Maine, that had 
lost heavily, and advanced upon the enemy, who fell back. 
Next morning advanced again, and the enemy fled. The regi- 
ment secured 47 prisoners (the division 500), with a loss of 
only one wounded and one missing. 

North Anna. — May 21st, at 1 a. m., with 184 muskets, 
we took the Guiney Station road, passed through Bowling 
Green, crossed the Mattapony, beyond which we bivouacked, 
— a twenty miles march ; 2 2d built breastworks ; 23d marched 
at 5 a. m. southward, approaching the North Anna. The enemy 
held a redoubt near the bridge on the north side, with flanking 
lines to the river. Our division charged in line of battle ; our 
brigade, under Col. B. R. Pierce, advancing, met a fusilade, and 
was raked by artillery from across the river, but carried every- 
thing handsomely to the river. Next day intrenched under fire 
on the south side. Remained here until the 27th. Loss : killed 
and mortally wounded, four (of whom were 1st Lieut. James 
S. Roberts and 2d Lieut. Walter F. Noyes), and seventeen 
wounded. 

ToTOPOTOMY. — At midnight. May 26th, recrossed river 
and marched to the Pamunkey, crossing it on the 28th, near 
Newcastle. Several positions and advances were made in the 
ensuing four days. On June 1st the enemy's line at the Toto- 
potomy Creek, which flows into the river, was assailed with suc- 
cess by our division, the First brigade leading, supported by 
ours — our regimental loss being slight. The Seventeenth was 



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238 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

this day transferred to the First brigade, commanded by Colonel 
Egan, and served with it until March 15, 1865. The Third 
Maine belonged to this brigade. Marched at midnight with- 
out halting, passing Salem church and around our army towards 
the left until, at 6 a. m., we halted for breakfast, after which, 
to the left until we joined Barlow's (First) division at the front. 

Cold Harbor. — June 3d a general assault was made upon 
the enemy's strong works, ending in failure and a fearful loss ; 
we were held as a support to the First division and suffered 
slightly. Remained in this vicinity until June 12th. On June 
4th the re-enlisted men and recruits of the Third Maine were 
transferred to the Seventeenth. Many names were on the trans- 
fer roUs, but we received only 129 men carrying muskets ; these 
were sterling men, many of them being non-commissioned 
officers, for whom we found places. 

The vigor of our men, which had kept up remarkably until 
this time, suddenly collapsed. We had nearly fifty prostrated 
in one day. A portion of them recovered before the 12th. 
Losses since May 24th : one killed, four wounded, five captured. 
The sergeants remaining to us, who had served as officers since 
the campaign opened, were here mustered according to their 
commissions. 

June 12th left the works at Cold Harbor, and on the 13th 
marched to the James river, crossing next day at "Windmill 
Point, and remained on the south side waiting for rations that 
day and night. June 15th marched to the line in front of 
Petersburg and bivouacked behind captured earthworks. Our 
strength was 16 officers and 224 enlisted men. 

Petersburg Assaults. — June 16th, while the roll was 
being called, a well-aimed shell burst in our ranks, injuring 
several, among them Capt. John C. Perry, commanding the 
regiment, — Lieut.-Col. Merrill being off duty, — and the com- 
mand devolved upon Capt. Benj. C. Pennell. Soon the Seven- 
teenth Maine and 20th Ind. were moved out and formed in line 
of battle without supports ; the orders were to advance and take 
the enemy's intrenchments and battery about fifty rods distant. 
We moved forward in line of battle, over stubby but level 
ground, under a storm of bullets, shell and solid shot, poured 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 239 

into US as we advanced, coming from the veterans of Lee's 
army. Our line shriveled and the alignment was broken. 
We failed to reach the main line, but took and held an out- 
work about midway the lines. A short time elapsed when we 
re-formed the two regiments at this point, expecting to have a 
support, but none came, and we moved forward a second time, 
gaining some ground, but with no better success ; holding the 
advanced position, however, under a murderous fire until we 
were withdrawn towards night. Colonel Egan was wounded. 
The whole First division charged at sunset upon the same line, 
and were likewise repulsed. Our loss was : killed and mortally 
wounded, 16 (amongst them one of the color-bearers, Corporal 
Leonard Pride) ; wounded, 2 officers, Capt. John C. Perry and 
2d Lieut. Jordan M. Hall, and 37 enlisted men. Next day the 
Seventeenth occupied a portion of the advanced line used for 
skirmishing, keeping up a galling fire which drove the opposing 
skirmishers from their pits. Captain Pennell was instantly 
killed while attempting to bring down with a Sharp's rifle the 
" stars and bars " planted on their works opposite our colors. 
The command of the regiment then devolved upon Capt. Edward 
Moore, who was succeeded the same evening by Major Gil- 
braith, of the 20th Ind., detailed temporarily by General Birney 
to this special duty with our regiment, which he well performed 
until July 10th, when relieved by return of Lieut.-Colonel 
Merrill to duty. 

June 18th a general assault on the enemy's works was 
made, with very smaU success but with frightful casualties. 
We charged at the Hare House along a ridge (overlooking the 
plain where the First Maine Heavy charged) . The small ad- 
vancement of our lines was secured by earthworks tlirown up in 
the night in close contact with the enemy. Here we remained 
in the works until relieved on the 20th by the Ninth corps. 

Loss since June 16th, killed and mortally wounded, one 
officer and 13 enlisted men ; wounded, 18 enlisted men. 

Jerusalem Road. — June 21st the Second corps extended 
the lines to the left beyond Jerusalem Road. Next day a por- 
tion of our division in this movement was outflanked and cap- 
tured in the new breastworks. Our brigade was ordered to 



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240 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

charge and retake these works at daybreak of the 22d. As we 
were drawn up in an open field to undertake this task each man 
nerved himself and prepared for the worst, in many instances 
leaving valuables and messages with the surgeon. The word 
was given ; the line moved forward in splendid style. Before 
half the distance was gained the enemy gave a feeble volley 
and left the work, which we occupied without trouble, with 
loss of one killed, two wounded and three missing. The 
regiment lay behind works after this, not engaged although at 
the front. 

July 12th the corps moved from the front and encamped, 
doing daily fatigue duty, levelling old works, etc. An official 
nominal list of our casualties for May and June was compiled, 
showing the number to have been 376, of whom only 32 were 
missing, which included those taken prisoners. Five officers 
were killed and fifteen wounded, being a much higher percent- 
age than that of the enlisted men. 

July 26th marched to the James, crossing at Jones' Point. 

First Deep Bottom. — Moved forward about two miles 
and performed picket duty until relieved on 28th, when at dusk 
we recrossed the river and inarched in rear of the investing 
lines until morning ; next evening after dark we marched to 
the Hare House and quietly relieved Hicks' troops of the Ninth 
corps in the intrenchments. This was in preparation for the 
famous Mine Explosion which occurred next morning, July 
30th, near by us. Returned at nightfall to our camp in 
reserve, where we stayed until August 12th. 

Second Deep Bottom. — August 12th inarched to City 
Point and embarked on steamers. At 10 p. m. steamed up the 
James to Deep Bottom, where we landed in the morning. 

Advancing on the 14th, the enemy fell back into his strong 
works. We were established on the picket line at a large corn- 
field, doing that duty until the 19th. The main attack was 
made on the right, by the Tenth corps and a portion of the 
Second corps, all under General Birney. Failure followed 
temporary success. Skirmishing was continuous on the picket 
line, punctuated with artillery fire. Colonel Chaplin of the 
First Maine H. A., in command of the picket, was killed quite 
near the Seventeenth. Our loss was only four, wounded. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 241 

Returning to the Petersburg lines we were put into the 
trenches, relieving the Thirty-second Maine and another regi- 
ment. The opposing works were about 500 yards away ; with 
us was Ames' N. Y. battery, relieved by White's Fourth Maine 
battery. One-third of our men were held constantly under 
arms in the works, with pickets in front. This was north of 
Fort '^Hell" in an ordinarily healthy location ; many deserters 
came in. The opposing pickets were at first peaceable, with 
commercial dealings; September 10th our picket line was 
advanced, which brought on a scrimmage. The brigade Officer 
of the Day was Capt. Edward Moore, whose duties brought 
him into this affair. We had a few wounded, amongst them 
Lieut. Joseph S. Hobbs at the main works. Then there began 
constant picket firing, day and night, except for a half hour at 
sunset, each day, by consent, when pickets were changed on 
both sides. We suffered a useless loss from this picket firing. 

Peebles' Farm and Fort Hell. — October 1st moved from 
the trenches, making a movement " to the left," to extend our 
lines and establish them with earthworks, which being accom- 
plished we returned on the 5th and were placed in Fort Sedg- 
wick (known as Fort *" Hell ") . Mortar shelling was frequent, 
and on the evening of the 11th a concentrated fire from many 
came into our fort, descending all around and causing some loss. 
October 15th were withdrawn and encamped back from the 
works. Colonel West, who had been absent, wounded, since 
May 6th, returned to duty. Lieut.-Colonel Merrill resigned, 
and took his leave of us. The regiment furnished picket details 
for the front. October 24th Lieut. Wellington Hobbs was 
killed and Lieut. George A. Whidden permanently disabled by 
the same bullet ; Lieut. George B. Dunn also slightly wounded, 
same night. 

BoYDTON Road. — October 26th the Second and Third divis-^ 
ions, under Hancock, marched to the left, crossing Hatcher's 
Run on the 27th, and pushed to the Boydton Road. The enemy 
nearly surrounded us. The Seventeenth was finally posted to 
guard our line of retreat, and constructed a barricade which 
General BUincock commended, adding,'* fix them so that you can 
fight on either side." The regiment was selected to escort the 



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242 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

ambulances, filled with wounded, back to the works, in advance 
of the troops, after nightfall. An all-night march. October 
30th we were placed in Fort Rice, remaining until November 
29th, when we moved again to the left near the Peebles' House, 
at the southerly turn of our lines. December 7th the Fifth 
corps and our division, with some cavalry, all under General 
Warren, made an infantry raid, marching beyond the Nottaway 
River to Jarrett's Station on the Weldon railroad, and then 
destroying the railroad in a most thorough manner. Twenty 
miles of it was put ^^hor8 de combatj^' from the Nottaway to 
Belfield. Our troops burned many buildings on the return, 
as revenge upon inhabitants who had murdered men that fell 
out. No encounter with the enemy. After this we encamped, 
out of the works, near Fort Dushane, as in winter quarters. 

1865. 

Colonel West, who had been appointed to Brevet Brigadier- 
General for his conduct at battle of the Wilderness, arrived at 
the front January 8th and was placed temporarily in command 
of the brigade, General de Trobriand being absent, and later 
was assigned to command another brigade. He did not return 
to duty with the regiment. Captain William Hobson, in 
command by seniority, was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the regiment January 18th. 

Hatcher's Run. — February 5th our division, under Gen- 
eral Mott, followed by the Second division, marched to Hatch- 
er's Run, and our brigade forced the passage of the stream 
under fire. The crossing was secured by forming the brigade 
in a crescent, one flank resting upon the south bank. The 
object being an extension of our works to the left, the line was 
established and intrenchments built, when we encamped near 
the Smith house, resuming camp duties, picketing, etc., and 
the usual routine. February 22d the 2d U. S. Sharpshooters 
was disbanded and its company D was transferred to the Sev- 
enteenth ; by this we gained about a dozen fine soldiers. March 
15th the regiment was re-transferred to the Second brigade, 
now commanded by Brig.-Gen. Byron R. Pierce, formerly 
Colonel of the 3d Mich, regiment, an ideal leader. 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 243 

March 25th a demonstration was made against the enemy's 
picket lines in our corps front, as a diversion to aid in the 
recovery of Fort Steadman, which the enemy had captured 
from the Ninth corps. Our move was successful, provoking 
an attack upon our corps that we repulsed, and captured pris- 
oners. The loss of the regiment was small. 

Counting up the regimental casualties from August 19, 
1864, to March 26, 1865, we found them to be one officer and 
eleven enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, and three 
officers and twenty-five enlisted men wounded. 

March 29th broke camp at 6 a. m., marched on the Vaughan 
road, crossed Hatcher's Run and advancing towards Boyd- 
ton Road, made connection on our left with the Fifth corps. 
Next morning advanced in line about a mile and found the 
enemy's skirmishers, in view of his main line of works, from 
which his artillery opened. Our lines were strengthened with 
breastworks. 

At this time the strength of the regiment was about 300, 
rank and file. The following officers were on duty with the 
regiment : Lieutenant-Colonel William Hobson, commanding ; 
Major, Charles P. Mattocks (rejoined for duty March 31st 
from prisoner of war since May 5, 1864) ; Adjutant, George 
A. Parker; Captains, William H. Green, Isaac S. Faunce, 
Gustavus C. Pratt, Charles C. Cole, George B. Dunn ; First 
Lieutenants, Robert H. Mathes, William H. Sturgis command- 
ing company B, Parlin Crawford commanding company F, 
Joseph S. Hobbs commanding company H, James M. Webb 
commanding company C, SchoUay G. Usher, Dexter W. How- 
ard conmnanding company E, William H. Copp; Second 
Lieutenants, Fayette M. Paine, Albert L. Bradbury, Edwin 
A. Duncan, Asa G. Charles, Charles H. Parcher, Sumner W. 
Burnham, Edwin W. Sanborn, Thomas Snowman. Other line 
officers, on detailed duty in the field, were Capt. Joseph 
A. Perry, at division hospital ; Capt. George W. Verrill, 
A. A. D. C. on staff of General Pierce ; 1st Lieut. Edward 
H. Crie, acting regimental quartermaster; 2d Lieut. Edwin 
Emery, brigade ambulance officer ; quartermaster Josiah Remick, 
as 1st brigade quartermaster. 



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244 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

Fall of Petebsbueg. — The general assault upon the defen- 
sive works was ordered for 4.30 a. m. April 2d, to commence 
on right of our army, after a night of cannonading. Early in 
the morning General Pierce sent two regiments, with an aide, to 
'' feel " the works in front, which we found nearly evacuated, 
and they were secured by these, being the first from the divis- 
ion ; the remainder of the brigade then advanced to the works. 
Without delay the brigade marched towards Petersburg upon 
the Boydton Plank Road, sending in advance an aide and orderly 
to scout the way ; the enemy had fallen back to the outskirts of 
Petersburg, where Lee had stretched a breastwork across to the 
Appomattox. Approaching this line we found resistance, also 
an artillery fire from across the river. The Ninth and Sixth 
corps had carried their front, except a couple of forts. We 
formed, connecting with the troops of the latter on our right. 
It is related that while the Seventeenth was throwing up a 
breastwork here, about twilight, two strangers came along and 
stopped on the line of work, conversing together, peering and 
pointing in a peculiar manner. Colonel Hobson ordered them 
to " get out of the way," which they did without any '* back 
talk." The strangers were afterwards discovered to be Lieut.- 
General Grant and Maj.-General Wright. 

Lee evacuated that night. In the morning the pursuit 
began, and we marched twenty miles. Stragglers from Lee 
were plenty. The pursuit continued energetically, and on the 
5th we came up with his rear guard. 

Deatonsville and Sailor Creek. — April 6th the First 
brigade had the lead. Lee had changed his course. About 2 
p. M., when the enemy made a stand, the Seventeenth, with an- 
other of our regiments, was lent to the First brigade, to prolong 
its line, which at once formed and impetuously charged under 
a hot musket and artillery fire. The Seventeenth, after break- 
ing their line, wheeled to the left and charged upon those Con- 
federates who still held to their works, capturing about seventy- 
five prisoners, including several ofllcers, and the battle-flag of 
the 21st N. C. Lieutenant-Colonel Hobson was wounded 
in the first advance. The conmiand of the regiment then 
devolved upon Major Mattocks, who detailed Captain Green to 



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SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 245 

act as a field officer. The diyision then, in line of battle, 
advanced about two miles, where the enemy was again found. 
Then the Seventeenth^ was returned to its own brigade, which 
in turn took the advance to charge. Moving forward under 
musketry and artillery fire, we crossed a small stream, where 
we routed a skirmish line, and kept on up a ridge ; the rest of 
the brigade separated and moved to the left, while the Seven- 
teenth alone made connection with the First division on our 
right, as planned. General Humphreys, the corps commander, 
was present, who at once ordered another charge, when we 
pressed on, completely routing the enemy, who had made a 
stand at some buildings, and driving him across and beyond 
Sailor Creek. His wagon train fell into our hands with a large 
batch of prisoners. It was a headquarters train, and proved 
rich plunder. Six barrels of whiskey was the load of one wagon, 
which was wisely poured into the brook. The loss was : killed 
and mortally wounded, seven, including 1st Lieut. SchoUay G. 
Usher ; wounded, twenty-seven, including Lieut-Colonel Hob- 
son, Captain Dunn, 1st Lieut. Webb, 2d Lieut. Duncan; Ist 
Lieut. Hobbs was slightly wounded, but not disabled from duty. 

The pursuit continued next day, the Second division in the 
lead ; crossed the Appomattox at High Bridge, then on fire, 
where the enemy made some resistance, but gave way, leaving 
eighteen guns behind. In the afternoon came up with him, 
strongly intrenched, in a strong position at Farmville. Skir- 
mishing followed, and feints of attack, the object being to 
detain them. In the night our foe decamped, and on the 8th 
the hunt began again, passing through New Store. Late at 
night, or rather at daylight of the 9th, got within striking dis- 
tance. Sunday, April 9th, we continued the march until about 
noon and halted, about two miles from Appomattox C. H. 

The Surrender. — About four o'clock in the afternoon 
General Meade, coining from the front, announced the surren- 
der of General Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia, at 
Appomattox Court House. 

April 11th marched for Burkesville Junction, remaining 
there until May 2d, when the long march began for Wash- 
ington ; on the way passing through Richmond, Fredericksburg, 



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246 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

and other places memorable in the long strife ; finally reaching 
Bailey's Cross Roads, near Washington, where we encamped 
and remained until mustered out of service, June 4, 1865. 

The regiment, under Colonel Mattocks, took part in the 
Grand Review in Washington on May 23d. 

The men whose terms of service held beyond September 
30, 1865, were transferred to the First Maine Heavy Artillery 
regiment ; this transfer also included three oflScers. About 300 
enlisted men and thirty officers were present June 4, 1865, 
to be mustered out, and these came back to Maine with the 
organization. A large number of our comrades were absent, 
wounded and sick in hospital, who were thus deprived of the 
great joy of returning home under the colors. 

The Seventeenth, returning to Maine, arrived in Portland 
June 8th, where it, and the Twentieth regiment, were received 
with enthusiasm and were highly honored by a public recep- 
tion. June 10, 1865, the organization was disbanded. 



ROSTER. 

The following information relating to officers of the Sev- 
enteenth Maine regiment is obtained from the Volunteer Army 
Register (part 1), 1865, and other reliable sources. 

Officers at Muster-out, June 4, 1865. 

Colonel: Charles P. Mattocks, May 15, 1865, — ^brevet Colonel from 
Major, April 9, 1865; brevet Brigadier-General from Colonel, May 13, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: William Hobson, Jan. 18, 1865, mustered out 
June 6, 1865, — ^brevet Brigadier-General, April 6, 1865. 

Adjutant: ist Lieut George A. Parker, Jan. 18, 1865. 

Quartermaster: ist Lieut. Josiah Remick, Nov. 8, 1862. 

Captains: Joseph A. Perry, Nov. i, 1863; Edward Moore, Nov. 16, 
1863, — brevet Lieut. -Col., March 13, 1865; Edwin B. Houghton, Nov. 16, 1863, 
mustered out June 11, 1865,— commissioned Major, not mustered; William 
H. Green, Dec. 22, 1863, — ^brevet Major, April 9, 1865; George W. Verrill, 
March 14, 1864, — after Feb. 3, 1865, detached, on brigade staff, acting as Asst. 
Adjt-Gen., Asst Insp. Gen., and Aide-de-Camp, also served on Military 
Conmiission to examine officers; Grenville F. Sparrow, July 4, 1864; Gus- 
tavus C. Pratt, Jan. 18, 1865; Charles C. Cole, Jan. 31, 1865. 

First Lieutenants: Edward H. Crie, June 5, 1864, — commissioned 
Captain, not mustered; Robert H. Mathes, July 4, 1864, —brevet Captain, 
April 9, 1865; William H. Sturgis, July 4, 1864,— brevet Captain April 9, 1865; 



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BOSTEB OF THE SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT. 247 

Parlin Crawford, Nov. 4, 1864, — formerly of Third Maine; Lloyd W. Lamos, 
Nov. 5, 1864; Joseph S. Hobbs, Nov. 17, 1864; James M. Webb, Jan. 18, 
1865; William H. Copp, Feb. 12, 1865. formerly of Third Maine. 

Second Lieutenants: Albert L. Bradbury, Jan. 16, 1865; Asa G. 
Charles, Jan. 18, 1865; Edwin A. Duncan, Jan. 18, 1865. — brevet ist Lieut., 
April 9, 1865, commissi ist Lieut, not mustered; Charles H. Parcher, Jan. 
18, 1865; Edwin Emery, Jan. 20, 1865; Sumner W. Bumham, Jan 26, 1865; 
Thomas Snowman, Jan. 31, 1865; Horace B. Cummings, Feb. 12, 1865; 
Charles G. Holyoke, Sergeant-Major,^ommiss'd 2d Lieut., not mustered. 

Surgeon: Nahum A. Hersom, April 11, 1863. Assistant Surgeons: 
Nathaniel B. Coleman, Nov. 21, 1863; James G. Sturgis, Nov. 3, 1864. 

Chaplain: Joseph F. Lovering, Dec. 7, 1863. 

(Dates given above refer to rank or commission, those given hereafter 
refer to date of the event. ) 

Died. 

Captains: Almon L. Fogg, July 4, 1863, of wounds at battle of Gettys- 
burg; Milton M. Young, Aug. 13, 1863, of wounds at battle of Gettysburg; 
Ellis M. Sawyer, Nov. 28, 1863, of wounds at battle of Locust Grove,^-com- 
missioned Major, not mustered; Benjamin C. Pennell, June 17, 1864, killed 
in battle of Petersburg. 

First Lieutenants: G. W. S. Fickett, Sept. 24, 1862, of disease; 
Willard M. Jenkins, Nov. 18, 1862, of disease; Dudley H. Johnson, May 3, 
1863, killed in battle of Chancellorsville; James M. Brown, Nov. 27, 1863, 
killed in battle of Locust Grove; James S. Roberts, May 23, 1864, killed in 
battle of North Anna; Wellington Hobbs, Oct. 24, 1864, killed in action at 
Petersburg.^ommissioned Captain, not mustered; SchoUay G. Usher, April 
6, 1865, killed in battle of Deatonsville or Sailor Creek. 

Second Lieutenants: William C. Winter, Jan. 25, 1863, of disease; 
Hiram R. Dyar, July 2, 1863, killed in battle of Gettysburg; Benjamin Doe, 
May 6, 1864, killed in battle of Wilderness; Walter F. Noyes, May 24, 1864, 
killed in battle of North Anna; Newton W. Parker, ^onmiis'd 2d Lieut., 
not mustered, killed in battle May 6, 1864; Edward G. Parker, — commis'd 
2d Lieut., not mustered, killed in battle May 12, 1864. 

Quartermaster: ist Lieut. Jacob T. Waterhouse, Oct. 23, 1862, of 
disease. 

Transferred and Promoted out of Regiment. 

Captains: Edward L Merrill, Dec. 11, 1863, to Inv. corps as Captain, — 
brevet Major, March 13, 1865; Isaac S. Faunce, June 4, 1865, to First Maine 
H. A. First Lieutenants: Newton Whitten, Dec. 28, 1863, to Inv. corps; 
Dexter W. Howard, May 6, 1865, app't'd Captain m 128th U. S. Col. Troops, 
— ^formerly of Third Maine; Fayette M. Paine, June 4, 1865, to First Maine 
H. A. Second Lieutenants: Edwin W. Sanborn, May 6, 1865, app't*d 
ist Lieut in 128th U. S. Col. Troops,— formerly of Third Maine; Daniel J. 
Chandler, June 4, 1865, to First Maine H. A. 

Discharged on Account of Wounds. 

Colonel: George W. West, April 27, 1865,— brevet Brigadier-General, 
Dec. 2, 1864. 

Adjutant: ist Lieut. Charles W. Roberts, Dec. 16, 1863. 



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248 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

Captains: Augustus Goldermann, Aug. 19. 1863; John C. Perry, Sept 
14, 1864; Sumner S. Richards, Oct. i, 1864; George B. Dunn, June 3, 1865. 
First Lieutenants: Frederick A. Sawyer, Sept. 24, 1864; Henry L. Bar- 
tels, Oct. 3, 1864; John N. Morrill, Oct 20, 1864; George A. Whidden, Feb. 
4, 1865, — commissioned as Captain, not mustered. Second Lieutenants: 
Thomas W. Lord, Sept. 20, 1863,— afterwards in U. S. Army, retired as Cap- 
tain; Franklin C. Adams, Oct. i, 1864,— promoted to ist Lieut, not mustered; 
Jordan M. Hall, Oct 3, 1864. 

Resigned and Discharged. 

Colonel: Thomas A. Roberts, June 2, 1863. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: Charles B. Merrill, Oct. 7, 1864. 

Adjutant: ist Lieut Putnam S. Boothby, Oct. 31, 1864, — previously 
resigned as ist Lieut, Dec. 2. 1862; re-commissioned. 

Captains: Andrew J. Stinson, Oct 5, 1862; William H. Savage, Dec 
4, 1862; Albion Hersey, Dec. 21, 1862; Isaac S. Faunce, Jan. i, 1863, re-com- 
missioned as Captain, Jan. 23, 1864; Uriah W. Briggs, March 21, 1863; George 
W. Martin, March 26, 1863. First Lieutenants: John P. Swasey, Nov. 
19. 1862; Benjamin G. Ames, Nov. 20, 1862; OthoW. Bumham, Feb. 3, 1863; 
William Roberts, August 5, 1863; Charles E. Hubbard, August 28, 1863. 
Second Lieutenants: Madison K. Mabry, Dec. 10, 1862; Prescott New- 
man, Dec. 29, 1862; James M. Safford, Dec. 31, 1862; Danville B. Stevens, 
May 20, 1863; Ralph H. Day, May 21, 1863. 

Surgeon: Henry L. K. Wiggin, Jan. 31, 1863. Assistant Surgeons: 
Paschal P. Ingalls, March 2, 1863; Louis E. Norris, Oct. i, 1863; William 
Wescott, Dec. 11, 1863. 

Chaplains: Harvey Hersey, Oct 27, 1862; Jeremiah Hayden, Aug. 

29, 1863. 

Otherwise Left the Service. 

Capt. James O. Thompson, Feb. 23, 1864; 2d Lieut Stephen Graffam, 
Nov. 25, 1864. 



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TWENTIETH MAINE REGIMENT. 249 



MONUMENTS. 

The positions of the Twentieth Maine on the field of Gettysburg on the 
second and third days are marked by two monuments. The survivors of 
the regiment placed, in 1886, on the spot and near where their colors were 
planted on the afternoon of July 2d, a simple monument, of Hallowell granite, 
four feet square at the base and five feet four inches in height, bearing upon 
one side of the shaft, around the Maltese Cross of the Fifth corps, this in- 
scription: — 

TWENTIETH MAINE 



THIRD BRIG. LU FIRST DIY 



« 



FIFTH CORPS. 

Upon another side is the following inscription: — 

Here the 20th Maine Regiment, 
Col. J. L. Chamberlain commanding, forming the 

EXTREME LEFT OF THE NATIONAL LINE OF BATTLE 
ON THE 2nd day OF JuLY 1863 REPULSED THE 
ATTACK OF THE EXTREME RIGHT OF LoNGSTREET'S 
CORPS AND CHARGED IN TURN CAPTURING 302 

PRISONERS. The regiment lost 38 killed or 

MORTALLY WOUNDED, AND 92 WOUNDED, OUT OF 
358 ENGAGED. 

This monument, erected by survivors of 
the regiment a. d. 1886, marks very nearly 
the spot where the colors stood. 



Upon the two other sides is the roll of those of the regiment who fell. 
The stone-wall thrown up hastily along the brow of the hill, to afford some 
slight shelter under the murderous fire, remains to emphasize the record of 
the monument 



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250 MAJKE AT OETTTSBUBG. 



MONUMENT 

OP 

TWENTIETH MAINE REGIMENT. 

Upon Big Round Top is placed the monument erected by the state. It 
is of Hallowell granite. The base, of two tiers, shows as quarried, with cut 
angles; a single block forms the plinth which has chiseled borders and top; 
on this rests the massive die, nearly cubical in form, with a pointed apex. 

Admeasurements: Base, four stones, five feet by five feet by two feet; 
plinth, four feet nine inches by four feet nine inches by one foot seven inches; 
die, three feet six inches by three feet six inches by four feet six inches. 
Total height, eight feet one inch. 

Upon one side of the die a panel is sunk, from a polished surface, leaving 
in relief the following legend: — 

The 20th Maine Reg't, 

3d Bbig. IsT Div. 5th Corps, 

Colonel 

Joshua L. Chamberlain, 

CAPTURED and HELD THIS 
POSITION ON THE EVENING 

OF July 2d 1863, pursuing 

THE ENEMY FROM ITS FRONT 

on the line marked by 

its monument below. 

The reg't lost in the battle 

130 killed and wounded 

out of 358 engaged. 
This monument marks the 

EXTREME LEFT OF THE UNION 

LINE DURING THE BATTLE OF 

THE 3d day. 

There is by the monument here a wall of stone hastily thrown up for 
defenses by the regiment on the night of July 2d. 



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TWENTIETH BEGIHENT DIAOBAH. 



251 




Dnwn by O. W. Yerrill. 



Diagram showing Little Round Top and Devil* s Den, with positions of 
Twentieth and Fourth Maine regiments. 

Also a portion of the Wheatfield where Vincent's brigade entered, and 
Seventeenth regiment engaged. 



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TWENTIETH MAINE REGIMENT, 

THIRD BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, FIFTH ARMY CX>RPS, 

▲T THB BATTLS OV OBTTTSBUBG. 



WHILE the conflict was raging along Bimey's line another 
was in progress on the slopes of Little Round Top. We 
have already seen the Alabama and Texas regiments, 
under Law, rushing up across the valley of Devil's Den, and 
passing beyond and around the Fourth Maine and the other 
defenders of that position. By this movement the approaches 
of Little Round Top were uncovered ; and the Confederates, 
passing the ravine, began to swarm up the sides of that precip- 
itous height, which was now recognized as a most important 
position in the battle of this day. 

In the defense of this position a Maine regiment was to play 
a gallant part. The Twentieth Maine regiment, with the 16th 
Mich., 44th N. Y. and 83d Penn. formed Vincent's brigade of 
Barnes' division. It was the only Maine regiment now in the 
Fifth corps, the remnants of the Second Maine having been 
consolidated with the Twentieth. On the morning of June 29th 
the brigade had left its bivouac at Frederick City, Md., and by 
hard fotced marches, on the last day of which this regiment 
acted as the advance guard for the Fifth corps, had arrived at 
Hanover, Penn., at about 4 p. m. July 1st. While preparing for 
much needed rest, the plans were suddenly changed by hurried 
messengers bringing word that our First and Eleventh corps had 
struck the enemy at Gettysburg, some sixteen miles away, and 
were being driven back. This was the signal for more hard 
marching. The worn and wearied men were enthusiastic to 
rush to the rescue of their fellow soldiers and the imperilled 
flag. They pulled out at 6 p. m. for a night's march to Gettys- 
burg. It is fifty-five miles from Frederick City to Gettysburg 
by the route they took. The short time in which this distance 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 253 

was accomplished by soldiers weighed down with all the burdens 
of heavy marching order, and this at the end of a long, weari- 
some and worrysome inarch from the Rappahannock, under the 
fiery heats of a midsummer sun, will suggest the physical con- 
dition of men about to take strenuous part in a great battle. 
The cheers of welcome and blessing that met them on that Get- 
tysburg night-march, from all the little homes along the road, 
struck a deep chord in every soldier^s heart. Without a halt 
they arrived within striking distance of the anxious lines then 
holding front against the enemy, and were bidden to take a 
little rest. At daylight they pushed to the front, and were 
massed in rear of Cemetery HUH, under preliminary orders to 
prepare to attack the enemy on the right of our position. 

Meantime the plans of the opposing commanders were taking 
shape. Suddenly, at about 4 o'clock p. m. July 2d, an artillery 
fire opened on our extreme left, where our Third corps had 
taken position ; and the head of the Fifth corps, instead of 
attacking on the right, was hurried to the support of the Third 
corps on the extreme left. How our Twentieth regiment at 
the head of the brigade went in at first to Sickles' line of battle 
then under tremendous fire ; how the gallant General Warren, 
seeing, with military eye, the importance of the Round Top 
heights, begged General Sykes to send Vincent's brigade to gain 
this position in advance of Longstreet's troops, then rushing 
for the same commanding heights ; how Hazlett, aided by the 
infantry, lifted his guns by hand and handspike up the craggy 
sides ; how Vincent fought and fell ; how the Twentieth, at the 
critical moment, with a bayonet charge turned the confident 
Confederate onslaught into rout, on the left of our army, — all 
this makes one of the most famous passages of the battle of 
Gettysburg. 

The brigade, moving instantly and at the double-quick, 
crossed Plum Run, and scaled the northern crest of Little 
Round Top, under the storm of shells from Longstreet's bat- 
teries across the valley, crashing among the rocks and trees 
along the path of the column toiling up the mountain side (a) . 

(a) Official Report of Colonel Chamberlain, July 6, 1868. Rebellion Records, Vol 
37, part 1, paffe 822. 



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254 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

Passing to the southern slope of Little Round Top, making the 
extreme left of the Union line, where Vincent, entrusting the 
left of the line to the discretion and keeping of the C!olonel 
of this regiment, saying to him, '' You understand I hold this 
ground at all costs ! " rested his defense. The Twentieth, in 
order to meet the fire then enveloping our left, was formed " on 
the right into line," the successive companies keeping somewhat 
under shelter until they reached their place in the line (a) . On 
their right came up the other regiments of the brigade, the 83d 
Penn., the 44th N. Y. and the 16th Mich., making a somewhat 
convex line to cover the flank of our troops and artillery, then 
following, and in position to resist the formidable attack of the 
right of Hood's division, now intending to carry this southern 
crest and so command the whole Union left. 

The Twentieth Maine, as it formed that rugged line of battle 
among the crags and bowlders of that crest now charged with 
a nation's defense, numbered twenty-eight officers and three 
hundred and fifty-eight men present for duty equipped (b) . 
Although less than a year in the army the regiment had seen 
arduous service, entitling it to the name of veteran. C!ol. 
Joshua L. Chamberlain was its commander. 

Such advantage as was possible was taken of the rough, 
rooky and wooded ground. Facing it on the south was Big 
Round Top, a conmianding summit among the clustered hills, 
but impracticable for battle ground, which was separated from 
Little Round Top by a smooth, thinly wooded valley. In 
establishing his defense Colonel Chamberlain, regardful of his 
exposed left flank, sent out company B, under Captain Morrill, 
to operate as he found necessary on that flank. Moving to the 
left, this company deployed as a skirmish line to check a 
demonstration on the left of the regiment ; but afterwards, in 
the crisis of the fight, it got in its volley on the enemy's right, 
which demoralized them. 

(a) The order of companies from ri^ht to left was E, I, K, D, F, A, H, G, O, 
company B beinsr detached as skirmishers. 

(b) AccordinsT to the official reports ; but Ck>lonel Chamberlain has since said 
that when the fiirht besran some of those reported as absent sick came up and took 
their places, and that he also dismissed the ** pioneers " and the ** provost ffuard/' as 
well as the prisoners under arrest in their charge, and all of these went into the flflrht 
and did sallant service. 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 255 

These dispositions were scarcely made when a portion of 
Law's AlabamianSy with two regiments of Robertson's Texans 
swarming up from beyond Devil's Den, threw themselves against 
Vincent's right-centre, where a fierce conflict began to rage. 
Very soon the left was assailed, and the Twentieth was at 
once plunged into furious conflict. The enemy threatening to 
outflank us and to envelop our left and rear, the Colonel had 
promptly, as occasion permitted, stretched his regiment to the 
left by taking intervals by the left, and at the same time bent 
back, or " refused " the left wing, so that it was nearly at right 
angles with the right. In this way the regiment was brought 
to occupy about twice the extent of its ordinary front, some of 
the companies being extended into single rank, where the ground 
gave sufficient shelter. The colors were planted where the orig- 
inal left had been, now in the angle of the line. Upon this 
salient fell a most deadly fire during the hour of desperate fight- 
ing which followed. 

The most formidable assailants of the Twentieth did not, 
however, advance by way of the valley. They came over the 
summit of Big Round Top, having been drawn that way by an 
interesting incident of the battle. When the 2d U. S. Sharp- 
shooters retired before the Confederate advance, a portion of 
them ambushed themselves on the side of Big Round Top, 
whence they poured an annoying fire upon Law's men as they 
passed up the gorge. To silence this fire the 15th and 47th 
Ala., under direction of Col. William C. Gates of the 15th, 
advanced up the slope of Big Round Top, against the Sharp- 
shooters, who mysteriously disappeared. Reaching the sum- 
mit of the hill, Colonel Oates, charmed by the commanding 
position, wished to hold it ; but, upon the receipt of an urgent 
order from Law to " get on the enemy's left as soon as pos- 
sible," he moved the two regiments down the hillside and across 
the hollow towards the slope of Little Round Top (a) . 

They advanced in battle line with no skirmishers, the 15th 
Ala. on the right and opposing the left of the Twentieth 
Maine, cutting off as they advanced Captain Morrill's company. 
It was a most formidable advance. The 15th Ala. was one 

(a) statement of Colonel Oates (1800). 



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256 MAINE AT GBTTrSBUBQ. 

of the strongest and finest regiments in Hood's division, and 
largely outnumbered the Twentieth Maine. Suddenly, and to 
the Confederates unexpectedly, a most destructive volley buret 
from the line of the Twentieth (a) . Surprised but not discon- 
certed, the Alabamians replied, and the fight grew fierce and 
tense. Coming in with vastly superior numbers on the flank 
of the Twentieth, the enemy made a left wheel in order to take 
it in what they supposed to be its flank and rear, or at least to 
rake it with an enfilading fire. But here was proved the great 
benefit of the tactical manoeuvre of the ^refused" left flank. 
The enemy was met by a firm front, instead of falling upon an 
unguarded rear. Their fire, falling on the left wing of the 
Twentieth in front, enfiladed the right stretched out beyond. 
Against both fronts of the regiment, however, the whole force 
of the enemy advanced in repeated charges. ** The edge of the 
fight swayed backward and forward like a wave," are the words 
of the Colonel's report. Squads broke through each line in one 
place and another. Now the Maine men were driven back and 
the colors of the enemy for a moment are inside their line. 

At one moment it looked as if the colors of the Twentieth 
Maine must be lost. Buried from sight in smoke, when the 
black cloud lifted for a moment the colors were seen almost 
alone. All the Color-Guard and the flanks of the companies 
on its right and left were cut away ; but the Color-Sergeant, 
Andrew J. Tozier, was standing his ground, the staff planted 
on the earth, and supported within his left arm, while he had 
picked up a musket and was defending his colors with bullet, 
bayonet and butt, alone ! Seeing this heroic example and the 
imminent peril of the colors in the whirl that wrapped the left 
and centre, the Colonel sent his brother, the acting Adjutant (b) , 
to rally some men, wherever they could be found, for the sup- 
port of the Sergeant and the rescue of the colors. In order to 
ensure the delivery of his order under the hot fire the Colon*jl 
dispatched immediately Sergeant Kuel Thomas (whom he had 
taken as a sort of staff-orderly) with the same instructions. 

(a) Colonel Gates says (1890) that he did not know of the presenoe of the Twen- 
tieth Biaine amongr the rocks and trees in front until this volley was delivered. The 
fire was most destructiye ; but he felt compelled to push on under the circumstances. 

(b) Colonel Chamberlain's official report, July 6, 1863. 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 257 

At the same time the Colonel asked the commanding officer of 
the 83d Penn., on his right, for a company to fill this perilous 
gap ; but the 83d could not risk its own safety to spare a man. 

The situation was desperate. The men had been using 
cartridges snatched from the boxes of their fallen comrades, 
and even from those of the enemy. A third of the regiment 
was down, dead or disabled on their line. As the last rounds 
of ammunition were expended, the men were preparing to club 
their muskets as the last resort of the defensive. They had so 
far maintained their swaying line in spite of the terrible press- 
ure on point after point of it. 

But in a moment the scene changed. The enemy suddenly 
drew back to the shrubbery and rocks in the bottom of the 
valley, as if to gather force for a supreme blow. At this crisis, 
with the quick and resolute instinct to strike before he was 
struck. Chamberlain staked all upon a desperate counter-charge. 
He repaired to the left centre to advise Capt. Ellis Spear (a) , 
who, acting as field officer, was in charge there, of his new 
purpose. Great responsibility was to fall upon this officer, as 
his flank was to start the movement, and moreover to become 
the wheeling flank, as the movement must swing on the right 
as a pivot ; otherwise the regiment would be cut in two by the 
enemy, massing on the centre, as they naturally would do. As 
the Colonel was returning to the centre to give the necessary 
order. Lieutenant Melcher of the color company came up 
to him, asking permission to move out and gather up some of 
the wounded who lay between the two lines. " Yes, sir. Take 
your place with your company. I am about to order a ' right 
wheel forward' of the whole regiment" was the reply. The 
brave young officer sprang forward, and at that moment 
Chamberlain's voice thrilled along the line, " Bayonet 1 " The 
Colonel placed himself at the centre, on the apex of the salient 
angle of his line, abreast with the colors. The enemy had in 
the mean time made a furious onset. But when the left wing 
whirled the enemy's right out of the shelter of rocks they had 
taken, our centre dashed upon their disordered mass, and the 
whole regiment swept forward with irresistible force. 

(a) Commissioned Major, but not mustered as such. 



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258 MAINE AT GETTTSBUEG. 

In the first onset the Colonel came directly in contact with 
the commanding officer leading the enemy's centre, with uplifted 
sword in one hand and a heavy ^ Colt's " revolver in the other. 
He fired one barrel in the Colonel's face, and gave him his 
sword with the other hand (a) • 

The left wing had now fought its way up abreast with the 
right, what was left of the two centre companies closing on the 
colors ; Capt. A. M. Clark, the senior captain, commanding on 
the right, holding that flank well to the 83d Penn., to prevent 
the enemy from trying to breakthrough between, and the whole 
regiment, like a reaper, cutting .down the disconcerted foe. 
Many in their first line threw down their loaded arms, threw up 
their hands and surrendered ; others were taken in hand-to-hand 
conflicts. Still sweeping in an extended right wheel, the Twen- 
tieth routed a second line, trying to rally for a stand (b) . The 
Confederates did not rally. They had suffered severely at the 
hands of the Twentieth, and moreover had been subjected to a 
mysterious and alarming fire from their right and rear. They 
were not aware that some of the 2d U. S. Sharpshooters who 
had disappeared on Big Round Top had joined Captain Morrill's 
skirmishers behind a stone- wall, on the right of the 15th Ala., 
where these combined forces rendered most material aid in the 
final charge of the regiment. No less than 400 prisoners, includ- 
ing two field and several line officers, were captured, most of 
them from the 15th and 47th Ala., with a few from the 4th and 
5th Texas (c). 

The Confederates were driven completely and finally from 
the front of the Twentieth; nor had Law's most desperate 
assaults succeeded in gaining a foothold in any other portion of 
the line held by Vincent's brigade. At the hour when the 
Twentieth Maine dashed upon the 15th and 47th Ala. regiments. 
Little Round Top was saved, not to be attacked again. 

It was about 6 : 30 p. m. when the Confederates were driven 

(a) See Rebellion Records, serial nomber 43, paere 624. 

(b) These were squads or erroups of the 47th and 4th Ala. and some of the 4th and 
8th Texas, which had been attaokinur the left centre of the brisrade. 

(c) Aocordinsr to Captain Prince's address at Qettysburg 1889) fifty dead of the 
ISth Ala. were buried in front of the Twentieth, and about 100 of their badly wounded 
were left to become prisoners. 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 259 

from the south side of Little Round Top. But the withdrawal 
of the enemy did not leave the Twentieth Maine the much 
needed opportunity to take rest or even to perform the saddest 
duty of the soldier on the battlefield, the burial of his dead 
comrades. Of the wooded slopes of Big Round Top, towering 
664 feet above the plain, the foot of it but a few rods from the 
position of the Twentieth, the enemy were still in possession. 
The commander of the brigade directed Colonel Chamberlain to 
advance and seize the crest of Big Round Top. Colonel Rice, 
Vincent's successor, says in his report: ''I ordered Colonel 
Chamberlain, of the Twentieth Maine, to advance and take pos- 
session of the mountain. This order was promptly and gal- 
lantly executed by this brave and accomplished officer, who 
rapidly drove the enemy over the mountain, capturing many 
prisoners." 

The regiment, including company B recalled, now number- 
ing about 200 men, scrambled up the ascent. It was 9 o'clock 
before the advance began, and darkness shrouded the summit 
of the hill and had settled deep on its rocky, wooded and pre- 
cipitous sides. With fixed bayonets and in extended order, the 
little band pressed up the black hillside. In front of them they 
could hear the movements of squads of the enemy falling back ; 
and when near the sunmiit they received a straggling and uncer- 
tain fire out of the darkness. Twenty-five prisoners were taken 
in this advance, among them a staff officer of General Law. 
Upon the crest of the hill Colonel Chamberlain placed the reg- 
iment in a strong position among the rocks, and sent back for 
reinforcements and ammunition, — ^f or not the least gallant feat- 
ure of this advance was the fact that the soldiers made it with 
empty cartridge boxes and without supports near at hand. 

Through some misadventure the necessary supporting and 
connecting troops were wanting, and the Twentieth remained 
for some time detached from the other Union forces and within 
musket range of the enemy. To quote from Lieutenant Miller 
of the Twentieth Maine, in his address October 3, 1889, at the 
dedication of the monument erected by the state to the Twen- 
tieth, on Big Round Top : 

** Apprehending that the rebels might seize this opportunity to envelop 



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260 MAINE AT OETTT8BUBO. 

our right, Colonel Chamberlain hastily detailed a picket line on the front and 
left, and retired the main body to lower ground near the foot of the ascent 
He then dispatched a request to Colonel Rice for the 83d Penn. and after- 
ward for the 44th N. Y. to support the Twentieth on the right by echelon. 
In this formation, being partially supplied with ammunition, the line again 
advanced considerably beyond its former position, where the men lay on 
their arms till morning, expecting an attack at any moment. 

** I have mentioned the detail of a picket line in the early part of the night 
These pickets advanced down the side of the hill in our front imtil they could 
see the enemy by the light of their camp-fires and hear conversation, when 
they retired part way up to the crest. The Confederates had evidently seen 
their movements, for they soon sent a squad to ascertain whether they were 
friends or foes. Being halted by our pickets, they answered * friends ' and 
were told to come right along. This strategy was continued until twenty-five 
of the 4th Tex. regiment had been captured by company E on the right of 
the line. At this time some officer, farther to the left, gave an order to fire, 
and no more prisoners were taken that night. These prisoners were sent to 
the rear under the escort of John ^radford and Eugene Kelleran of company 
I, who tramped around in the darkness a long time trying to find the provost 
guard. Coming out into an open space they decided to bivouac till morning, 
when the prisoners were turned over to the .proper officer. 

**The only casualty in the Twentieth during this movement occurred 
in the morning, when Lieut. Arad Linscott took a musket and going out in 
advance of the picket line to get a shot at the enemy, who were firing in 
among our men, was mortally wounded in the thigh by a sharpshooter." 

The following is an excerpt from Colonel Chamberlain's field 
notes made upon the battlefield, which further elucidates the 
exciting circumstances and events of the evening of July 2d : 

**At about dusk Fisher came up with brigade of Penn. Reserves, in rear 
of our line of battle. Rice asked him to advance and seize Great Round Top. 
He declined. Rice then asked me to go. We formed — ^about 200 men — in 
extended order; one rank, bayonets fixed, no firing, litde ammunition. Quite 
dark. Rough scrambling; few of enemy before us; took two officers pris- 
oners, one Captain Christian, and five or six men. Arriving at crest, drew 
together; solid front; in half hour two regiments came up on right as supports. 
Tried to form them on our right rear; sharp, close volley from right; sup- 
ports confused and withdrew. Dangerous situation. Divided reg^iment; half 
holding present ground; half withdrawn to ground abandoned by supports, 
half way down right rear. Sent for 83d Penn. Relieved my reserved line 
with these, and resumed former position with whole regiment. Formed two 
reliefs of skirmishers, sent down in front; relieved every two hours. Right 
of skirmish line took about twenty more prisoners. Texas troops. Linscott 
mortally wounded on skirmish line early in morning. Sharp skirmishing at 
daylight. Strong skirmish line of enemy all around right front. Two regi- 
ments of Reserves had come up towards morning on left, near summit. Some 
supplies of ammunition came up with 83d Penn. at once distributed; served 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 261 

well. Withdrawn with brigade at about 9 in morning and placed in support 
of troops on left centre of general line; to left of * Pickett's charge.* Not en- 
gaged; under heavy artillery fire all forenoon. Remained all day and night" 

The 83d Penn. and 44th N. Y. were posted on the right to 
guard this isolated position almost within the enemy's lines. 
With a strong picket line advanced nearly to the Confederates 
at the foot of the hiU, and changing every two hours, the 
defenders of Big Round Top lay down upon their arms ; and a 
broken sleep succeeded the deadly strife and wild tumult of 
the day. By our thus gaining possession of Big Round Top 
the enemy were induced to give up further attack upon the 
Union left. 

At the opening of the fight there was no time for the men 
to take much heed to shelter themselves. But as the battle 
grew, the regimental line conformed itself to the nature of the 
ground, and availed itself of momentary lulls to throw up slight 
breastworks of loose rocks behind which the men, lying down, 
could find some protection. When the regiment was preparing 
to extend its front and refuse its left, extended as has been 
stated, the colors were placed where the extreme left had been ; 
they were stationed where a decayed tree had been broken off 
but adhering to its stump about three feet from the ground, in 
the line of direction to the right. But between this stump and 
the great rock where the monument now stands there was no 
protection, nor means to make any. 

It will be noticed in the list of casualties that all the cor- 
porals and one sergeant of company F, the color company, were 
killed or wounded ; and that six corporals and two sergeants 
of company A, on its left, were killed or wounded. Only two 
of the color-guard escaped unhurt. The Colonel was struck 
twice, although not disabled, — a tearing cut in the right instep 
by a piece of shell or a splinter of rock, and a contusion on 
the left thigh by the steel scabbard being doubled against it, 
struck by a minnie ball ; the Adjutant received several scratches, 
and several others, both officers and men, were slightly hurt, 
but remained on duty. 

From the fact that the men fired at least sixty rounds to a 
man, it is evident that they fought for considerably more than 



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262 MAINE AT GETTYSBUKG. 

an hour, closely engaged. If the enemy fired half that num- 
ber, there were not less than 20,000 bullets directed upon the 
regiment. It is no wonder that the trees on that slope were 
completely "peppered" with bullets to the height of five or six 
feet. One tree, some three or four inches through, in front of 
the left of company F, was cut entirely off about two feet 
above the ground. The ragged edges of the cut showed that it 
was made by bullets, and not by a shell. 

But even sheltered and spared as the men were, the casual- 
ties shown in the list of names entitle this regiment to be called 
one of the ''fighting regiments," according to the popular 
judgment based on the number of men lost in action. This is 
proof of being exposed to hostile fire, but not necessarily of 
the degree of service rendered in action. 

At 10 o'clock on the 3d the Twentieth took a position with 
the brigade to the right of Little Kound Top to support the 
troops on our left centre. There it remained during the battle 
of the third day, not called upon to assist in repelling the charge 
of Pickett's division, which fell further to the right. 

On the morning after Pickett's charge, the regiment with the 
brigade made a reconnaissance to the front, through the Peach 
Orchard and by the ^ burning bam " used as a hospital by both 
parties. Pushing on as far as Willoughby Run, no enemy 
being discovered, the brigade was brought back, and Colonel 
Chanxberlain went up to Little Bound Top and looked after his 
dead. The regiments gathered their dead from the sheltered 
places where they had been borne, and buried them on the 
southern side of the crest behind their line of battle. Rude head- 
boards, made of ammunition boxes, marked each grave, and 
bore, rudely but tenderly carved, the name and home of every 
man (a) . Detachments from the brigade buried many of the 
rebel dead at the foot of the slopes, on the edge of the valley 
near where they had fallen. The bodies of the Twentieth Maine 
have since been removed to the National cemetery, where sev- 
eral of them are marked " unknown." The headboards placed 
by comrades had evidently been unheeded or taken away. 

(a) General Chamberlain's lecture, October, 1866, ** Twentieth Maine at Gtot- 
tyaburg." 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 268 



PARTICIPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF AND N0NK:0MMISSI0NBD STAFF. 

Colonel, Joshua L. Chamberlain, Branswick. 

Acting Field Officer, Captain Atherton W. Clark, Waldoboro, company E. 

Acting Field Officer, Captain Ellis Spear, Wiscasset, company G. 

Acting Adjutant, First Lieutenant Thomas D. Chamberlain, Bangor, co. G. 

Quartermaster, Alden Litchfield, Rockland. 

Chaplain, Luther P. French, East Corinth; at hospital. 

Acting Sergeant-Major, Samuel L. Miller, Waldoboro, company E. 

Color Sergeant, Andrew J. Tozier, Plymouth, company L 

ColonePs orderly, Reuel Thomas, Thomaston, Sergeant company I. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant, Howard L. Prince, Cumberland. 

Commissary-Sergeant, Elmas M. Kalloch, Warren. 

Hospital Steward, Granville M. Baker, Standish. 

Company A. 
First Lieutenant, Addison W. Lewis, Waterville, commanding. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Charles R. Shorey, Waterville, 

Henry W. Getchell, Winslow, James H. Harrington, Bumham, 

George W. Reynolds, Sidney, Albert M, Clark, Waterville. 

CORPORALS. 

Charles H. Reed, Freedom, David J. Lewis, Waterville, 

Charles E. Avery, Sidney, Joseph D. Simpson, Waterville, 

Laforrest P. True, Clinton, John Reed, Jr., Eustis, 

Fred H. Mann, Sidney, Henry M. Tozer, Waterville. 

PRIVATES. 

Bartiett, Charles H., Sidney, Benson, Thomas S., Sidney, 

Breen, John H., Augusta, Church, Chandler K., Bumham, 

Dawes, Calvin, Cumberland, Foss, Washington, Comville, 

Fuller, Emulus S., Eustis, Grindle, Joseph, Bangor, 

Hall, Isaac C, Freedom, Hill, William E., Bumham, 

Hutchins, Alvah L., Freedom, Longley, Samuel, Sidney. 

Lore, Charles, Waterville, Marden, Ezra B., Bangor, 

Norton, Hiram, Solon, Rankins, William, Waterville, 

Stevens, Jeremiah C, Sidney, Shaw, Resolvo, Waterville, 

Surry, Joseph L., Castine, Stinson, Merritt, Clinton, 

Tarbell, Erastus, Clinton, Sylvester, Ira R., Freedom, 

Trae, Franklin, Clinton, Taylor, Alfred, Eustis, 

Whitten, Isaiah, Alfred, Wardwell, David S., Clinton, 

Willey, William E., Belgrade, Young, Ervin S.. Solon. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: William A. Estes, Bangor, 
battery C, ist N. Y. ; Henry H. Scribner, Bangor, George A. Webber, Ells- 
worth, and George W. Yoimg, Bangor, battery L, ist Ohio; John King, 
Waterville, and Edgar Scates, Waterville, regt'l hosp.; Eben Rowe, Bel- 
grade, with regt*l baggage; Elijah G. Stevens, Belgrade. 



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264 



MAINE AT GBTTTSBUKG. 



Company B. 
Captain, Walter G. Morrill, Williamsburg. 
Second Lieutenant, Frederic W. Lane, Milo. 

SERGEANTS. 

Acting First Sergeant, William Griffin, Stockton, 

Samuel G. Crocker, Brownville, Royal B. Decker, Lagrange. 

CORPORALS. 

George H. Moulton, Lagrange, William H. Owen, Milo, 



Walter S. Bray, Dover, 
Richard Hughes, Brownville, 
Thomas F. Hodgdon, Milo. 



Brown, William A., Sebec, 
Cotton, Richard G., Williamsburg, 
Cununings, Leonard N., Albany, 
Edes, Augustus, Abbot, 
Freeman, Samuel, Medford, 
Higgins, David S., Sebec, 
Johnson, John, Solon, 
Leach, George W., New Brunswick, 
Libby, Seth H., Lagrange, 
Lyford, John, Sebec, 
Oakes, Hudson S., Foxcroft, 
Parkman, Franklin B., Guilford, 
Sanborn, Edmund R., Lagrange, 
Sanders, Henry C, Brownville, 
Spaulding, Randall H., Foxcroft, 



William T. Livermore, Milo, 
Cyrus C. Ehirgin, Sebec, 

PRIVATES. 

Burrill, Newell E., Dover, 
Cross, Eli W., Dover, 
Cummings, Wesley, Albany, 
Field, Benjamin R., Foxcroft, 
Frees, William L., Maxfield, 
Hitchbom, George W,, Medford, 
Lamson, William P., Jr., Sebec, 
Leonard, Abial E., Milo, 
Lyford, Danville B., Sebec, 
Morrill, Edwin, Sebec, 
Page, David F., Atkinson, 
Richardson, George H., Denmark, 
Sanborn, William S., Lagrange, 
Skillings, Charles A., Guilford, 
Stone, George W., Richmond, 



Warner, Sumner L., Dover. 

Musician, William F. Gould, Eastport. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Charles E. Bowker, Orring- 
ton, battery L, ist Ohio; Arthur Jordan, Ellsworth, and Augustus N. Lufkin, 
Orrington, battery I, 5th U. S.; Daniel A. Jackson, Omeville, regt*l hosp. 

Company C. 
Captain, Charles W. Billings, Clinton. 
First Lieutenant, Rufus B. Plununer, Linneus, assigned to G. 
Second Lieutenant, James H. Stan wood, Waldoboro. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Isaac W. Estes, Bethel, 

George H. Wood, Hartford, Andrew J. Roberts, Sunmer, 

Arad Thompson, Livermore, Charles A. Knapp, Rumford. 

CORPORALS. 

Arthur B. Latham, Buckfield, 
Vincent W. Pinhom, Orrington. 

PRIVATES. 

Barker, Eugene A., Rumford, 
Bean, Arthur M., Bethel, 
Bryant, Varano G., Bethel, 
Carpenter, Henry A., Charleston, 
Davis, Moses, Caribou, 



Andrew C. Deering, Foxcroft, 
Nathaniel S. Estes, Bethel, 



Allen, Elliot C, Wilton, 
Beadle, Charies M., Buckfield, 
Bean, Edgar F., Bethel, 
Buck, Charles T., Sumner, 
Chase, Benjamin F., Sumner, 



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TWENTIETH BEGDIENT PABTICIPANT8. 



265 



Drake, Elisha O., Livermore, 
Fogg, Elliott L., Sumner, 
Heald, Llewellyn B., Sumner, 
Hodgman, Osgood A., Rumford, 
Mills, George V., Brooksville, 
Moore, Henry H., Canaan, 
Murdock, Sylvester E., Buckfield, 
O'Connell, John, Waterford, 
Powers, Charles P., Newry, 
Royal, David H., Bangor, 
Stevens, Oliver L., Livermore, 
Thomas, Moses S., Woodland, 
Turner, Winslow, Buckfield, 
Whittier, Charles G., Caribou, 



Faunce, Edward, Rumford, 
Heald, Benjamin F., Sumner, 
Hodgdon, Josiah S., Peru, 
Melcher, Samuel G., Brunswick, 
Monk, Decatur, Buckfield, 
Morton, Daniel W., Windsor, 
Neal, George D., Livermore, 
Odlin, Waldo P., Bangor, 
Roberts, Albert, Livermore, 
Small, Alva B., Caribou, 
Thomas, James, Rumford, 
Tobin, John, Caribou, 
Verrill, Moses F., Buckfield, 
Wright, John, Veazie, 



York, George H., Woodstock. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Lafayette M. Crosby, 
Harmony, battery I, 5th U. S.; John Harmon, Buxton, Samuel F. Mallett, 
Lee, and John H. Wentworth, Veazie, battery C, ist N. Y.; John E. Carl- 
ton, Hanover, and Erskine C. Smith, Hanover, in quarterm'r dept. 

Company D. 
Captain, Joseph B. Fitch, Bristol. 
First Lieutenant, Weston H. Keene, Bremen. 
Second Lieutenant, Mattson C. Sanborn, South Berwick. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Joseph Walker, Jr., Atkinson, 

Randall B. Morton, Windham, Jonathan G. Johnson, Garland, 

George W. Card, Dexter, Joseph A. Young, Bingham. 

corporals. 
John M. Safford, Corinna, Luther M. Rideout, Garland, 

Sanford A. Carpenter, Portland, Oliver French, Solon, 

Andrew D. Mabury, Windham, Willard Pinkham, Charleston, 

Albert J. Swanton, Dexter. 

PRIVATES. 

Anderson, James, Bangor, 



Ames, Addison M., Comville, 
Augustine, Peter, Dexter, 
Baker, Sylvester P., Solon, 
Coan, Elisha S., Garland, 
Crocker, George A., Dexter, 
Ellis, Augustus, Dexter, 
Herrin, Benjamin F., Skowhegan, 
Jones, Danville F., Comville, 
Libby, Leander M., Corinna, 
McPhee, Michael J., Bangor, 
Pennington, Christopher, Garland, 
Prescott, Stephen A., Dexter, 
Ramsdell, John N., Exeter, 
Shay, Michael, Bangor, 
Stevens, Daniel, Wellington, 



Bailey, George T., Dexter, 
Barker, Isaac C, Exeter, 
Coombs, Thomas A., Brunswick, 
Curtis, Merrill G., Dexter, 
Greeley, Cyrus S., Dexter, 
Hunnewell, Franklin S., Portland, 
Knox, ^umner. Garland, 
Lynes, John, Jr., Bangor, 
Moon, Moses, Ellsworth, 
Prescott, Eli L., Dexter, 
Ramsdell, Benjamin F., Gray, 
Rich, George R., Charleston, 
Skillings, Sumner L., Garland, 
Swett, Henry A., Garland. 



Musician : Alonzo P. Allen, Gray. 



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266 



MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



On Special Duty or Detached Service: John Grenier, St Francis, 
and James Hickey, Bangor, battery C, istMass.; Elsbra McCoy, Bangor, and* 
Leander Shaw, Exeter, battery D, 5th U. S. ; Edward P. Merrill, Portland, 
and Dennis S. Pullen, Dexter, hosp. dept. ; Aaron M. Page, Charleston. 

Company E. 
Captain, Atherton W. Clark, Waldoboro, acting Field Officer. 
First Lieutenant, Henry F. Sidelinger, Union, commanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, Thomas R. Hogue, Waldoboro. 

SERGEANTS. 

1st Sergt, John M. Sherwood, Bangor, Charles H. Haynes, Ellsworth, 
William H. H. Hasey, Bangor, Gardiner Schwartz, Waldoboro. 

CORPORALS. 

George A. Hock, Waldoboro, John M. Sherman, Waldoboro, 

Raymond W. Hoffses, Waldoboro, Albert E. Titus, Union, 
Timothy F. Brown, Bristol. 

PRIVATES. 

Benner, George G., Waldoboro, 



Bates, Calvin, Waldoboro, 
Bickmore, Charles E., Waldoboro, 
Brock, Lowell, Waldoboro, 
Bryant, Elbridge R., Bristol, 
Chapman, Edward K., Waldoboro, 
Cudworth, Levi, Bristol, 
Davis, William L., Union, 
Humphrey, Albert E., Waldoboro, 
Levensaler, Elijah S., Waldoboro, 
Maddox, Aaron W., Union, 
Mann, Patrick, Bristol, 
Mclntyre, Joseph, Bristol, 
Mero, Charles H., Waldoboro, 
Palmer, George, Bristol, 
Trundy, Hiram W., Union, 
Twomey, Thomas, Bangor, 
Whitney, Charles A., Etna, 



Brackett, Chandler, Union, 
Brown, Charles C, East Benton, 
Caswell, George B., Bristol, 
Conway, John, Bangor, 
Cutler, Alvin, Bristol, 
Femald, John Q. A., Waldoboro, 
Lenfest, John, Union, 
Little, Thomas C, Bristol, 
Mank, Leander M., Waldoboro, 
Mclntyre, John J., Bristol, 
McKim, William D., Bristol, 
Mink, Orchard F., Waldoboro, 
Townsend, Thomas, Houlton, 
Turner, Barden, Waldoboro, 
Wentworth, William H., Bangor, 



Witherell, Edwin S., Augusta, 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Samuel L. Miller, Waldo- 
boro, act*g Sergt. -Major; William H. Chamberlain, Sewall M. Cowan, Ban- 
gor, Edwin H. Dunn, Bangor, and Lewis F. Morse, Veazie, battery D, 5th 
U. S.; William P. Harvey, Bangor, battery C, ist Mass.; Henry H. Butler, 
Union, comm*y dept; Cyrus G. Stewart, Union, quarterm*r dept; Reuben 
Walton, Waldoboro. 

Company F. 
Captain, Samuel T. Keene, Rockland. 
First Lieutenant, Holman S. Melcher, Topsham. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Hezekiah Long, Thomaston, 



Ammi M. Smith, Parkman, 
James R. Martin, Parkman. 

Albion Brown, Harmony, 
Franklin B. Ward, Brighton, 
William S. Hodgdgn, Embden, 



George Crocker, St Albans, 

CORPORALS. 

John W. Morin, Embden, 
Paschal M. Tripp, Ripley, 
John Foss, Athens. 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



267 



Boothby, Adney D., Athens, 
Brown, Elisha A., Solon, 
Carr, Elijah, Bangor, 
Clark. Seth W., Solon, 
Collins, Elias S., Harmony, 
Curtis, Frank B., Wellington, 
Daniels, George G., Harmony, 
Davis, William H., Cambridge, 
Dinsmore, Eben F., Hartland, 
Dimlap, Horace, Ripley, 
Fox, Samuel A., Comville, 
Frost, Albert, St. Albans, 
Gordon, Frank, St Albans, 
Grant, Benjamin W., Comville, 
Hall, Leonidas, Portland, 
Johnson, Sullivan, St. Albans, 
Palmer, Luther L., Comville, 
Poland, Samuel, Athens, 
Stone, Jesse M., Ripley, 
Wentworth, John, Athens, 
White, Sylvanus R., St. Albans, 
Witherell, Robert A., Bangor, 



PRIVATES. 

Bosworth, Michael, Solon, 
Bussell, Oshea, Wellington, 
Clark, Horace B., Comville, 
Clifford, John F., Bangor, 
Coombs, Augustus F., Parkman, 
Daggett, Isaac T., Bingham, 
Davis, Gilman, Wellington, 
DeWitt, Joseph E., Ripley, 
Dunham, Dawson J., Comville, 
Foss, Elfin J., Embden, 
French, Edward B., Athens, 
Gordon, Edmimd, Bangor, 
Gordon, Isaiah L., St. Albans, 
Hall, Charles F., Bangor, 
Hilton, Daniel, Comville, 
Libby, Benjamin D., Athens, 
Patten, David, Comville, 
Redmond, George K., Embden, 
Weaver, Leander S., Parkman, 
Wentworth, Sanford H., Athens, 
Whitman, Ezekiel, Brighton, 
Wyer, Oscar, Bangor, 



Young, Thomas J., Athens. 

Musician: Michael Quimby, Bangor. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Crosby N. Crocker, team- 
ster quartermaster's dept. ; Henry Reaviel, Bangor, and William N. Witham, 
Bangor, battery C, ist N. Y. 

Company G. 
Captain, Ellis Spear, acting Field Officer (see Field and Staff). 
First Lieutenant, Thomas D. Chamberlain, act'g Adjt. (see Field and Staff). 
[First Lieutenant Ruhis B. Plummer of co. C, commanding.] 
Second Lieutenant, Warren L. Kendall, Belfast. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, James C. Rundlett, East Pittston, 
Abner S. Hiscock, Damariscotta, Eugene R. Jackson, Jefferson, 
William B. Greenwood, Wiscasset, William S. Jordan, Bangor. 

corporals. 



George W. Bowman, Jefferson, 
Elisha Meserve, Wiscasset, 
Samuel G. Bailey, Woolwich. 

Averill, Edward, Jefferson, 
Bailey, David A., Woolwich, 
Baker, James H., Woolwich, 
Barnes, Moody D., Nobleboro, 
Buker, William G., Bmnswick, 
Butler, Alvin, Mt. Vemon, 
Carter, Lewis D., Woolwich, 
Cushman, Llewellyn, Woolwich, 



Cyms Osbom, Alna, 
Melville C. Day, Jefferson, 

privates. 

Ayer, Charles N., Brewer, 
Bailey, Harlan P., Woolwich, 
Baker, Josiah H., Edgecomb, 
Bomeman, Luther C, Jefferson, 
Burr, Frank, Brewer, 
Carr, Almon P., Mt. Vemon, 
Cunningham, Albert, Edgecomb, 
Cushman, Wales H., Woolwich, 



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268 



MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



Dunbar, Harlow, Nobleboro, 
Given, John T., Brewer, 
Huff, Oilman P., Edgecomb, 
Light, Alva, Edgecomb, 
Kennedy, John M., Richmond, 
Murphy, Jere, Bangor, 
Pero, Henry, Wiscasset, 
Preble, Henry C, Woolwich, 
Smith, James H., Wellington, 
Sweeney, Eugene, Newcastle, 
Tibbetts, Jotham D., Woolwich, 
Vinal, John, Jefferson, 



Erskine, James H., Bristol, 
Herscomb, Andrew, Edgecomb, 
Knight, James A., Edgecomb, 
Lowell, Samuel T., Alna, 
Moody, Albert A., Waldoboro, 
Nash, James A., Nobleboro, 
Preble, George, Edgecomb, 
Rankin, William, Newcastle, 
Smith, John T., Edgecomb, 
Swett, Nathaniel L., Orrington, 
Veazie, Samuel W., Bangor, 
Wheeler, Henry L., Greenfield, Mass., 



Wright, Fred R., Wiscasset. 

Musician: George D. Hodgdon, Richmond. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Marcellus Blake, Carmel, 
and Albert L. Spencer, Bangor, battery C, ist Mass. ; John T. Given, Brewer, 
battery C, ist N. Y.; Joseph Linscott, Newcastle, regimental armorer; James 
G. Brann, Jefferson; Alexis F. Flagg, Alna; Jotham D. Williams, Alna. 

Company H. 
Captain, Joseph F. Land, Edgecomb. 
First Lieutenant, William W. Morrell, Brunswick. 
Second Lieutenant, William K. Bickford, Thomaston. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Charles W. Steele, Oakfield Plantation, 
Lewis Merriam, Jr., Houlton, James A. Horton, Haynesville, 

Isaac N. Lathrop, Bangor, Charles W. Proctor, Oxbow PL, 

George W. Buck, Linneus, promoted on the field, from Private. 

corporals. 



Myron W. Harris, Littleton, 
Andrew J. York, Pownal, 
George F. Estabrook, Amity. 

Adams, Aaron, Linneus, 
Clifford, Benjamin F., Linneus, 
Davis, Fred T., Freeport, 
Fowlfes, Gowen W., Medway, 
French, Benjamin F., Linneus, 
Goff, Edmund, Patten, 
Hilt, Byron, Presque Isle, 
Ireland, John F., Presque Isle, 
Lamson, Iredell, Presque Isle, 
McGuire, Seth, Linneus, 
Morrison, Edmund, Linneus, 
Rogers, Frank M., Appleton, 



John M. Libby, Biddeford, 
Nathan S. Clark, Masardis, 

privates. 

Chesley, Hiram H., Patten, 
Crane, Daniel, Linneus, 
Estabrook, Glazier, Amity, 
Frederick, Edward, Bangor, 
Gerrish, Theo.,No. 5, R. 3, Aroos.Co., 
Ham, Mansfield, Hodgdon, 
Ireland, Goodwin S., Presque Isle, 
Knowlan, Freeman H., Masardis, 
Leighton, Adriel, Augusta, 
Miller, George, Bangor, 
Ring, William D., Freeport, 
Spooner, William E., Hodgdon, 



Swett, Jas. H., No. 8, R. 5, Aroos Co. Tarbell, Joseph E., Merrill Plantation, 



Tibbetts, Caleb B., Haynesville, 
Welch, Thomas, Houlton, 
Whitten, Melvin W., Dexter, 
Wyman, Thomas C, Phippsburg. 



Walker, Gustavus F., Hodgdon, 

West, Joseph, Carmel, 

Winslow, Joseph, Oxbow Plantation, 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 269 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Charles W. Jackins, Bangor, 
and Frank C. Williams, Bangor, battery D, 5th U. S.; Frank A. Johnson, 
Bangor, battery C, ist Mass.; Andrew C. Munsey, Bowdoin, and Moses G. 
Rice, Bangor, quarterm'r depl.; John Stockman, Oldtown, wagon master; 
William M. Oilman, No. 6, R. 4; Joseph Macomber, 2d, amb. corps. 

Company I. 
Captain, Prentiss M. Fogler, Hope. 
First Lieutenant, Arad H. Linscott, JeflFerson. 
Second Lieutenant, Elisha Besse, Jr., Oakiield Plantation. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Hiram Morse, Warren, 
John D. Leach, Camden, Andrew W. Stover, South Thomaston. 

CORPORALS. 

Emerson Creighton, Warren, John D. Morse, Thomaston, 

Thomas H. Buck, Biddeford, Daniel W. Keene, Bremen. 

PRIVATES. 

Andrews, Aaron M., Camden, Andrews, Obed, St. Oeorge, 

Barron, Oeorge W., Warren, Bickmore, Eli, Friendship, 

Blackington, Rufus R., Hope, Bradford, L John L., Cushing, 

Bradford, William B., Cushing, Bresnahan, Timothy, Ellsworth, 

Briggs, William J., Union, Burding, Oeorge W., So. Thomaston, 

Cleaves, Daniel, Biddeford, Copeland, Charles A., Warren, 

Davis, Milton H., Friendship, Elwell, Freeman, St. Oeorge, 

Elwell, Ira O., St. Oeorge, Farrand, Austin, Thomaston, 

Fish, Benjamin N., Union, Oeyer, Francis, Friendship, 

Orant, Oeorge N., So. Thomaston, Oriffin, Benjamin N., Stockton, 
Hall, Lewis, Warren, Howes, Oliver, Washington, 

Hussey, Wright W., Biddeford, Hyler, Sylvanus, Cushing, 

Ingalls, Joshua, Bridgton, Jameson, John H., Cushing, 

Jones, Charles A., Hope, Kelleran, Eugene B., Cushing, 

Lester, Alexander E., St. John, N. B., Libby, Findley B., Camden, 
Light, Edward, Washington, Lincoln, Oliver W., Washington, 

Monroe, Horace, Thomaston, Peabody, Jason T., Union, 

Robinson, Hance, Cushing, Roosen, Theodore, Thomaston, 

Sterling, Oeorge, Thomaston, Stevens, Colver, Biddeford, 

Stevens, William H., Bucksport, Thomas, Oscar, Lee, 
Thomdike, Hosea B., Camden, Torrey, Charles L., Bangor, 

Weed, John E., South Thomaston, Wescott, James B., Biddeford, 
Witham, Charles J., Washington. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Charles E. Foster, Ded- 
ham, William H. Jones, Augusta, and Alfred Trask, Augusta, battery I, 
5th U. S. Sergeants: Reuel Thomas, Thomaston, special orderly for Colo- 
nel; Andrew J. Tozier, Plymouth, regt'l color-bearer. Privates: Thomas 
A. Davis, Warren, Eben F. Manchester, Windham, and Ambrose Whitcomb, 
Thomaston, teamsters in quarterm'r dept.; Oeorge L. Witham, Southport, 
hosp. dept; Thomas Arnold, Warren; Oeorge H. Dow, Warren. 

Company K. 
First Lieutenant, James H. Nichols, Brunswick, commanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, Joseph Fuller, 2d, Brunswick. 



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270 



MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



SERGEANTS. 

ist Sergt., George S. Noyes, Pownal, Albert E. Femald, Winterport, 



Spencer M. Wyman, Freeport, 

Sylvester S. Richards, Knox, 
Edwin B. Foy, Brunswick, 
Charles M. Chase, Freeport, 
George H. Royal, Topsham. 

Ames, John H., Rockland, 
Bowden, Levi O., Winterport, 



Charles Allen, Brunswick. 

CORPORALS. 

Vinal E. Wall, Rockland, 
Thomas B. McLain, Brunswick, 
George A. Ramsdell, Brunswick, 

PRIVATES. 

Baker, Daniel S., Winterport, 
Buker, James J., Ellsworth, 



Buxton, WillardW.. North Yarmouth, Chase, Stephen G., Winterport, 



Cobb, George W., Brunswick, 
Courson, David H.» Harpswell, 
Fenderson, Lewis, Winterport, 
Field, Ira M., Freeport, 
Grant, Enoch T., Freeport, 
Keating, Edwin, Appleton, 
Libby, Samuel B., Durham, 
McLain, Jacob, Damariscotta, 
Merrill, William F., Freeport, 
Morse, Winfield S.. North Yarmouth, 
Newton. William F., Harpswell, 
Reed, Herbert M.. Pownal, 



Colson, Theophilus, Winterport, 
Cross, Frederick H. , Rockland, 
Fickett, Amasa W. , Brewer, 
Freethy, John G., Brooklin, 
Gray, Samuel F., Ellsworth, 
Lane, Clement W., Winterport, 
Linnekin, John F., Appleton, 
Merrill, James R., Auburn, 
Messer, Thomas G., Damariscotta, 
Newell, Enoch F., Brunswick, 
Pennell. William B., Harpswell, 
Rhodes, Charles, Rockland, 



Ring, Benjamin T., North Yarmouth, Smith, Andrew H., Denmark, 



Southard, Joel, Harpswell, 
Toothaker, George A., Brunswick, 
Tyler, Irving, Durham, 
Ward, William, Jr., Orono, 
Whitney, William H., Brunswick, 



Thorn, Jojin F., Brunswick, 
Town, Alfred M., Brunswick, 
Walker, Orrin, Stoneham, 
Wentworth, William A., Hope, 
Worthing, William A., Harpswell. 



On Special Duty or Detached Service; George W. Carlton, Lew- 
iston, and Samuel A. Littlefield, Winterport, medical dept. ; Joseph Tyler, 
Durham, regimental bugler; Erastus C. Anderson, Rockland, cattle guard; 
Stephen Littlefield, Winterport, hosp. cook. 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

Company A. 

SERGEANTS. 

James H. Harrington, w'd, face. George W. Reynolds, w'd, hip and leg. 

CORPORALS. 

Charles H. Reed, wounded, wrist. David J. Lewis, wounded, head. 
Charles E. Avery, wounded, arm. Joseph D. Simpson, killed. 
Laforrest P. True, wounded, arms. John Reed, Jr., killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Grindle, Joseph, wounded, hand. Hill, William E., wounded, arm. 
Lore, Charles, wounded, arm. Norton, Hiram, wounded, head. 

Rankins, William, wounded, arm. Surry, Joseph L., woimded, leg. 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 271 

Sylvester, Ira R., wounded, side. Taylor, Alfred, wounded, hand, 
True, Franklin, wounded, arm. Willey, William E., wounded, head. 

Company B. 
privates. 
Leach, George W., wounded and prisoner; died Dec. i, 1863, in prison. 
Morrill, Edwin, wounded, leg. Sanders, Henry C, wounded, hand. 

Company C. 
Captain Charles W. Billings, mortally wounded; died July 15, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant James H. Stanwood, wounded, leg. 
First Sergeant Isaac W. Estes, mortally wounded; died July 14, 1863. 
Sergeant Charles A. Knapp, wounded, arm. 
Corporal Vincent W. Pinhom, wounded, hip. 

PRIVATES. 

Beadle,CharlesM.,mortallyw*d;died, Davis, Moses, mortally wounded; died 

Aug. 6, 1863. July 8. 1868. 

Fogg, Elliott, L., killed. Heald, Benjamin F., wounded, hand. 

Heald, Llewellyn B., wounded, leg. Hodgdon, Josiah S., wounded, arm. 

Monk, Decatur, w'd, arm broken. O'Connell, John, wounded, head. 

Powers, Charles P., wounded, side. Small, Alva B., mortally w'd; died 

Stevens. Oliver L., mortally w*d; died _ '^'^•^^ I®®- ^ , , , 

July 11. 1863. Thomas, Moses S., wounded, leg. 

Tobin, John, wounded, arm broken. York, George H., wounded. 

Company D. 
Captain Joseph B. Fitch, wounded, thigh 
Sergeant George W. Card, wounded, face. 

CORPORALS. 

Oliver French, wounded. Andrew D. Mabury, killed. 

Willard Pinkham, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Ames, Addison M., wounded, arm. Crocker, George A.. w*d, shoulder. 
Curtis, Merrill G., wounded, shoulder. Prescott, Stephen A., killed. 
Ramsdell, John N., wounded, face. Swett, Henry A., wounded, shoulder. 

Company E. 
privates. 
Little, Thomas C, wounded, head. Mink, Orchard F., wounded, leg. 

Company F. 
Captain Samuel T. Keene, wounded, side, severely. 
Sergeant James R. Martin, wounded, face, severely. 

CORPORALS. 

Albion Brown, wounded, hand, slight. John W. Morin, w*d, thigh, slight. 
Franklin B. Ward, w'd, leg amput'd. Paschal M. Tripp, killed. 
William S. Hodgdon, killed. John Foss, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Brown, Elisha A., wounded, head. Clark, Seth W., killed. 

Curtis, Frank B., killed. Foss, Elfin J., killed. 

Fox, Samuel A., wounded, head. French, Edward B., wounded, side. 

Grant, Benjamin W., killed. Hall, Charles F., killed. 

Libby, Benjamin D., wounded, hand. Patten, David, wounded, arm and side. 



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272 MAINE AT QETTYSBURO. 

Wentworth, John, killed. White, Sylvanus R., wounded, hand. 

Whitman, Ezekiel, w*d, shoulder. Wyer, Oscar, killed. 
Young, Thomas J., wounded, arm. 

Company G. 
Second Lieutenant Warren L. Kendall, killed. 

sergeants. 
AbnerS. Hiscock, w*d, arm amput'd. William S. Jordan, killed. 

CORPORALS. 

Cyrus Osbom, wounded, arm. Melville C. Day, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Barnes, Moody D., w*d, arm. Bomeman, Luther C, wounded, face. 

Cunningham, Albert, wounded, arm. Cushman, Llewellyn, wounded, arm. 
Erskine, James H., wounded, side. Herscomb, Andrew, wounded, neCk. 
Knight, James A., killed. Kennedy, John M., wounded, thigh. 

Smith, John T., prisoner, w*d, slight. Sweeney, Eugene, prisoner. 
Tibbetts, Jotham D., prisoner. 

Company H. 
First Sergeant Charles W. Steele, killed. 
Sergeant Isaac N. Lathrop, wounded; died July 3, 1863. 
Sergeant George W. Buck, promoted from Private on field, killed. 
Corporal John M. Libby, wounded, lost two fingers. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, Aaron, killed. Chesley, Hiram H., wounded, neck. 

Clifford, Benjamin F., wounded, face. French, Benjamin F., wounded, leg. 
Ham, Mansfield, wounded, side. Hilt, Byron, wounded, shoulder. 

Ireland, Goodwin S., killed. Lamson, Iredell, killed. 

Morrison, Edmund, woimded, side. Walker, Gustavus F., wounded, knee. 
West, Joseph, wounded, arm. 

Company I. 
First Lieutenant Arad H. Linscott, wounded; died July 27, 1863. 

SERGEANTS. 

Reuel Thomas, wounded, shoulder. Andrew W. Stover, wounded, leg. 

PRIVATES. 

Fish, Benjamin N., wounded, head. Lester, Alexander E., killed. 
Peabody, Jason T., w*d, lost finger. Witham, Charles J., lost finger. 

Company K. 
First Sergeant George S. Noyes, killed. 
Sergeant Albert E. Femald, wounded, hip. 

corporals. 
Sylvester S. Richards, wounded, face. George A. Ramsdell,wouhded, breast 

PRIVATES. 

Buxton, Willard W., wounded; died Chase, Stephen G., killed. 

July 10. 1863. 
Cobb, George W., wounded, neck. Merrill, James R., killed. 

Merrill, William F., killed. Newell, Enoch F., wounded, hand. 

Reed, Herbert M., wounded, thigh. Rhodes, Charles, wounded, neck. 

Ring, Benjamin T., wounded, head. Thorn, John F., wounded, leg. 

Walker, Orrin, w*d; died at Gettysb'g. Wentu'orth, William A., wounded, leg. 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 273 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

BY AN OFFICER OF THE REGIMENT. 

This regiment was recruited from different parts of the 
state, its ten companies coming from at least as many counties. 
It was the last of those organized under the call for three hun- 
dred thousand men in 1862. Almost as soon as enlisted the 
men were hurried into camp at Portland, and on the 29th day 
of August, 1862, were mustered into the service of the United 
States for three years or during the war. The original organ- 
ization was as follows : 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Adelbert Ames, Rockland. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Joshua L. Chamberlain, Brunswick. 
Major, Charles D. Gilmore, Bangor. 
Adjutant, John M. Brown, Portland. 
Quartermaster, Moses W. Brown, Brownville. 
Surgeon, Nahum P. Munroe, Belfast. 
Assistant Surgeon, Nahum A. Hersom, Sanford. 
Assistant Surgeon, Siroella A. Bennett, New Portland. 
Chaplain, Luther P. French, Corinth. 
Sergeant-Major, Weston H. Keene, Bremen. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Howard L. Prince, Cumberland. 
Commissary-Sergeant, Elisha Besse, Jr., Winthrop. 
Hospital Steward, Lewis W. Pendleton, Gorham. 
Drum-Major, Andrew J. Philbrick, Palmyra. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, Isaac S. Bangs, Waterville. 

First Lieutenant, Addison W. Lewis, Waterville. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles W. Billings, Clinton. 
Co. B. Captain, Phineas M. Jeffards, Foxcroft. 

First Lieutenant, James Lyford, Sebec. 

Second Lieutenant, Walter G. Morrill, Williamsburg. 
Co. C. Captain, Isaac H. McDonald, Buckfield. 

First Lieutenant, Frank G. Russell, Rumford. 

Sec6nd Lieutenant, Augustus H. Strickland, Livermore. 
Co. D, Captain, Isaac W. Haskell, Garland. 

First Lieutenant, Edward B. Fifield, Dexter. 

Second Lieutenant, Mattson C. Sanborn, South Berwick. 
Co. E. Captain, Atherton W. Clark, Waldoboro. 

First Lieutenant, Joseph B. Fitch, Bristol. 

Second Lieutenant, George F. Sumner, Union. 
Co. F. Captain, Timothy F. Andrews, Harmony. 

First Lieutenant, Hosea Allen, Wellington. 

Second Lieutenant, Edwin Folsom, Harmony. 



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274 MAINE AT GETTTSBXJKG. 

Co. G. Captain, Ellis Spear, Wiscasset 

First Lieutenant, Joseph F. Land, Edgecomb. 

Second Lieutenant, Joseph J. A. HoflFses, Jefferson. 
Co. H. Captain, Henry C. Merriam, Houlton. 

First Lieutenant, Daniel Stimson, Biddeford. 

Second Lieutenant, William C. Bailey, Garland. 
Co. L Captain, Lysander Hill, Thomaston. 

First Lieutenant, Samuel T. Keene, Rockland. 

Second Lieutenant, Prentiss M. Fogler, Hope. 
Co. K. Captain, Charles L. Strickland, Bangor. 

First Lieutenant, James H. Nichols, Brunswick. 

Second Lieutenant, William W. Morrell, Livermore. 

Excepting the Colonel and Major, and two or three subor- 
dinate officers, both officers and men were substantially without 
military knowledge or experience. The exigencies of the public 
service allowed barely time for organization and enrolment and 
the furnishing of uniforms. The drilling was sufficient only 
to enable the companies to form line and march by the flank. 
Two companies only were armed ; but one dress parade was 
attempted, and that was attended with much difficulty and many 
blunders. The regimental line first formed was indeed awkward, 
but it was made of good material and it was never broken. 
Thus scarcely organized, partially armed, substantially undrilled 
and uninstructed, under the urgent demands of the government, 
it was rushed by rail to Boston and from Boston by steamship 
to Washington. The voyage was utilized to the utmost by 
Colonel Ames for the instruction of the officers, and a good 
beginning was made in learning the duties of the soldier. 
These studies and exercises were continued whenever oppor- 
tunity offered during the ensuing season, whether in camp or 
campaign. The arming of the regiment was completed at 
Washington, and it then moved directly across the Potomac 
and joined the Third brigade of the First division of the Fifth 
army corps, only a few days before the movement of the army 
in the Antietam campaign. It was a severe trial to new men, 
unacclimated, unaccustomed to arms and the equipments of a 
soldier, unused to the march and bivouac, to bear the full burden 
in a veteran brigade, of a very active and earnest campaign. 
Only a part of the regiment was actively engaged in the battle 
of Antietam, the corps being mainly in reserve, but it was 



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TWENTIETH BEGIMENT HI8TORI0AL SKETCH. 275 

engaged and under musketry fire as a regiment, for the first 
time, at Shepherdstown Ford, three days after the battle of 
Antietam. It suffered, however, but slight loss. 

After Shepherdstown Ford it was held in that vicinity to 
guard the fords of the Potomac. The situation of the camp 
was one of the most malarious and unhealthy on the upper Poto- 
mac, and the immediate proximity of the terrible battlefield 
affected the streams and the air so that men could hardly drink 
the water or breathe the air. The time, however, was utilized 
to the utmost in the instruction and drilling of the regiment. 
This was, in some respects, the most trying period in the his- 
tory of the regiment. The houses in the vicinity were used 
as hospitals and were filled with desperately sick men lying upon 
the floor, poorly attended and not supplied with proper food. 
Many died, many men were permanently disabled, and many 
others were sent to the hospitals who afterwards returned to the 
regiment. More than 300 men were left behind at this place, 
or in other hospitals, when the regiment moved. 

Marching from the Potomac to the Rappahannock, the reg- 
iment went into camp at Stoneman's Switch. Quarters for the 
men were rudely constructed, better than any they previously 
occupied, but still imperfect and uncomfortable. The men had 
been supplied with shelter tents, but the line officers had no 
shelter excepting a " fly." With these and a few poles supple- 
mented by excavation in some instances, they contrived to keep 
themselves sheltered from the rain. As far as possible drilling 
and instruction were continued. 

At the battle of Fredericksburg the regiment, being in the 
Centre Grand division, crossed the Rappahannock in the after- 
noon of the first day of the battle under artillery fire, and 
advanced with the brigade through the town to replace the lines 
which had vainly attempted to I'each the stone-wall at Marye's 
Heights. The advance was made under heavy fire of artillery 
and musketry, but secured a position close up to the enemy's 
lines, where, however, nothing could be effected against the 
enemy, but greatly exposed the regiment to a deadly fire at close 
range. The regiment was held in this position that night and 
during the next day ; but on the second night the brigade was 



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276 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

drawn back into the town. On the night of the withdrawal of 
the army, the regiment was sent again to the extreme front as 
an advanced line, where it remained almost alone while the 
army recrossed the river, and at 2 o'clock in the morning it was 
withdrawn, the rear of the rear-guard which crossed the last 
pontoon bridge left in place. On the next day it returned to 
its old camp, and remained here until April with no interrup- 
tion except that it shared in the fruitless and miserable move- 
ment made in January, designated by the men as the '* mud 
march." The men, not yet acclimated, were still suffering from 
diseases incident to camp life, and a considerable number died 
during the winter. 

In April by some mis-doing small-pox virus was administered 
instead of vaccine in the regiment, and it was detached from the 
brigade and removed to another camp where it remained until 
the battle of Chancellorsville. Though still in quarantine, the 
regiment, at the request of Colonel Chamberlain, then in com- 
mand, was permitted to take part in the battle of Chancellors- 
ville. The Colonel reinforced his request for such permission 
by the suggestion that if the regiment could do no more it might 
"give the enemy the small-pox." It was, however, assigned to 
the duty of guarding the telegraph line from the field of battle 
on the right to that on the left, at Fredericksburg. After the 
battle it was the last to recross the river, and in a drenching 
rain returned to its camp. In May, 1863, Ames was commis- 
sioned as Brigadier General, and Chamberlain was promoted to 
be Colonel. 

During the movements which culminated in the battle of 
Gettysburg it shared in the engagement at Middleburg, June 
21st, the Third brigade having been sent to the support of the 
cavalry. It charged and drove the enemy from their positions 
behind stone-walls, forcing them back beyond Goose Creek. 

After some hard marching, which occupied the greater part 
of the night of the 1st of July, the regiment was upon the field 
of Gettysburg, and in the afternoon of the second day it moved 
with the brigade under artillery fire to the left and was advanc- 
ing into the Wheatfield when it was turned sharply to the left 
and rear and moved back in rear of Little Round Top. The 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 277 

main part of the brigade occupied the crest of Little Bound Top 
towards the left, and the Twentieth being on the extreme left 
was refused and faced towards Big Bound Top. It occupied 
the southern and eastern slope of the hill directly fronting a 
valley or level space which lay between the two Tops. The 
slopes and the valley were covered with a forest of oak trees, 
for the greater part free from underbrush, and open. The 
ground of the slopes and in the valley was strewn with large 
bowlders. There was no protection for our men, and no time 
to throw up earthworks, even if that had been practicable in the 
rocky soil. Company B, under Captain Morrill, was promptly 
thrown forward as skirmishers. Almost immediately thereafter 
the enemy appeared coming down the slope of Big Bound Top, 
and they seemed to be overlapping our left. By the direction 
of Colonel Chamberlain, Captain Spear, who was then acting 
as Major, bent back the left companies slightly, for the better 
protection of that flank. The advanced enemy at once opened 
fire, pressing more heavily on the centre and left. Many of 
them took position behind the bowlders which afforded them 
protection, and were firing at short range. The firing was very 
heavy and our men were rapidly falling, but a vigorous and 
well-directed fire was kept up in return. The line on the left 
gave back somewhat at times, closing up to fill the gaps. The 
fire from the enemy continued for some time, and then slightly 
slackened, and the contest was decided by a charge of the Twen- 
tieth, down the rocky slope. It was done so suddenly that 
many of the Confederates, sheltered behind the bowlders in 
advance of their lino, were at once run over and captured, and 
the shock of the charge falling directly upon their line broke 
it instantly. Then occurred one of those accidents such as often 
determine the result of a battle. Morrill's company (B) , which 
had been advanced as skirmishers, as before related, not having 
effected a junction on its right, was cut off, and had moved 
around and occupied a stone-wall in the rear of the position 
taken up by the enemy, and when the Confederates were driven 
back by the charge towards this wall Morrill's company fired 
a volley into the rear ; this threw them into confusion, and there 
being nothing on their right, about 300 of them surrendered and 



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278 MAINE AT GETTTSBURa. 

others escaped in disorder in the woods. The Twentieth sus- 
tained heavy loss, about forty per cent of the entire number 
of about 350. 

The regiment with which it had been engaged was the 15th 
Ala., commanded by Colonel Oates, which, as he reported, went 
into battle with 640 muskets. After the repulse of the enemy 
at Little Round Top, Chamberlain was directed to advance and 
occupy Big Round Top, and in accordance with these orders he 
moved with the Twentieth Maine alone, climbing the steep and 
rocky side of this high hill and took position on the crest. It 
was then about dark. Advancing his skirmishers he encoun- 
tered a line of skirmishers of the enemy and captured some 
thirty-five of them. He occupied the crest without support for 
the greater part of the night, but towards morning the Une was 
completed between his right and the left of the line on Little 
Round Top. After daylight of the 3d the Twentieth was 
relieved and returned to its brigade. During the battle on 
the third day the brigade lay exposed only to artillery fire on the 
left of the point assailed by Pickett. The regiment advanced 
on the 4th to the Emmitsburg road, and on the morning of 
the 5th moved with the brigade and corps in the pursuit of the 
enemy. On the 10th of July it was engaged with the enemy 
on the Sharpsburg Pike, losing ten men. After the enemy had 
fallen back behind the Potomac the regiment had some hard 
marching, across the South Mountain, and after a brief bivouac 
on the north bank of the Potomac, crossed and took part in the 
further movement through Manassas Gap. It was present but 
not actively engaged in the skirmish at Wapping Heights. 

In August the regiment was encamped at Beverly Ford ; 
Colonel Chamberlain, having been assigned to the command of 
the brigade, was succeeded in command of the regiment by 
Spear, who had in the meantime been commissioned as Major. 
No other field officers being present, Clark of company E was 
detailed as acting field officer. The regiment shared in the 
movement between Culpeper Court House and Centreville in 
the fall of 1863, but was not actively engaged with the enemy 
until the 7th day of November, when it took part in the battle 
of Rappahannock Station, losing, however, but few men. It 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 279 

was subsequently in the affair at Mine Run in the latter part of 
November ; and with other regiments covered the corps front 
on the picket line in front of the enemy's works, holding that 
ground during the entire time in which the corps was at Mine 
Run. The regiment suffered extremely from the severe cold, 
but had very slight loss in wounded and none killed. Returning 
from Mine Run the regiment was assigned to the duty during 
the winter of '63-64 of guarding the railroad bridge at Rappa- 
hannock Station, and occupied that position until the 1st day 
of May, 1864. At this camp the men built comfortable and 
convenient quarters of slabs, split and hewed ; substantial com- 
pany kitchens were established and regular camp rations were 
issued. The location was healthy, and not a man was lost from 
the regiment during the whole winter. The men were exercised 
by drilling as often as the weather permitted. The senior Cap- 
tain, Clark, being absent on detached services. Captain Keene 
was detailed as acting Field officer. 

On the 1st day of May, 1864, under the command of Major 
Spear, the regiment left this camp, in which the officers and men 
had passed a pleasant winter, and bivouacked near Ingalls' Sta- 
tion, and on the 3d moved and went into bivouac near Culpeper. 
At midnight moved again, and on the morning of the 4th crossed 
the Rapidan at Germanna Ford, and marched out on the Plank 
road to the Orange Court House road, and went into line of 
battle on the left of that road. 

In the morning it was reported that the enemy were advanc- 
ing, and some slight intrenchments were made, and the trees 
were cut down in front of the line. The enemy not attacking 
and an advance being ordered, the regiment moved with the 
brigade, in the second line, with its right on road. The advance 
was at first through a thick wood, but, emerging from that into 
an open field, the lines met a sharp fire from the enemy, posted 
in the edge of the wood on the opposite side of the field. The 
charge across this field was on the double-quick. The two lines 
were somewhat disordered by a ditch about midway of the field, 
but the enemy were driven through the wood into a second 
opening. Here it became apparent that the brigade had advanced 
more rapidly than the line on the right of the road, and firing 



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280 MAINE AT GETTT8BUBG. 

was heard on the right and rear. This checked the advance. 
The Twentieth moved to the front and one company was deployed 
on the right, across the road. Its captain reported that that 
flank was unprotected, and that skirmishers of the enemy were 
crossing the road in our rear. 

The 83d Penn., which had been in front of the Twentieth, 
was re-formed in the rear, and wheeled to face to the right, 
but in a few minutes the enemy concentrated upon the left of 
the brigade and broke it, leaving both flanks of the Twentieth 
unprotected. The regiment fell back in good order to the orig- 
inal works, bringing off thirty-five prisoners, with the loss of 
Captain Morrill of B, severely, and three other officers, wounded, 
ten men killed and fifty-eight wounded, and sixteen missing. 
On the 6th the regiment was engaged with the enemy and lost 
two men killed and ten wounded. On the 7th the regiment with 
three others advanced to push the enemy back as far as possible 
and ascertain their position and force. The skirmishers of the 
enemy were driven in and through the woods to a line of breast- 
works from which the enemy opened with artillery and musketry. 
One officer, Lieutenant Sherwood, was killed here, and Lieuten- 
ant Lane mortally wounded ; and a considerable number of men 
killed or wounded. The regiment followed the corps to Spot- 
sylvania Court House, moving early on the morning of the 8th, 
and at 6 p. m. advanced, supporting General Crawford's line. 
It was very nearly dusk when the regiment was, with the other 
detachments of the brigade, charged by the enemy, who, after 
a sharp hand-to-hand fight, were repulsed. The regiment lost 
one officer (Captain Morrell of A) killed and two wounded, five 
men killed, thirteen wounded and two missing. About 100 of 
the enemy were captured, including four commissioned officers. 

The regiment was under fire on the 10th and 11th, but not 
actively engaged, and lost one killed and two wounded. During 
the 12th and 13th it was occupied in intrenching, and on the 
night of the 13th marched all night to the left and went into 
position near Spotsylvania Court House, where it remained until 
the 20th of May, constantly under fire. 

On the 21st of May the brigade was in the advance in fol- 
lowing the enemy in their retreat. Encountering a heavy rear 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 281 

guard with cavalry and artillery, which checked the advance 
of the corps, Colonel Chamberlain, who had recently returned 
to the regiment for duty, taking with him the Twentieth and two 
other regiments, made a skillful movement to cut them off and 
capture their artillery. The demonstration made in crossing a 
deep stream gave the enemy warning, and they galloped their 
guns away and were routed from their advantageous position, 
with the loss of several as prisoners. 

The regiment crossed the North Anna in the afternoon of 
the 23d and took an important part in the brilliant actions on 
that side of the river, but without severe loss. 

The regiment marched to the vicinity of Mangohick Church 
on the 27th and crossed the Pamunkey on the day following. 
It was engaged in the minor actions during the last of May 
and bore an important part in the severe engagement at Bethesda 
Church on the 2d and 3d of June, and lost during that time 
about thirty men. Again under conmoiand of Major Spear, it 
lay on the left of the army at Chickahominy on picket until the 
12th of June, when it crossed the Chickahominy and moved 
towards the James, and thence to Petersburg. On the 18th it 
was in the reserve and suffered but slight loss. Here Colonel 
Chamberlain, who had some time before been assigned to com- 
mand another veteran brigade of the division, was severely 
wounded in a desperate charge, and was promoted to be Briga- 
dier-General by General Grant, on the field. On the 21st the 
regiment moved across to the left and after dark went into 
position and threw up earthworks in front of the enemy nearer 
the Jerusalem Plank road, where it remained until the 12th day 
of August. It lost here one officer (Maj. Samuel T. Keene) and 
five men killed, and seven men wounded. 

The regiment subsequently, in August, took part in the 
capture of the Weldon Railroad and was actively engaged dur- 
ing the three days* fight at that point. It lay upon the Weldon 
Railroad until the 30th of September, receiving here one hun- 
dred recruits. On the 30th of September it moved with the 
division and took part in the battle at Peebles' Farm. The 
regiment was upon the eictreme right of the line in the forma- 
tion for the charge, but later was brought to the centre and 



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282 MAINE AT QETTTSBUBG. 

formed upon the skirmish line and charged on that line directly 
towards the artillery in an earthwork in the centre of the field, 
from which a line of rifle-pits extended to the right and left. 
The charge was led by Major Spear. Captain Prince, then serv- 
ing on the brigade staff, had rejoined his comrades of the regi- 
ment, in this perilous work, and was the first man in the fort. 
The entire line was captured and a considerable number of pris- 
oners, with one piece of artillery, taken by Captain Femald and 
a small squad of his company. General Warren telegraphed 
Greneral Meade, reporting the charge as ^* one of the boldest I 
ever saw." Here the command devolved upon Captain Clark, 
Major Spear succeeding to the conmiand of the brigade. On the 
afternoon of the same day a division of the Ninth corps advanced 
on the left to push the enemy further, and the regiment, with 
the brigade, advanced to protect the right flank of that division. 
That division giving way, the brigade became severely engaged 
with the enemy, but held its position until dark. The regiment 
lost in this battle one oflScer (Capt. Weston H. Keene), and 
five men killed, and three oflScers and forty-nine men wounded, 
nearly forty per cent of those engaged. The regiment occupied 
intrenchments made at this point until the affair at Hatcher's 
Run, or Boydton Koad, on the 27th of October. 

It was engaged in December in the raid upon the Weldon 
Railroad and assisted in destroying that road down to near 
Hicksford (a). It was engaged in the action of Hatcher's 
Run, February 6th, with slight loss. Returning it remained in 
camp until the 29th day of March, when it took part in the 
final movement against Richmond. It was engaged at the 
Quaker Road on the 29th supporting Chamberlain, whose brig- 
ade drove the enemy from that road. It was also engaged on 
the 31st in the battle at Gravelly Run and on the 1st day of 
April, 1865, at the battle of Five Forks, where it charged the 
enemy's works (b) . It was with its corps in the movement 
within the enemy's right, at Petersburg, and in the pursuit to 

(a) The aggregate casualties during 1864 are stated to have been 254. January 28, 
1865, it had 275 muskets, and in addition an unassigned company. Losses in 1865 were 
81. Combining the two years we find: Killed, 5 officers, 41 men; wounded, 16 offi- 
cers, 246 men ; missing, 27 men. Aggregate, 885.— {Eds.] 

(b) Capturing a battle-flag and many prisoners.— PSds.] 



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TWENTIETH BEQIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 283 

Appomattox Court House, but was not actively engaged until 
it reached the Court House. 

The closing scene at Appomattox Court House was a fit end 
of the last campaign and indeed of the war. The regiment was 
fortunate in sharing in the closing act, as it had shared in the 
previous three years, the story of which has been so briefly and 
imperfectly told. How the Fifth corps and the cavalry, under 
Sheridan, broke in the extreme right of the enemy and com- 
peUed the thinning of their lines in the formidable works, which 
had so long confronted the army of the Potomac ; how, on the 
morning of the 2d of April, corps after corps tore their way 
through musketry and artillery fire, through abatis and over 
ditches and breastworks, and then pushed on after the retreating 
Confederates, all the world knows. It fell to the lot of the 
Twentieth to be in that part which followed Sheridan and the 
cavalry, endeavoring to pass to the left of their army and block 
its way. In this earnest pursuit the last day's march was occu- 
pied from five in the morning until midnight ; indeed, until it 
seemed that man could march no longer ; only the sound of 
Sheridan's cannon in front kept them in motion. The writer 
saw men fall out as they marched, turning aside and falling as 
they turned from sheer exhaustion; and finally, on the last 
halt, they lay down by the roadside, and could not be moved. 
But the next morning the stragglers were up, and the corps 
moved out at 5 o'clock, to the sound of battle in front. 

Gray April clouds hid the morning sun as the columns 
emerged from the woods into the open country about the 
unknown little Court House village, destined that day to 
become historic. The open field, bordered by woods, stretched 
far out to right and left. To the front, a half mile away, was 
a low hill, skirted by trees, which hid the village. At the left, 
along this skirt, near its edge, a line of white puffs showed 
where the cavalry were stubbornly resisting the pressure of 
Lee's infantry. As the Fifth corps swung into line of battle, 
with wings bent forward, and the color-bearers shook out the 
battle-flags, the sun was breaking through the clouds over the 
eastern woods. 

Behind, and moving to the left of the Fifth corps, was the 
Twenty-fourth, with well-closed columns, in which were two 



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284 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

brigades of colored troops, assigned by some whim of justice, 
to block the last line of retreat of the fleeing Confederates. 

Before the concave line of infantry, visible from flank to 
flank, sprang out the skirmishers, dotting the greensward. 
Behind, the artillery was moving up. The lines of infantry in 
order of battle, a long array of bright muskets spaced with 
colors, on an open field, more than twenty thousand men in 
sight, formed an unusual and inspiring spectacle even to veter- 
ans. But in front of this, and between it and the enemy, 
appeared a moving panorama still more picturesque. A body 
of cavalry, apparently relieved by the infantry on the left, came 
galloping across the field towards the right. In front, apart 
from the rest, conspicuous, clear against the sky as if in silhou- 
ette, on a black horse, in swift gallop, rode Sheridan. A more 
striking military figure cannot be conceived. It was the same 
long, powerful stride of the black horse that carried victory to 
Cedar Creek. Sheridan, alert, eager, his bronzed face set as 
if carved from oak, seemed in shape and movement the very 
embodiment of fighting energy. Next behind him spurred on 
his color-bearer, with the broad and swallow-tailed flag marked 
with crossed swords, and standing out and quivering in the 
rapid motion, a flag borne in many battles, and never backward. 

Behind this, in quick succession, followed staff and orderlies 
and a hurrying body of horsemen. Over all this and over the 
infantry lines shi'ieked the shells of the enemy, bursting in the 
air, with white puffs, that one after another drifted and disap- 
peared ; or, plowing the ground, rebounded in the air. Sher- 
idan, with this staff and escort and their flutter of flags, passed 
the front, and the infantry moved on, silent and steady, for 
what they thought the final grapple with the enemy. 

The writer was riding with the skirmish line, and as it 
entered the curtain of trees, heard a shout on the left, and spur- 
ring in that direction saw emerging from woods a mounted officer 
in Confederate uniform, waving a white flag. No tidings had 
reached us of the previous correspondence between Grant and 
Lee ; but even the men on the skirmish line had at once under- 
stood the meaning of the white flag, and all its consequences, 
and were wildly shouting, " Lee surrenders ! Lee surrenders ! " 



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TWENTIETH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 285 

Indeed, an angel appearing from heaven, shining as the sun, 
could have meant no more than that mounted officer with his 
bit of white cloth. It signalled the decree of the Almighty. 
It meant the final and complete triumph of the army of the 
Potomac, after four years of severe struggle, mixed often with 
bitter defeat. It meant the vindication and re-establishment 
of the government, the end of slavery, honor instead of 
shame, and prosperity and peace instead of peril and disaster. 
For this a thousand battles had been fought, and hundreds 
of thousands of men had perished. No one of us doubted 
that it was the close of the war, and for us it meant home and 
friends restored. 

The officer with the flag turned and rode to the right, fol- 
lowed by shouts*. With quite different feelings the line moved 
on through the woods and into the open country in which stood 
the straggling village. 

We lay there under orders to be "ready to make or receive 
an attack " the remainder of that day and the 10th, and on the 
11th the regiment, with the remainder of the brigade, under 
General Chamberlain's orders, relieved General Gibbon's corps 
from the formalities in receiving the surrender of the Confed- 
erate arms and colors, so that the Twentieth had its share in the 
last part of the closing scene, and when this was done, saw the 
Confederate troops, a forlorn array, without arms or colors or 
military music, in straggling columns, march off towards their 
distant homes. 

After this the regiment was stationed near the battlefield of 
Five Forks for some weeks, and returned to Washington and 
went into camp on the Columbia Pike, on the 8th day of May, 
1865. Here the original members of the regiment were sent 
to Portland under Lieutenant-Colonel Morrill and mustered out, 
leaving only the recruits and men assigned subsequently to the 
original organization. In place of the men mustered out, those 
remaining of the Sixteenth Maine and the battalion of the First 
Maine Sharpshooters were consolidated with the Twentieth, 
and under this organization the regiment, under Colonel Spear, 
returned to Portland and was mustered out on the 16th day of 
July, 1865. 



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286 MAINE AT OETTTSBURG. 



THE LAST ACT. 

The distinguished honor fell to a Maine officer, Brigadier- 
General Joshua L. Chamberlain, to be selected to command the 
detachment of Union troops, as representing the whole, to be 
marshalled in the military function of receiving, in a proper 
parade, the surrender of their arms and colors from the hands 
of the Confederates who had carried them. 

[This selection of Chamberlain by Generals Gibbon and Griffin could 
not have been accidental. The Rebellion Records pertaining to that cam- 
paign, serial numbers 95, 97, show complimentary mentions of his name, and 
on page 730 of the latter volume is a recommendation by General Griffin for 
Chamberlain's promotion, *'as a reward for his conspicuous gallantry and 
meritorious services during this campaign, in the action on the Quaker 
Road, * * * in the battle of Five Forks, * * * and in the culminating 
battle at Appomattox Court House. In this last action, April 9th, his brig- 
ade had the advance and was driving the enemy rapidly before it when the 
announcement of the surrender of Lee was made." — Communication, April 
13. 1865.] 

General Chamberlain called for his old brigade for this 
special duty, — ^the Third brigade, First division. Fifth corps, 
composed of the Twentieth Maine, First Maine Sharpshooters, 
32d Mass., 1st and 16th Mich., 83d, 91st, 118th, and 155th 
Penn. regiments. This body was augmented during the day 
by other parts of the same division. 

Chamberlain formed his troops in brigade line of battle, stand- 
ing at attention, and in silence, as the Confederates marched 
up, under the escort of Major Ellis Spear of the Twentieth, and 
other officers, on staff service, brigade after brigade, along our 
front from right to left ; some of their officers, by a marching 
salute, responding to the courtesy shown to a gallant foe by 
Chamberlain when he ordered his line to a "shoulder arms" 
(known now as the "carry"), and in the perfect decorum pre- 
served by our men. Matching their front to that of Cham- 
berlain, they halted and formed their line, in succession as 
they arrived, facing ours, and about twelve paces away, and 
then sadly they stacked their arms, laid their colors down, 
and silently departed from sight. This ceremony occupied 
the whole day, and when it ended the work of the army of the 
Potomac was done, and peace was fully assured. 



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ROSTER OF THE TWENTIETH REGIMENT. 287 



ROSTER. 

The following information relating to officers of the Twen- 
tieth Maine regiment is obtained from the Volunteer Army- 
Register, published by the War Department August 31, 1865, 
and other reliable sources. 

Officers at Final Muster-out, July i6, 1865. 

Colonel: Ellis Spear, May 29, 1865, — brevet Major from Captain, 
August, 1863; brevet Lieut -Col. from Major, Sept 30, 1864; brevet Colonel, 
from Lieut.-Col, March 29, 1865; brevet Brig.-GenM from Colonel, to rank 
March 13, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: Thomas D. Chamberlain, June 23, 1865, — brevet 
Major from Captain, March 13, 1865; and brevet Colonel from Lieut.-Col. 

Major: George R. Abbott, July 3, 1865,— brevet Major from Captain, 
April 9, 1865. 

Captains: Holman S. Melcher, Oct. 22, 1864,— brevet Major, April 9, 
1865; William O. Howes, Nov. 29, 1864; Charles F. Sawyer, Nov. 29, 1864; 
Albion Whitten, Dec. 4, 1864; William H. Harrington, Dec. 29, 1864; John 
Butler, June 30, 1865; Samuel W. Schofield, July 14, 1865; John H. Terry, 
July 14, 1865. 

First Lieutenants: Adjutant William E. Donnell, Sept i. 1863, — 
brevet Captain July 6, 1864; George W. Sweetser, Nov. 29, 1864; Warren T. 
Noyes, Dec. 29, 1864; George W. Furbish, July i, 1865; George A. Rider, 
Quartermaster, July 3, 1865. 

Surgeon: William H. True, March 9, 1865. Assistant Surgeon: 
Charles G. Stevens, July 3, 1865. 

MUSTERED-OUT WITH ORIGINAL MeN, JuNE 4, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: Walter G. Morrill, March 13, 1865, — brevet 
Major from Captain, July 6, 1864. 

Major: Atherton W. Clark, March 13, 1865, —brevet Major from Cap- 
tain, Oct 28, 1864, and brevet Lieut-Col. from Major. 

Captains: Howard L. Prince, Dec. i, 1864,— brevet Captain from First 
Lieut, Sept., 1864; William Griffin, Dec. 27, 1864; Rufus B. Plummer, Sept 
16, 1863; Joseph B. Fitch, March 26. 1863,— brevet Major, Sept 30. 1864; 
Prentiss M. Fogler, March 26. 1863; Joseph F. Land, March 26, 1863; Henry 
F. Sidelinger, Feb. 13, 1864,— brevet Major, April 9, 1865. 

First Lieutenants: Quartermaster Alden Litchfield, Dec, i, 1862; 
William K. Bickford, June 10, 1864; Charles R. Shorey, Dec. i, 1864; Royal 
B. Decker, Dec. 27, 1864; Mattson C. Sanborn, June 28, 1864; Albert E. 
Femald, July 12, 1864, — brevet Captain, Sept 30, 1864; Alden Miller, Jr., 
July 12, 1864; Hiram Morse, June 18, 1864; Edmund R. Sanborn, May 7, 1865. 

Second Lieutenants: Samuel L. Miller, Dec. i, 1864; Samuel G. 
Crocker, Dec. 27, 1864; Joseph Walker, Dec. i, 1864; Albert E. Titus, Dec. 
I, 1864; Hezekiah Long, Dec. i, 1864; Aaron M. Andrews, Dec. 6, ^864; 
Spencer M. Wyman, May 19, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeon: Granville M. Baker, June 23, 1863. 

(The dates given above refer to rank or commission; those hereafter 
given refer to the date of event. ) 



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MAINE AT GETTYSBUBO. 

Died. 

Captains: Timothy F. Andrews, Oct. lo, 1862; Charles W. Billings, 
July 15, 1863, of wounds received at Gettysburg; William W. Morrell, killed 
in action May 8, 1864; Samuel T. Keene, killed in action June 22, 1864, — 
commissioned Major, not mustered; Weston H. Keene, killed in action 
Sept. 30, 1864. 

First Lieutenants: Arad H. Linscott, July 27, 1863, of wounds 
received at Gettysburg; John M. Sherwood, killed in action May 7, 1864; 
George H. Wood, May 25, 1865, of accidental wounds. 

Second Lieutenants: Warren L. Kendall, July 5, 1863, of wounds 
received at Gettysburg; Frederick W. Lane, May 14, 1864, of wounds. 
Transferred and Promoted out of Regiment. 

Colonel Adelbert Ames, W. P. R. A., May 20, 1863, to Brigadier-General 
Vols., brevet Major-Gen. U. S. Vols., January 15, 1865, brevet Major-Gen. 
U. S. A. from Captain 5th U. S. Art*y, March 13, 1865; Colonel Joshua L. 
Chamberlain, June 18, 1864, on the field, to Brigadier-General Vols., brevet 
Major-Gen. Vols , March 29, 1865; Captain Isaac S. Bangs, Feb. 26, 1863, — 
Lieut-Col. 8ist U. S. CoPd Troops, promoted to Colonel loth U. S. CoPd 
Art'y, not mustered, brevet Brig. -General, March 13, 1865; First Lieut John 
M. Brown, Adjutant, June 29, 1863, to Captain and A. A. G., — Lieut -Col. 
Thirty-second Maine regt., brevet Brig. -General Vols., March 13, 1865; Sec- 
ond Lieut. Geo. C. Getchell, July 30, 1863, to Captain 8ist U. S. C. T.; Sec- 
ond Lieut. James C. Rundlett, May 22, 1865, to Captain 128th U. S. Col'd 
Troops; Assistant Surgeon Nahum A. Hersom, April 11, 1863, to Surgeon 
Seventeenth Maine Vols. 

Discharged. 

Captain: Lysander Hill, Feb. 6, 1863. First Lieutenants: Arad 
Thompson, Feb. 15, 1865; David M. Overlock, March 10, 1865; James H. 
Stanwood, June 2, 1865; Joseph Fuller, 2d, Dec. 20, 1864. Second Lieu- 
tenant: Elisha Besse, Jr., Feb. 6, 1864. 

Surgeons: Nahum P. Monroe, May 6, 1863; John Benson, Aug. 27, 
1863; Abner O. Shaw, Feb. 22, 1865. 

Chaplain: Alfred C. Godfrey, March 28, 1865. 
Resigned. 

Colonel: Charles D. Gihnore, May 29, 1865. 

Captains: Isaac W. Haskell, Nov. 20, 1862; Phineas M. Jeffards, Nov. 
29, 1862; Isaac H. McDonald, Dec. 10, 1862; Henry C. Merriam, Jan. 7, 1863, 
—afterward Lieut. -Col. in U. S. CoPd Troops (brevet Colonel March 26, 
1865), Colonel and Brig.-Gen*l U. S. A.; Charles L. Strickland, Feb. 5, 1863. 

First Lieutenants: Addison W. Lewis, Nov. 6, 1863; Moses W. 
Brown, Quartermaster, Nov. 20, 1862; Edward B. Fifield, Nov. 20, 1862; 
Hosea Allen, Nov. 21, 1862; James Lyford, Nov. 29, 1862; Frank G. Russell, 
Jan. 10, 1863; Daniel Stimson, Jan. 11, 1863; James H. Nichols, March i, 1864, 
brevet Captain. 

Second Lieutenants: Edwin Folsom, Oct. 14, 1862; George F. Sumner, 
Oct. 31, 1862; Joseph J. A. Hoffses, Nov. 20, 1862; Augustus H. Strickland, 
Dec. 10, 1862; William C. Bailey, Feb. 9, 1863; Edward Simonton, April 6, 
1863; Thomas R. Hogue, April 14, 1863; Samuel H. Glidden, Nov. 3, 1863. 

Chaplain: Luther P. French, Jan. 12, 1864. 

Otherwise Left the Service. 

Assistant Surgeon Siroella A. Bennett, March 21, 1863. 



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NINETEENTH MAINE REGIMENT. 289 



MONUMENT. 

The monument, of cut Hallowell granite, is a massive cube, surmounted 
by a pyramidal top. It stands west of Hancock avenue, to the left of the 
copse of trees known as the Bloody Angle, in the position held by the regi- 
ment while awaiting Pickett* s charge. 

Admeasurements: Base, 7 feet by 7 feet by i foot 8 inches; die, 6 feet 
by 6 feet by 5 feet 4 inches; apex, 5 feet 4 inches by 5 feet 4 inches by 5 feet 
7 inches. Total height, 12 feet 7 inches. 

Upon the faces of the cube are the date 1863, the trefoil of the Second 
corps, and these inscriptions: 

19th Maine Inf'y Reg't. 
IST Brigade, 2d Division, 2d Corps 

In the evening of July 2d this regiment 

AT A position ON THE LEFT OF BATT'Y G, 5tH 
U. S., HELPED TO REPEL THE ENEMY THAT HAD 

DRIVEN IN Humphreys' Division, taking one 
battle flag and re-capturing four guns. 

On July 3, after engaging the enemy's 
advance from this position, it moved to 

THE RIGHT TO THE SUPPORT OF THE 2d BRIG- 
ade and joined in the final charge and 
repulse of pickett's command. 

Effective strength, July 2d, 405 ; 

killed & mortally wounded, 65 ; 

wounded, not fatally, 137 ; missing, 4. 

Colonel Francis E. Heath. 



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NINETEENTH MAINE REGIMENT, 

FIRST BRIGADE, SECOND DIVISION, SECOND ARMY CORPS, 
AT THB BATTLE OF OBTTTSBUIia. 



WHILE the desperate defense of Little Round Top was going 
on, the utmost efforts of the Third corps and its rein- 
forcements from the Fifth and Second corps, were insuffi- 
cient to maintain the advanced line taken up by General Sickles. 
We have already seen the Third Maine overpowered at the Peach 
Orchard, the Fourth as severely handled in Devil's Den, and the 
Seventeenth holding on until relieved in the Wheatfield, all with 
heavy losses. The fortunes of these Maine regiments were the 
fortunes of the whole of Sickles* line. 

The success of Longstreet was the signal for the advance 
of the C!onf ederate army along the whole Union line ; and the 
Twentieth Maine had hardly ceased fighting Hood's soldiers on 
Little Round Top, when the troops of Early were ready to dash 
on Cemetery Hill, after dark, in the charge already described 
in connection with the Fifth Maine battery. In this general 
attack, the place of greatest hope for the Confederates was on 
the left centre of the Union army, where Sickles' line was 
already crumbling. This advantage followed up successfully 
would cut Meade's army in two. How this disaster was averted 
cannot be told without giving lasting honor to two Maine organ- 
izations, the Nineteenth infantry and Sixth battery. 

The Nineteenth infantry was attached to Hancock's Second 
corps, and was the only Maine organization in that corps. With 
the 15th Mass., Ist Minn, and 82d N. Y., it formed Harrow's 
brigade of Gibbon's division. The regiment was commanded 
by Col. Francis E. Heath, who had earned his promotion in the 
Virginia campaigns of the Third Maine. The regiment num- 
bered four hundred and five, men and officers, recruited prin- 



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NINETEENTH BEOIMENT ENGAGED. 291 

oipally in the counties of Ejiox, Waldo, Kennebec and Sagada- 
hoc. They had come from Maine less than a year before ; and, 
although they had seen hard service and all the experiences 
of the soldier's life in the Rappahannock campaigns, this was 
to be their first opportunity to show their worth in a great 
pitched battle. 

As the Second corps was the last body of troops to leave 
the Rappahannock, the regiment had l)een moved north by very 
hard marches. On June 29th it was at Monocacy, and that day 
it marched about thirty miles to Uniontown, near the Pennsyl- 
vania line. During the forenoon of the 1st of July the regi- 
ment acted as guard of the corps trains, a duty which brought 
it into the extreme rear of the corps column. At noon it 
was relieved and ordered to take its place in column. At this 
hour rumors of a battle at Gettysburg were heard. The corps 
was near Taneytown, where at that hour General Hancock 
met General Meade, and whence, after a consultation, the 
former General rode on to Gettysburg. General Hancock 
started about 1 p. m., and his corps followed at once. The 
Nineteenth marched all the afternoon and until 1 o'clock the 
next morning, when it went into bivouac about three miles from 
Gettysburg on the Taneytown road. 

Early in the morning of July 2d the Second corps was 
placed in line of battle, its right resting on the left of Cemetery 
Hill, while its left stretched towards Little Round Top. The 
three divisions of the corps filled about half the interval between 
Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top, Sickles' Third corps hold- 
ing the remaining distance. Gibbon's division held the centre 
of the Second corps line, two of his brigades being in the line, 
and a third in reserve a hundred yards in the rear (a) . 

This brigade was Harrow's, to which the Nineteenth Maine 
was attached. This arrangement was only temporary, however. 
General Sickles, about 2 : 30 p. m., moved his corps out to the 
new line; and after an hour's desperate fighting in Birney's 
front the left division of Hancock's line, under Caldwell, was 
sent to assist. The left of the Second corps line was thus weak- 
ened. Hancock made the most effective* disposition of his troops 

U) General Harrow's report. Rebellion Beoorda, serial no. 48, paffe 419. 



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292 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

possible in preparation for the crisis which his soldierly instincts 
anticipated. In the course of these preparations he moved the 
Nineteenth Maine from its position in reserve to the left of, and 
in advance of, the line of Gibbon's division, and stationed it on 
the left of Weir's U. S. battery, to which it was to act as sup- 
port. General Hancock gave the order for this movement in 
person. Indeed, both General Hancock and General Meade 
were present in this part of the line at this time, hurrying up 
all available troops and batteries to meet the deluge which was 
overpowering Sickles at the Peach Orchard salient. 

About 6 : 30 p. m. the Second division line of the Third corps, 
along the Emmitsburg road, was attacked on that front. A 
part of Humphreys* men, who held that part of the line along 
the road, after the division began to change front to rear, made 
their line of retreat so as to bring some of the Excelsior 
brigade towards the advanced position of the Nineteenth. The 
C!onfederates, impelled by the ardor imparted by success and 
superior numbers, came pressing upon their flank and rear, 
threatening to make the retreat a disastrous rout. Fearing this. 
General Humphreys, commanding the Second division of the 
Third corps, after changing his front to the rear, rode back to 
the Nineteenth, which was lying down, and ordered it to arise 
and stop with the bayonet the soldiers of his command, who had 
by that time drifted back to within one hundred and fifty paces. 
Colonel Heath refused to obey the order, fearing that his men, 
once caught in the disorder caused by broken troops, would be 
swept to the rear. Then General Humphreys rode down the line 
of the Nineteenth giving the order himself. Colonel Heath fol- 
lowed countermanding it, and was obeyed by his men (a) . As 
Humphreys* men passed to the rear some of them shouted to 
the Nineteenth, "Hang on, boys ! we will form in your rear." 
Some of them did try to do this, for they were brave men. The 

(a) GaptaJn Gtoorflre L. Whitmore, of Bowdoinham, who heard the conversation 
between General Humphreys and Colonel Heath, says (in 1889) that when General 
Humphreys had tried to order the Nineteenth up in vain, he turned to Colonel Heath 
and ordered him to the rear. To this Captain Whitmore says Colonel Heath returned 
the reply, ** I was placed here by an officer of higher rank for a purpose, and I do not 
intend to go to the rear. Let your troops form in the rear and we will take care of the 
enemy in front." General Hancock was the officer who had stationed the Nineteenth. 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 293 

Excelsior brigade succeeded for a moment in establishing a line, 
but soon drifted away in the smoke and confusion (a) . 

The Confederate battle line was now right upon the four 
hundred men from Maine, who arose unwaveringly to receive 
it. As the gray line emerged from the smoke, about fifty yards 
in front a tall color-bearer was first seen, running at double- 
quick and tossing his colors several yards in front of their line. 
In quick response to the order, given by the Colonel, " Drop that 
color bearer," a private of the Nineteenth drew up his musket 
and fired. The Confederate colors went down, and at this instant 
the Nineteenth poured in its first volley. This fire evidently 
stopped the Confederates, as they returned it at once. For a 
short time, no one can tell how long, the two lines exchanged 
volleys. During this fire Captain Starbird of the left company 
reported that a Confederate regiment was deploying on his flank. 
The Colonel went to that part of the line at once, and found the 
enemy in double column in the act of deploying. They were 
not over twenty-five yards from the left of the Nineteenth. The 
Colonel at once threw back the left files of Captain Starbird's 
company so as to pour an enfilading fire upon the Confederate 
regiment, at the same time telling Captain Starbird to "give it 
to them." The left company mustered that day forty men, 
and its volley, poured in at short range upon a body of men in 
column, had a terrible effect. The Confederate regiment melted 
away in the smoke and was seen no more. 

The Colonel at once returned to the centre of the regiment. 
Presently the Lieutenant-Colonel reported to him that the enemy 
had advanced on the right and cut off the Nineteenth. There- 
fore the order was given at once to face to the rear and march 
in retreat. Weir's battery meanwhile had ceased firing. The 
Nineteenth retreated about twenty or twenty-five paces, when, 
getting out of the smoke, it was found that the report of a flank 

(a) General Hancock in his official report, Rebellion Records, Vol. 27, part l, patre 
8T7, says: " The force, etc., * • • approached the line of battle as origrlnally estab- 
lished. Humphreys' command was forced back, contesting the srroand stabbomly." 

He also says : ** I directed General Humphreys to form his command on the srround 
from which General Caldwell had moved to the support of the Third corps, which 
was promptly done. The number of his troops collected was, however, very small, 
scarcely equal to an ordinary battalion, but with many colors, this small command 
being composed of the fragments of many shattered regiments."— RebeUion Records, 
Vol. 27. part 1. page 371. 



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294 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

movement by the enemy had been incorrect. The regiment 
immediately faced about, and the Colonel gave the order to 
charge. The regiment responded instantly, and moved on the 
double-quick against the enemy remaining in their front (a) . 

This was the critical moment when the Confederate onset, 
that had swept Sickles from the Emmitsburg road, was stopped 
by the second line formed by Hancock for the emergency. As 
the Nineteenth advanced towards the Emmitsburg road, the Con- 
federates in front were dispersed or captured. Several stands 
of colors, many prisoners and four Union cannon, abandoned 
in the retreat, were the trophies of this daring and gallant 
charge (b). The Nineteenth, after advancing to within one 
hundred yards of the Emmitsburg road, halted and remained in 
that position until recalled about dark. 

As the men and oflScers marched back to the line on that 
evening they might justly have felt that whatever glories there 
are in war had been won by them. But they must have 
appreciated, as a generation bom to the comforts of peace can- 
not, the cost of war. Their loss in killed and wounded had 
been remarkable even in that remarkable battle. Many years 
later, when the records of the Union armies should be studied, 
it was to be written in history that at Gettysburg Harrow's brig- 
ade, of Hancock's corps, suffered heavier losses than any other 
brigade of any Federal army in any battle of the civil war. And 
of the devoted regiments of that brigade the Nineteenth Maine 
was to stand second in the extent of its losses (c) . In this 
day's fighting one hundred and thirty men and oflScers of the 
regiment had been killed or wounded. The field over which 
they marched was strewn with the ghastly evidences of battle. 

(a) The Confederate troops engrafirin? the Nineteenth Maine were probably the 
Perry-LanflT brigade, of Anderson's division, of HilPs corps. 

(b) Greneral Hancock in his official report, speakingr of this period of the battle, 
says: ** In this last operation the Nineteenth Maine, Col. F. E. Heath, bore a con- 
spicuous part*' He also says: ** Humphreys' division participated in this advance 
and in the recapture of its iruns."~Rebellion Records, Vol. 27, part 1, page 871. 

(c) Fox's Regimental Losses in the Civil War is the authority. Fox speaks of the 
Nineteenth as facing 9k feu d^er^fer on the afternoon of the 2d. Of Harrow's brigade, 
the 1st Minn, only, had losses greater than those of the Nineteenth. The Nineteenth 
was one of the three hundred fighting regiments, and lost at Ctottysburg in killed and 
mortally wounded, during the two days, 68 out of 440, or fifteen per cent, according 
to Fox's work. This is the highest per centage of any of the Maine regiments in this 
battle. Fox's statement, as above, makes the regiment stronger by 86 than the state- 
ment of its officers, and the number of the killed three more. 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 295 

Exhausted by their labors, with no food except such as could 
be obtained from the haversacks of their fallen foes, they had 
yet to perform the sad duty of gathering their wounded com- 
rades and burying the dead. And when they finally laid down 
on their arms, the cries of the enemy's wounded, whom no 
friends had cared for, drove sleep from the eyelids of many 
a soldier. 

On the forenoon of July 3d there was no fighting along that 
portion of the line occupied by the Second corps. The Nine- 
teenth Maine was in position about two hundred yards to the 
right of its position of the previous day. At daybreak four 
companies, under Capt. W. H. Fogler, were sent out to form 
a skirmish line, the right of which was to rest upon the Emmits- 
burg road at the Codori house. They remained there until 
Pickett's division deployed for its famous charge, when they 
retired to the left, some of them falling in with Stannard's Ver- 
mont brigade. Neither to these skirmishers, nor to the rest of 
the regiment, were any rations served until after the fighting 
of the day was ended. 

Although the forenoon of July 3d passed without incident 
on the Union centre and left, there was severe fighting on the 
extreme right where the Twelfth corps were driving Ewell's men 
from intrenchments on Gulp's Hill, which were seized during the 
assault of the previous evening ; and in the woods in front of 
the Second corps the Confederates were preparing for that final 
charge, which, as they expected, was to pierce the Union line, 
divide the army of the Potomac, open the way to the great 
cities of the north, conquer peace and procure the recognition, 
of the southern Confederacy as one of the nations of the earth. 
In the way of the realization of these magnificent dreams was 
the thin line of Hancock's corps, worn by long marches and 
one desperate battle, and half-famished by a fast prolonged 
for more than twenty-four hours. The Nineteenth Maine was 
lying directly in the pathway which Lee was pointing out to 
his soldiers. 

Pickett's Charge. 

About 1 o'clock, at a signal of two guns, well understood 
by the soldiers of both armies, the Confederate artillery of one 



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296 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

hundred and fifty guns opened in the grand cannonade which 
was to prepare the way for the charge. No soldiers in the new 
world had ever yet faced such a fire as Hancock's men found 
rained upon them. More than a hundred cannon were concen- 
trating upon them a fire of solid shot and shell. The Nineteenth 
Maine, lying in the midst of the Second corps line, had no more 
protection than could be afforded by a light stone- wall ; but 
the thinness of the line was its salvation, as it prevented those 
extensive casualties which alone could have added anything to 
the terrors of the situation. For an hour and a half, a time 
during which the mind of every soldier was strained to the 
utmost limit of human suspense and anxiety, this cannonade 
continued. Then, from the distant woods upon which every 
eye was bent, appeared the magnificent spectacle of the enemy's 
skirmishers deploying from a column of 15,000 men, like the 
opening of a vast fan. But in spite of this splendid reminder 
of the discipline and ardor of their enemy, a feeling of relief 
and exaltation swept from heart to heart along Hancock's line. 
With the end of the artillery fire the feeling of helplessness 
disappeared. "We knew then that a decisive moment was 
coming ; and we felt that we were equal to it," said an officer 
of the Nineteenth, as years afterwards he described the scenes 
of the hour. 

Inmiediately following the skirmishers came the Confederate 
line, — ^Pickett's division of Virginians, the flower of the Confed- 
erate army, supported on the right by Wilcox and Lang as a 
shield and on the left by Pettigrew and Trimble as part of the 
charging column. Well flanked on either side by heavy sup- 
ports, the advancing column moved forward over the mile and 
a quarter of intervening fields, with a steadiness described with 
admiration by every spectator and every historian. The Union 
batteries opened upon them at once. When they came nearer 
the infantry began to fire, the Nineteenth beginning when they 
were within three or four hundred yards. The Confederates, 
as they advanced, obliqued to their left, bringing the weight of 
their charge to the right of the Nineteenth, and impinging upon 
Webb's brigade, of Gibbon's division. Webb's Pennsylvanians 
gave way before it ; but their comrades of the Second corps 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 297 

rushed up to restore the line. The Nineteenth Maine was among 
the first, followed by several regiments on its left. It was a 
wild charge, with little regard for ranks or files. Volleys were 
given and received at close quarters. In their anxiety to reach 
the foe, men thrust their rifles over the shoulders, under the 
arms and between the legs, of those in the front ranks of the 
melee. All this went on while batteries far and near, and of 
both friend and foe, were throwing shot and shell into the area 
crowded with the struggling combatants. A little copse of 
trees, which remains to this day, marked the place of severest 
conflict. As the Nineteenth arrived at this copse a piece of 
shell prostrated Colonel Heath, and the command devolved upon 
Lieut.-Col. Cunningham. He soon received an order from 
an officer to cease firing, form the colors on the left and wait 
for further orders. The Nineteenth was at the south edge of 
the copse of trees. The Confederates were at that moment 
holding the portion of the Union line where they had broken 
through, and were within a few yards of the copse. The Nine- 
teenth, with the other troops at hand, were at once ordered 
forward by General Webb. They moved along the left of the 
copse down to the wall where the Union line had been, but 
which was now in possession of the Confederates ; there the 
fighting was hand to hand until the enemy were, by sheer 
strength, pushed beyond the wall ; then the line was saved. 
The great, decisive battle of the rebellion was ended. 

The Nineteenth Maine lost in the two days of battle, 65 
killed and mortally wounded, 137 wounded not fatally, and 4 
missing who were killed undoubtedly as no one of them has 
since been heard from (a) . 

PARTICIPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Francis E. Heath, Waterville. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Henry W. Cunningham, Belfast. 
Major, James W. Welch, Augusta. 
Adjutant, First Lieutenant Francis W. Haskell, Waterville. 

(a) The oasnalties as returned after the battle and before the results of the inju- 
ries to the wounded were known, were. 1 officer and 28 enlisted men killed ; 11 officers 
and 169 enlisted men wounded, and 4 enlisted men missing. See siunmary at end of 
list of casualties, page 810. 



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298 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Quartermaster, First Lieutenant James W. Wakefield, Bath. 
Surgeon. Adoniram J. Billings, Freedom. 
Assistant Surgeon, Henry C. Levensaler, Thomaston. 
Sergeant-Ma j or, George A. Wadsworth, Bath. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, George H. Page, Warren. 

Company A. 
(Including 3 present sick.) 
Captain, J. Whitman Spaulding, Richmond. 
First Lieutenant, David E. Parsons, Norridgewock. 
Second Lieutenant, Alvirus Osborne, Smithfield. 

SERGEANTS. 

Thomas M. Heald, Norridgewock, Charles H. Colbum, Richmond, 
Asa Andrews, 2d, Moscow. 

CORPORALS. 

Leonard H. Washburn, Norridgewock, PaysonT. Heald, Norridgewock, 
Gardiner W. Bigelow, Smithfield, Columbus S. Anderson, Richmond, 
Elias T. Jordan, Richmond, George R. Ridley, Richmond, 

Hiram W. Gage, Norridgewock, Abner Baker, Moscow. 

PRIVATES. 

Bigelow, Charles H.. Smithfield, Buker, John C, Richmond, 

Buker. William F., Richmond, Bumpus, Alson B., The Forks pi., 

Butler, Edward K., Norridgewock, Charles, Arthur E., Rome, 
Charles, Benjamin F., Rome, Chase, Roger, Madison, 

Church, John P., Gardiner, Collins, Charles W., Starks, 

Dawes, John D., Madison, Dresser, Emerson, Madison, 

Eastman, Franklin, Gardiner, Foss, Kingman, Moscow, 

Gage, S. Nelson, Madison, Groves, Charles H., Norridgewock, 

Groves, Robert W., Smithfield, Heald, Perham, Norridgewock, 

Ingalls, Joseph F., Mercer, Jones, Amos R., Madison, 

Joy, William P., Ellsworth, Kennison, Andrew, Norridgewock, 

Lancaster, John P., Richmond, Leavitt, Henry, Richmond, 

Leavitt, Samuel, Richmond, Meader, John W., Mercer, 

Merrill, John, Jr., Richmond, Murphy, William B., Norridgewock, 

Nottage, William H., Starks, Rowe, Charles M., Smithfield, 

Sawtelle, Levander, Starks, Small, Richard, Richmond, 

Tibbetts, Charles H., Mercer, Tibbetts, Isaac W., Mercer, 

Trott, William F., Richmond, Vigue, Louis, Carratunk pi., 

Weaver, George M., Starks, Wells, Bradford B., Mercer, 

Williams, David, Perkins. 

Musician: J. Loyalist Brown, Bowdoinham. 

Wagoner: Samuel D. Jordan, Richmond. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Elliot F. Col- 
lins, Starks, art*y brig.; Osbom W. Fish, Madison, Thomas J. Gaubert, 
Richmond, Isaac Powers, Norridgewock, and Hiram W. Vamey, Norridge- 
wock, amb. corps; Sherburne N. Rowe, Smithfield, and Alfred Taylor, Nor- 
ridgewock, guard div. h'dqrs; John R. Webster, Norridgewock, clerk quar- 
termaster dept., army h'dqrs. 

Company B. 
(Including 2 present sick. ) 
First Lieutenant, Elisha W. Ellis, Monroe. 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



299 



SERGEANTS. 

Darius S. Richards, Lincolnville, Edwin A. Howes, Liberty, 
Benjamin S. Crooker, Lincolnville. 

CORPORALS. 



Martin Hannan, Montville, 
Abial Turner, Palermo, 
David G. Bagley, Liberty, 
Washington Patterson, Monroe, 

BuIIen, Hugh A., Montville, 
Chapman, George F., Liberty, 
Cilley, Lorenzo D., Brooks, 
Coffin, Frank, Thomdike, 
Cross, Israel H., Lincolnville, 
Curtis, Watson, Monroe, 
Dean, Silas, Lincolnville, 
^^^SS* Job P., Monroe, 
Gregory, Alonzo V., Montville, 
Hardy, Willard R., Searsmont, 
Hubbard, William, Palermo, 
Knowles, Andrew J., Thomdike, 
Larrabee, Moses, Jr., Monroe, 
Monroe, Joseph R., Thomdike, 
Morong, George E., Lincolnville, 
Parsons, Henry, Thomdike, 
Roberts, Oscar E., Brooks, 
Ward, Benjamin F., Thomdike, 
Ware, Jason, Northport, 



William Briggs, Monroe, 
Samuel N. Robertson, Monroe, 
John M. Wellington. Montville, 
Alvin H. Ellis, Monroe. 

PRIVATES. 

Buzzell, Elijah K., Monroe, 
Churchill, William H., Montville, 
Clifford, Wilbur M., Palermo, 
Crockett, Wilbur, Lincolnville, 
Cmmmett, Orson E., Northport, 
Curtis, .William H., Monroe, 
Dunton, Hosea B., Liberty, 
Gray, James C, Monroe, 
Hannan, Horace I., Liberty, 
Hills, Isaac. Northport, 
Hustus, Hiram A., Monroe, 
Knowlton, Joshua T., Monroe, 
Mayo, George M., Monroe, 
Moody, Augustus R., Lincolnville, 
Noyes, Eli, Palermo, 
Rand, Marshall H., Monroe, 
Tenney, Leonard, Northport, 
Ware, Jabez G., Northport, 
Whitney, Mark L., Lincolnville, 
Young, George W., Lincolnville. 



Wilson, Erastus T., Searsmont, 

Musician: Edward L. Mitchell, Liberty. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Second Lieut. Ansel L. 
White, Belfast, acting A. D. C. on brig, staff. Sergt. Daniel Bachelor, 
Palermo, amb. corps. Wagoner John A. Porter, Lincolnville, div. h'dqrs. 
Privates: Ira Z. Bennett, Montville, battery B, ist R. I. ; William R. Bradstreet, 
Palermo, amb. corps; Morrison R. Heal, Searsmont, battery A, 4th U. S.; 
Mayberry Richards, Lincolnville, guard div. h'dqrs. 

Company C. 
(Including 5 present sick. ) 
Captain, George L. Whitmore, Bowdoinham. 
First Lieutenant, Albion Whitten, Troy. 
Second Lieutenant, Francis H. Foss, Fairfield. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, George Dunbar, Fairfield, 
Henry W. Nye, Fairfield, Eugene A. Boulter, Unity, 

Alexander W. Lord, Fairfield, William H. Emery, Fairfield. 



Gershom F. Tarbell, Benton, 
George M. Cotton, Fairfield, 



corporals. 

Lindley H. Whittaker, Troy, 
George A. Osbom, Fairfield, 



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300 



MAINE AT GETnrSBURG. 



Christopher Erskine. Whitefield, 
Alphonzo Nichols, Fairfield, 

Adams, John B., Bowdoin, 
Bickmore. Mayo, Troy, 
Brann, Merrill, Whitefield. 
Call, Frederick S., Richmond, 
Clough, Harrison T., St. Albans, 
Dodge, Charles H., Freedom, 
Emery, Henry, Fairfield, 
Gilman, Lorenzo D., Unity, 
Greenleaf, Benjamin W., Starks, 
Hodgdon, George E., Troy, 
Jones, Charles W., Thomdike, 
Lewis, Jonathan, Clinton, 
Lewis, William E., Fairfield, 
Maxim, Sullivan A., St. Albans, 
Mclntire, Ezra F., Fairfield. 
Phinney, Thomas F., Unity, 
Pratt, Elbridge P., Fairfield, 
Reynolds, Josiah K., Unity. 
Shaw, Johnson, Troy, 
Snell, Cyrus F., Madison, 
Spaulding, William, Benton, 
Webb, Reuben R., Unity, 



Gustavus L. Thompson, Fairfield, 
Russell B. Gray, Fairfield. 

PRIVATES. 

Allen, Alfred F., Fairfield. 
Blethen, James L., Unity, 
Buzzell. Benjamin F., Benton, 
Chisam, Theodore, Unity, 
Crosby, Abijah, Benton, 
Emerson, James D., Madison, 
Fogg. Eben S.. Fairfield, 
Glidden, Franklin W., Whitefield, 
Haskell, Joseph E., Fairfield, 
Huntress, George H., Shapleigh, 
Kimball, Lyman B., Clinton, 
Lewis, MilfordT., Fairfield, 
Libby, Nathaniel P., Unity, 
Mayo, Oscar F., Fairfield, 
Oliver, James M., Fairfield, 
Plummer, Itfyrick, Whitefield, 
Reed, Thomas, Richmond, 
Rhoades, Reuben, Troy, 
Sinclair, David, Fairfield, 
Spaulding, John, Benton, 
Usher, Orin S., Albion, 
Woodward, Joseph G., Troy, 



Woodman, Alfred, Troy. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Franklin Bur- 
rill, Fairfield, and Edwin Garcelon, Troy, amb. corps; Albert Choate, Unity, 
and John G. Pierce, Clinton, art*y brig. ; Charles C. Goodwin, 2d, Dresden, 
Henry C. Goodwin, Dresden, George W. Tibbetts, Unity, and Randall K. 
Whitten, Unity, battery B, ist R. L; John S. Hall, Fairfield, saddler brig, 
h'dqrs; William H. Morrill, Benton, teamster brig, h'dqrs; Daniel Sanborn, 
Fairfield, blacksmith brig, h'dqrs; Richard Whitten, Unity, guard div. h'dqrs. 

Company D. 
(Including 5 present sick. ) 
Captain, William H. Fogler, Belfast. 
First Lieutenant, Edward R. Cunningham, Belfast. 
Second Lieutenant, Leroy S. Scott, Belfast. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Elbridge C. Pierce, Belfast. 
George L. Starkey, Belfast, Ralph Johnson, Belfast, 

John C. Knowlton, Montville, John A. Lord, Belfast. 

CORPORALS. 

Robert T. Newell, Belfast, 
Jesse A. Wilson, Belfast, 
Alfred P. Waterman, Belfast, 



John F. Frost, Belfast, 
Edgar Paul, Belfast, 
Francis C. Wood, Northport, 
William H. Wording, Belfast. 



Beckwith, Silas, Belfast, 
Brown, James C, Searsmont, 



PRIVATES. 

Blodgett, Joshua W., Morrill, 
Buckling, William D., Waldo, 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



301 



Byard, Henry D., Rockland, 
Coffin, Augustus, Thomdike, 
Cunningham, Alden, Waldo, 
Dean, Horace, Belfast, 
Haire, Roswell, Belfast, 
Hartshorn, Henry H., Belfast, 
Hatch, Gardiner L., Montville, 
Hoffses, Hiram B., Waldoboro, 
Hunt, Lewis, Pittston, 
Knowlton, Elisha P., Swanville, 
Lenfest, James, Swanville, 
Merriam, John, Morrill, 
Nickerson, Jonathan S., Belfast, 
Perham, Myrick, Pittston, 
Prescott, Franklin K., Northport, 
Smally, Castanous M., Belfast, 
Thomas, Hushai, Morrill, 
Tufts, George F., Belfast, 
Wentworth, Orlando F., Waldo. 
White, John A., Belfast, 



Clements, Charles H., Knox, 
Cooper, Charles F., Belfast, 
Cunningham, Cornelius, Belfast, 
Gray, John, Belmont, 
Hamilton, Charles R., Swanville, 
Hatch, Barak A., Belmont, 
Hinds, Prescott D., Belfast, 
Hunt, Kingsbury, Pittston, 
Kelley Louira A., Belfast, act'g Corp., 
Lear, Benjamin O., Northport, 
Maker, Andrew R., Belfast, 
Murch, Charles A., Belfast, 
Palmer, George W., Pittston, 
Poor, Levi M., Belmont, 
Robbins, James, Belfast, 
Thomas, Ezekiel R., Morrill, 
Thomas, Hushai C, Morrill, 
Wentworth, Franklin A., Belfast, 
White, James W., Belfast, 
Wyman, Frederick H., Belfast, 



Young, John W., Belfast 

Musician: Henry Mcintosh, Vinalhaven. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal Nelson N. Mayo, 
Belfast, provo. guard. Privates: James O. Bean, Belmont, Hazzard's batfy; 
Annas S. Campbell, Belfast, and Lorenzo W. Hoffses, Waldoboro, provo. 
guard; John W. Carter, Belfast, carpenter corps h*dqrs; Elijah S. Chase, 
Pittston. William W. Hartshorn, Belfast, Enoch Hollis, Jr., Pittston, and 
Rufus Tripp. Swanville, guard div. h'dqrs; Jacob N. Cunningham, Waldo, 
art'y brig.; Emery Robbins, Belfast, forage-master corps h*dqrs; Bridges C. 
Sherman, Liberty, Franklin Wentworth, Waldo, and George Williams, 
Waldo, amb. corps. 

Company E. 
First Lieutenant, Nehemiah Smart, Swanville, commanding. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, James H. Pierce, Prospect, 

William B. Sawyer, Searsport, George L. Merrill, Searsport, 

Alfred E. Nickerson, Swanville, Enoch C. Dow, Stockton, 

Andrew D. Black, Stockton, acting Sergeant-Major July 3. 

CORPORALS. 

Milton W. Nichols, Searsport, 
Charles B. Norris, Searsport, 
Nahum Downs, Swanville. 

PRIVATES. 

Blanchard, Thomas S., Stockton, 



John B. Campbell, Frankfort, 
Frank A. Patterson, Stockton, 
Collins McCarty, Jr., Belfast, 



Atwood, John R., Frankfort, 
Bowden, Levi, Frankfort, 
Campbell, Daniel A., Frankfort, 
Cilley. Judah, Brooks, 
Cookson, Joseph G., Frankfort, 
Dearborn, Leonard, Manchester, 



Campbell, Charles E., Frankfort, 
Carter, William A., Stockton, 
Colson, William J., Searsport, 
Curtis, Americus J., Swanville, 
Dickey. Manly L., Stockton, 



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302 



BCAINE AT GETTTSBUKG. 



Edwards, Joseph W., Searsport, 
Holmes, John C, Frankfort, 
Low, William H., Frankfort, 
Moore, James S., Frankfort, 
Nickerson, Fred A., Swanville, 
Nickerson, John F., Swanville, 
Patterson, Isaac W.. Prospect, 
Shaw, James H., Brunswick. 
Staples, Robert F., Stockton, 
Strout, Parish L., Swanville, 
Waterhouse, Fred L., Searsport, 



Harriman, Charles E., Searsport, 
Keene, John F., Stockton, 
Maddox, Jason, Appleton, 
Moore, John B., Frankfort, 
Nickerson, John E., Swanville, 
Nickerson, Reuel, Swanville, 
Pease, Samuel O., Frankfort, 
Sheldon, Edward B., Camden, 
Stinson, Alfred, Prospect, 
Sweetser, James, Searsport, 
Woodbury, Stephen E., Searsport. 

MUSICIANS. 



Freeman Waning, Frankfort, Isaac L. Spaulding, Frankfort 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Charles Clark, 
Frankfort, battery I. ist R. I.; Nelson Curtis, Swanville, cook; William H. 
Grant, Prospect, and James E. Nason, Frankfort, amb. corps; Eugene Mer- 
rill, Searsport, ord'ly div. h'dqrs; Peleg S. Staples, Stockton, batt'y B, ist R. I. 

Company F. 
(Including 2 present sick.) 
Captain, Isaac W. Starbird, Litchfield. 
First Lieutenant, Charles E. Nash, Hallowell. 
Second Lieutenant, Edwin H. Rich, Thomdike. 

sergeants. 
ist Sgt., Thos. T. Rideout, B'd*nham, Oliver R. Small, West Gardiner, 
Andrew J. Goodwin, Litchfield, Orville G. Tuck, Hallowell, color sergt. 

corporals. 
William A. Wood, Bowdoinham, Phillip H. Foster, Topsham, 
Joshua F. Gross, Brunswick, John Richards, Bowdoinham, 

Moses S. Dennett, Lewiston, Samuel Smith, Litchfield, 

Richard H. Spear, West Gardiner. 



privates. 



Adams, Franklin, Bowdoinham, 
Arris, George A., Topsham, 
Blake, Samuel T., Monmouth, 
Burke, Cyrus E.. Litchfield, 
Chase, James F., Topsham, 
Crane, Jonathan, Topsham, 
Davis, John H., Litchfield, 
Dunnell, Edwin L., Monmouth, 
Gardiner, Israel A., Richmond, 
Gilbert, Addison. Leeds, 
Glass, Rufus P., Bowdoinham, 
Gowell, Nathaniel O., Litchfield, 
Grover, Alford, West Gardiner, 
Harmon, Stephen, Litchfield, 
Hodgman, George W., Wales, 
Leavitt, Frank M., Bowdoinham, 
Potter, Roscoe H., West Gardiner, 



Adams, Silas, Bowdoinham, 
Berry, Andrew J., Topsham, 
Brann, John E., West Gardiner, 
Chase, George E., Topsham, 
Cole, Daniel M., West Gardiner, 
Crosby, William H.. West Gardiner, 
Dillingham, Charles E., W. Gardiner, 
Durgin, George T., Bowdoinham, 
Getchell, Phillip P.. Augusta, 
Given, Simeon S., Bowdoinham, 
Gowell, John D., Litchfield, 
Greenleaf, Joseph D., Litchfield, 
Hanscom, Moses C, Bowdoinham, 
Harrington, Charles D., Topsham, 
Keen, Calvin B., Leeds, 
Maxwell, Rufus S., Bowdoin, 
Richardson, Lorenzo M., Litchfield, 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



303 



Rose, Thomas S., Greene, 
Small, William S., Wales, 
Spear, Alvin, West Gardiner, 
Tobey, Joseph A., Somerville, 
White, George O., Hallowell. 



Shorey, William H., Monmouth, 
Smith, John D., Litchfield, 
Stevens, James O., Litchfield, 
Turner, Anson, Gardiner, 



Henry H. Williams, Bowdoin, 



MUSICIANS. 

Lauriston Chamberlain, Bowdoinham. 
On Special Duty o^ Detachbd Service: Privates: James H. 
Bowie, Bowdoin, battery B, ist R. I.; Robert H. Corey, Topsham, amb. 
corps; Edwin Fairbanks, West Gardiner, catde g*d corps h*dqrs; William 
J. Nickerson, Topsham, and Thomas L. Palmer, Hallowell, guard div. 
h*dqrs; James W. Powers, Litchfield, battery I, ist U. S. 

Company G. 
Captain, Everett M. Whitehouse, China. 
First Lieutenant, Loring Farr, Manchester. 
Second Lieutenant, Henry Sewall, Augusta. 

sergeants. 
George A. Barton, Augusta, William O. Tibbetts, Augusta, 

Albert N. Williams, Augusta, Edward H. Hicks, Augusta. 

corporals. 
Albert H. Packard, Augusta, William P. Worthing, China, 

George L. Perkins, New Sharon, George W. Andrews, Augusta, 
Walter Jordan, Chesterville, Stephen P. McKenney, Augusta, 

George W. Chapman, Windsor, Charles R. Powers, Augusta. 

PRIVATES. 

Carroll, Charles J., Windsor, 
Cowan. John F., Palermo, 



Carpenter, Thomas E.. China, 
Chadwick, Judah A., Augusta, 
Dain, Andrew J., Chesterville, 
Fuller, George S., Chesterville, 
Grady, William O., Augusta, 
Hussey, George A., Augusta, 
Jackson, Charles H., China, 
Lane, Nathaniel, Augusta, 
Littlefield, Ruel, Augusta, 
Mahoney, Daniel, Augusta, 
Mayers, James H., Dresden, 
Murphy, William, Augusta, 
Nelson, Erastus F., China, 
Robbins, Franklin D., China, 
Robbins, Philip M., Chesterville, 
Smart, Orren P., Augusta, 
Smith, Augustus C, Augusta, 
Smith, George A., Vienna, 



Doe, George F., Windsor, 
Gill, Elijah, Chesterville, 
Haskell, Joseph H., China, 
Jackman, William H., Mount Vernon, 
Jones, Amos, China, 
Leighton, Hampton W., Augusta, 
Lord, Amasa, Augusta, 
Marston, Alfred J., Augusta, 
Moody, Isaac, Augusta, 
Murray, Winthrop, China, 
Rideout, Thomas B., Augusta, 
Robbins, John L., China, 
Rogers, Henry A., China, 
Small, William B., Augusta, 
Smith, Charles F., Augusta, 
Tobey, William B., China, 
Tyler, Elias, China. 



Trask, Lauriston G., Augusta, 

Musician: Ansel B. Dorset, Chesterville. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Albert Call, 
Augusta, Benjamin R. Marston, Augusta, and George W. Merrill, Windsor, 
guard div. h'dqrs; Warren C. Harlow, Augusta, Abner Haskell, Augusta, 
and Alfred Haskell, Augusta, teamsters brig, h'dqrs; Jeremy D. Hyson, 



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304 MAINE AT GETTTSBXJRG. 

Windsor, cook brig, h'dqrs; George W. Keen, Windsor, hostler brig, h'dqrs; 
Edwin D. Lee, China, orderly brig, h'dqrs; Abram Merrill, Windsor, cattie 
drover corps h*dqrs; Lewis A. Moulton, Chesterville, battery B, ist R. L 

Company H. 
Captain, Willard Lincoln, China. 
First Lieutenant, Albert Hunter, Clinton. 
Second Lieutenant, Stephen R. Gordon, Clinton. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, John F. Stackpole, Albion, 

Jesse A. Dorman, Canaan, Charles P. Garland, Winslow, 

George E. Webber, Gardiner, James T. Waldron, Canaan. 

CORPORALS. 

Francis P. Furber, Clinton, George F. Hopkins, Albion, 

Hollis F. Arnold, Palermo, George H. Willey, Clinton, 

Alfred T. Dunbar, Winslow, Samuel C. Brookings, Pittston, 
James O. Seavey, Boothbay. 

PRIVATES. 

Abbott, Daniel B., Winslow, Carr, Rinaldo A., Palermo, 

Coro, Joseph, China, Dodge, Martin V. B , Palermo, 

Estes, John H., Vassalboro, Estes, Redford M., Vassalboro, 

Gerald, William F., Clinton, Goodridge, Drew, Canaan, 

Hamlin, Charles L., Vassalboro, Hodgdon, Isaac C, Clinton, 

Hopkins, Lewis E., Albion, James, Josephus, Pittston, 

Leonard, William, Albion, Libby, Charles H., Albion, 

Martin, Reuben D., Canaan, Merrow, Thomas W., Canaan, 

Murphy, Hamlen H., Friendship, Page, Isaac L., Chelsea, 
Patterson, Henry L., Augusta, Prescott, Charles, Hartland, 

Reed, Jesse, Gardiner, Richards, Elmerin W., Winslow, 

Richardson, Luke T., Canaan, Small, James L., Pittston, 

Taylor, William, Winslow, Washburn, Augustus, Canaan, 

Wheeler, George E., Canaan, Williams, Nicholas, West Gardiner, 

Wilson, John S., Winslow, Wood, William F., Winslow, 

Wyman, James, Hermon, Young, Benjamin, Pittston. 

Musician: Henry B. Washburn, China. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal Samuel S. Hol- 
brook, Athens, div. h'dqrs. Privates: Charles E. Burrill, Canaan, hostler; 
John S. Clark, Gardiner, nurse; Arnold L. Foye, Palermo, hosp. attendant; 
Henry S. Jewett, Westbrook, postmaster; Fairfield S. McKenney, Clinton, 
teamster; Sumner Merrill, Winslow, battery A, 4th U. S. ; Charles E. Rams- 
dell, Pittston, and Ivory D. White, Canaan, prov. guard; Orrin F. Stinson, 
Albion, div. h'dqrs; James M. Tyler, Albion, battery B, ist R. I.; Bradley 
B. Withee, Winslow, cook, brig, h'dqrs; Wagoner William G. Stratton, 
Albion, teamster div. h'dqrs; John Withee, Winslow, cattle guard. 

Company I. 
Captain, George D. Smith, Rockland. 
First Lieutenant, Edgar A. Burpee, Rockland. 
Second Lieutenant, George R. Palmer, Camden. 

sergeants. 
William E. Barrows, Rockland, acting First Sergeant. 
Joseph L. Clark, Rockland, Chandler F. Perry, South Thomaston. 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



305 



Lafayette Carver, Vinalhaven, 
Rufus Shibbles, 2d, Camden, 
John Vinal, Vinalhaven, 
Orrin T. Conway, Vinalhaven. 

Anderson, Edwin, Camden, 
Bowley, Harrison B., Camden, 
Calph, John, Appleton, 
Carver, Francis S., Vinalhaven, 
Clark, Luther, Rockland, 
Dodge, Adrian C, Rockland, 
Famham, Samuel, Whitefield, 
Higgins, John H., Camden, 
Joice, Harvey C, Camden, 
Little, Thomas, Bremen, 



CORPORALS. 

Daniel G. Lamb, Camden, 
George E. Holmes, Rockland, 
George W. Barter, Boothbay, 

PRIVATES. 

Black, Gorham L., Rockland, 

Butler, Caleb P., Appleton, 

Carey, John F., Camden, 

Clapp, Hiram, Appleton, 

Cobb, George S., Camden, 

Dyer, Alden W., South Thomaston, 

Fisk, Franklin, Camden, 

Hutchings, Zuinglous, Appleton, 

Little, Otis, Bremen, 

Little, William H., Jr., Bremen, 



Maddocks, Joseph G., So. Thomaston, Mcintosh James H., Vinalhaven, 



Mills, James P., Vinalhaven, 
Oxton, Amos B., Camden, 
Shepherd, George W., Camden, 
Thomdike, Warren B., Camden, 
Vinal, Calvin B., Vinalhaven, 
Wilson, Joseph W., Camden, 



Norton, Joseph H., Vinalhaven, 
Rhoades, Francis W., Bremen, 
Sherwood, George E., Camden, 
Turner, George S., Bremen, 
Vinal, Worster S., Vinalhaven, 
Witherspoon, Alpheus L., Camden. 
Musician: Alexander Dumphe, Vinalhaven. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant George Studley, 

Camden, prov. guard. Privates: John H. Cables, Rockland, and Edwin S. 

Jacobs, Appleton, prov. guard; Reuben T. Carver, Vinalhaven, div. h'dqrs; 

William W. Kittridge, Vinalhaven, Hazzard's batt'y; William N. Rackliff, 

Rockland, amb. corps; Solomon Taylor, Rockland, brig, h'dqrs; David Tol- 

man, Camden, teamster brig, h'dqrs; Wagoner Hiram Whitten, Rockland, 

teamster brig, h'dqrs. 

Company K. 

Captain, Dumont Bunker, Fairfield. 

First Lieutenant, Richard Crockett, Brunswick. 

Second Lieutenant, Samuel E. Bucknam, Eastport. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, James N. Hinkley, Georgetown, 

George L. Grant, Phippsburg, William Boynton, Jr., Bath, 

Thomas P. Beath, Boothbay, George E. Grows, Brunswick. 

corporals. 
Edwin W. Swett, Arrowsic, Samuel Pratt, Jr., Richmond, 

Weld Sargent, Boothbay, Warren Proctor, Brunswick, 

Stephen P. Trafton, Georgetown, Joseph W. Winter, West Bath, 
George W. Cushman, Brunswick. 

PRIVATES. 

Blaisdell, Richard M., Phippsburg, Blake, Edwin, Bath, 

Boyd, Abijah P., Boothbay, Brown, George H., Bath, 

Child, Thomas, Bath, Dolloff, Beniah P., Boothbay, 

Dunton, Ezekiel L., Weslport, Eaton, George T., Bath, 



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306 MAINE AT GBTTY8BUKG. 

Elliot, Henry H., Bath, Fogler, George P., Boothbay, 

Francis, Nelson, Arrowsic, Heal, James T., Phippsburg, 

Jellison, Alvah, Kennebunk, Kimball, George A., Bath, 

Knights, James H., Bangor, Lewis, James H., Brunswick, 

Lombard, David C, West Bath, Lowe, Charles M., Bath, 

Marr, Calvin E., Georgetown, McAvoy, Charles E., Bath, 

McFarland, Nathaniel C, Boothbay, McKenney, William, Westport, 
Mitchell, Edward T., Bath, Mitchell, Isaac W., Bath, 

Mitchell, Jesse, Bath, Mitchell, Simmons A., Bath, 

Nichols, Oliver P., Phippsburg, Oliver, Loring C, Phippsburg, 

Rourke, Lawrence J., Bath, Sawyer, Addison, Bath, 

Scott, Thomas E., Georgetown, Shea, Samuel B., Georgetown, 

Swasey, John J., Bath, Tobie, Philander H., Bath, 

Varell, Oilman N., Rye, N. H., Wallace, James R., Phippsburg, 

Webber, Isaac, Jr., Boothbay, Webster, Lorenzo, Boothbay, 

Williams, Henry N., Richmond, Willis, William T., Arrowsic. 

Musician: Alpheus M. Holbrook, West Bath. 

Wagoner: Charles T. CliflFord, Bath. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Charles Black- 
man, Bath, and Horace A. Litde, Bath, guard div. h'dqrs; Robert B. Blais- 
dell, Phippsburg, teamster anmi'n train; Edward B. Curtis, Bath, battery I, 
ist R. I.; Ezra L. Fowles, Westport, battery B, ist R. I.; Josiah B. Rogers, 
Phippsburg, artillery h*dqrs. 

From consolidated, regimental, morning report, June 30, 1863: — 
Present for duty, 33 officers, 510 men. Present sick, i officer, 31 men. 
On daily duty and detached service, i officer, 88 men. 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel Francis E. Heath, wounded, shoulder. 
Major James W. Welch, wounded, scalp. 
Sergeant-Major George A. Wadsworth, wounded, head. 

Company A. 
Sergeant Charles H. Colbum, wounded, leg. 

CORPORALS. 

Payson T. Heald, wounded, arm; died Aug. 5, 1863. 

Gardiner W. Bigelow, wounded, arm. Abner Baker, w*d, breast; died Aug. 6. 

PRIVATES. 

Buker, William F., wounded, hands. Charles, Benjamin F., wounded, leg. 
Church, John P., wounded, arm. Collins, Charles W., killed. 

Kennison, Andrew, w*d, leg amp*d. Leavitt, Samuel, wounded, shoulder. 
Murphy, William B., wounded, leg. Vigue, Louis, wounded. 

Company B. 
First Lieutenant Elisha W. Ellis, wounded, side; returned in October. 

SERGEANTS. 

Edwin A. Howes, killed. Benjamin S. Crooker, wounded, head. 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 307 



CORPORALS. 

William Briggs, wounded, ankle. Abial Turner, wounded, side. 
Alvin H. Ellis, wounded, thigh. 

PRIVATES. 

Bennett, Ira Z. (battery), killed. Chapman, George F., w*d, arm, side. 

Coffin, Frank, w'd, thigh, died July 14. Crummett, Orson E., wounded, head. 
Curtis, Watson, wounded, hand. Curtis, William H., wounded, side. 

Flagg, Job P., w'd, breast; died Dec. 19. Hardy, Willard R., wounded, hands. 
Hills, Isaac, wounded, thigh. Hubbard, William, wounded, head. 

Larrabee, Moses, Jr., wounded. Noyes, Eli, missing; fete unknown. 

Rand, Marshall H., wounded. Whitney, Mark L., wounded, leg. 

Company C. 
Second Lieutenant Francis H. Foss, wounded, neck. 

SERGEANTS. 

istSergt George Dunbar, w*d, elbow. Henry W. Nye, w*d, head, shoulder. 
Alexander W. Lord, killed. William H. Emery, wounded, head. 

CORPORALS. 

Lindley H. Whittaker, wounded. Christopher Erskine, killed. 
Gustavus L. Thompson, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, John B.,w'd,hip and shoulder. Blethen, James L., w'd, head and arm. 
Call, Frederick S., w*d; died Aug. 25. Crosby, Abijah, w'd; died July 8. 
Emery, Henry, wounded, foot. Gilman, Lorenzo D., wounded, knee. 

Haskell, Joseph E., wounded, leg. Hodgdon, Geo. E., w*d; died Aug. 24. 
Jones, Charles W., wounded, head. Lewis, Jonathan, wounded, elbow. 
Maxim, Sullivan A., wounded, leg. Pratt, Elbridge P., killed. 
Shaw, Johnson, w'd, foot amputated. Spaulding, William, wounded, arm. 
Webb, Reuben R., wounded, thigh. Woodward, Joseph G., killed. 

Company D. 
First Lieutenant Edward R. Cunningham, wounded, breast. 
Second Lieutenant Leroy S. Scott, wounded July 2; died July 13. 
Sergeant George L. Starkey, wounded July 2, leg amputated. 

CORPORALS. 

Robert T. Newell, w'd; died July 9. Jesse A. Wilson, w'd; died July 3. 
Francis C. Wood, wounded, arm. Alfred P. Waterman, wounded July 2; 

died July 4. 

PRIVATES. 

Brown, James C, wounded, leg. Byard, Henry D., w'd, leg, July 2. 

Clements, Charles H., w'd July 2. Cunningham, Alden, killed. 
Dean, Horace, wounded. Haire, Roswell, w'd; died July 4. 

Hamilton, Charles R., w'd, face, arm. Hartshorn, Henry H., w'd July 3. 
Hoffses, Lorenzo W., pr. gd.,w'd, legs. Kelley, Louira A., act'gCorp'l, killed. 
Lear, Benjamin O., w'd, arm, July 2. Lenfest, James, wounded, leg, July 3. 
Merriam, John, act'g Corporal, w'd; Murch, Charles A., wounded, leg, 

died Aug. 26. Robbins, James, killed, July 3. 

Thomas, Hushai C, w'd; died July 21. Tufts, George F., w'd, arm and leg. 

Company E. 
sergeants. 
ist Sergt. James H. Pierce, w'd, side. Enoch C. Dow, killed. 



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308 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

CORPORALS. 

Frank A. Patterson, wounded, leg. Nahum Downs, w*d, leg; died July i8. 
Collins McCarty, Jr., w*d, arm amp*d. 

PRIVATES. 

Atwood, John R., wounded, leg. Colson, William J., wounded, leg. 

Cookson, Joseph G., wounded, hand. Dearborn, Leonard, wounded, hand. 
Harriman, Chas. E., w'd; died July lo. Keene, John F., wounded, arm. 
Low, William H., killed. Moore, James S., wounded. 

Nickerson, Fred A., wounded, hand. Nickerson, John E., wounded, leg. 
Nickerson, Reuel, w*d; died July i8. Sheldon, Edward B., w'd, arm amp*d. 
Waterhouse, Fred L., wounded, leg. 

Company F. 
Captain Isaac W. Starbird, flesh wound. 
First Lieutenant Charles E. Nash, wounded, leg. 
Second Lieutenant Edwin H. Rich, wounded, leg. 
First Sergeant Thomas P. Rideout, wounded; died July i8. 

PRIVATES. 

Dunnell, Edwin L., wounded. Grover, Alford, wounded, thigh. 

Keen, Calvin B., wounded. Shorey, William H., w*d; died July 4. 

Small, William S., wounded, arm. Tobey, Joseph A., wounded, face. 
White, George O., wounded, shoulder. 

Musician: Lauriston Chamberlain, wounded, back. 
Company G. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Sewall, wounded, face. 

SERGEANTS. 

Albert N. Williams, killed. Edward H. Hicks, w*d, arm and groin. 

CORPORALS. 

George L. Perkins, killed. George W. Andrews, w*d, missing; 

Stephen P. McKenney, w'd, hands. supposed dead. 

privates. 
Carroll, Charles J., w'd; died July 10. Hussey, George A., wounded, hip. 
Jackman, William H., wounded, side. Jones, Amos, wounded, arm. 
Leighton, Hampton W., w'd, arm. Moody, Isaac, wounded. 
Murray, Winthrop, wounded, head. Small, William B., wounded, shoulder. 
Smart, Orren P., wounded, breast. Tyler, Elias, wounded; died July 15. 

Company H. 
Captain Willard Lincoln, wounded, head. 
First Lieutenant Albert Hunter, wounded, throat 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant John F. Stackpole, killed. 

Jesse A. Dorman, w'd; died July 6. Charles P. Garland, wounded, leg. 

George E. Webber, w'd; died July 7. James T. Waldron, wounded, thigh. 

CORPORALS. 

Francis P. Furber, wounded, mouth. Hollis F. Arnold, killed. 
George H. Willey, killed. Samuel C. Brookings, killed. 

PRIVATES. 

Abbott, Daniel B., w'd, arm and side. Carr, Rinaldo A., wounded, thigh. 
Coro, Joseph, wounded, arm and side. Dodge, Martin V. B.,w'd,arm and side. 
Estes, John H., wounded, leg; missing. Estes, Redford M., wounded, leg. 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT CASUALTIES. 309 

Gerald, William F., wounded, thigh. Goodridge, Drew, wounded, leg. 

Hamlin, Charles L., wounded, leg. James, Josephus, w'd; leg amp*d. 

Leonard, William, wounded, leg. Libby, Charles H., wounded, leg. 

Martin, Reuben D., wounded, hip. Richardson, Luke T., wounded, side. 

Taylor, William, killed. Washburn, Augustus, w*d;armamp*d. 

Wheeler, George E., wounded, legs. Wood, William F., wounded, leg. 

Wjrman, James, killed. Young, Benjamin, wounded, neck. 

Company I. 
Captain George X). Smith, killed. 

SERGEANTS. 

William E. Barrows, killed. Chandler F. Perry, killed. 

CORPORALS. 

Daniel G. Lamb, wounded. Ruhis Shibbles, 2d, wounded, hand. 

George E. Holmes, wounded, head. John Vinal, wounded, hand. 

George W. Barter, wounded. Orrin T. Conway, w*d, leg; died Sept i. 

PRIVATES. 

Black, Gorham L., wounded. Carey, John F., killed. 

Clapp, Hiram, wounded. Clark, Luther, wounded. 

Dodge, Adrian C, wounded, cheek. Dyer, Alden W., wounded, shoulder. 
Jacobs, Edwin S., prov. g*d,w'd, head. Little, Thomas, wounded, leg. 
Maddocks, Joseph G., wounded, arm. Mills, James P., wounded, leg. 
Norton, Joseph H., wounded. Oxton, Amos B., wounded, hand. 

Rhoades, Francis W., killed. Turner, George S., w*d; died July 19. 

Wilson, Joseph W., killed. 

Company K. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel E. Bucknam, wounded, leg. 

SERGEANTS. 

George L. Grant, w*d; died Nov. 5. William Boynton, Jr., killed. 

CORPORALS. 

Weld Sargent, wounded, arm. Warren Proctor, wounded, groin. 

Stephen P. Trafton, wounded, leg. 

PRIVATES. 

Blaisdell, Richard M., wounded, leg. Blake, Edwin, wounded, hand. 

Dunton, Ezekiel L., wounded, leg. Fogler, George P., killed. 

Francis, Nelson, killed. Heal, James T., w*d; died July 8. 

Jellison, Alvah, wounded, thigh. Kimball, George A, wounded, foot 

Lewis, James H., killed. Lombard, David C, w*d; arm amp'd. 

Lowe, Charles M., killed. Marr, Calvin E., wounded, foot. 

McAvoy, Charles E., killed. McKenney, William, w*d, breast. 

Mitchell, Isaac W., wounded, hand. Mitchell, Jesse, wounded, shoulder. 

Mitchell, Simmons A., w*d, back. Nichols, Oliver P., killed. 

Oliver, Loring C, w*d; died July 20. Sawyer, Addison, wounded, hand. 

Scott, Thomas E., w'd, leg amp*d. Shea, Samuel B., w*d; died July 20. 

Varell, Oilman N., wounded, legs. Webster, Lorenzo, wounded. 
Williams, Henry N., w*d; died July 18. 



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310 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Summary of Gasualties. 

Killed and Mortally Wounded: Officers, company D i, company 
1 1; enlisted men, A 3, B 4, C 8, D 9, E 5, F 2, G 4, H 8, I 7, K 12. Total, 2 
officers, 62 enlisted men. 

Wounded, not Mortally: Officers, field and staff 2, Bi,Ci,Di,F 
3, G I, H 2, K i; enlisted men, non-commissioned staff i, A 9, B 14, C 15, D 
13, E 13, F 7, G II, H 21, I 16, K 18. Total, 12 officers, 138 enlisted men (of 
these I of G and i of H missing, supposed dead). Missing, B i. Aggregate 
loss, 215. 

The foregoing casualties were compiled from lists that were 
furnished to newspapers at the time by Capt. Charles E. Nash 
and Lieut. Loring Farr, from the printed Adjutant-General's 
Reports, and from other records in the office of the Adjutant- 
General of Maine. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH. 

COMPILED BY OFFICERS OF THE REGIMENT. 

This regiment was made up from men enlisted in Kennebec, 
Somerset, Knox, Waldo and Sagadahoc counties. The various 
companies arrived at Bath, where the regiment was organized, 
early in August, 1862. It was mustered into the United States 
service on the 25th of that month. The original organization 
was as follows : 

FIELD, STAFF, AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Frederick D. Sewall, Bath. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Francis E. Heath, Waterville. 
Major, Henry W. Cunningham, Belfast. 
Adjutant, Frank W. Haskell, Waterville. 
Quartermaster, James W. Wakefield, Bath. 
Surgeon, Adoniram J. Billings, Freedom. 
Assistant Surgeon, Henry C. Levensaler, Thomaston. 
Chaplain, Eliphalet Whittlesey, Brunswick. 
Sergeant-Major, William P. Joy, Ellsworth. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Benjamin D. Hanson, Pittston. 
Commissary-Sergeant, Thomas D. Wakefield, Bath. 
Hospital Steward, Delon W. Abbott, Orono. 
First Principal Musician, Daniel R. Maddocks, Belfast. 
Second Principal Musician, Carter N. Payson, Camden. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, James W. Hathaway, Mercer. 

First Lieutenant, Joseph W. Spaulding, Richmond. 
Second Lieutenant, David E. Parsons, Norridgewock. 



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NINETEENTH REOOfENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 311 

Co. B. Captain, LincUey M. Coleman, Lincolnville. 

First Lieutenant, William Clements, Monroe. 

Second Lieutenant, Levi Racklifif, Lincolnville. 
Co. C. Captain, George H. Rowell, Fairfield. 

First Lieutenant, Joseph H. Hunt, Unity. 

Second Lieutenant, Francis M. Ames, Fairfield. 
Co. D. Captain, William H. Fogler, Belfast 

First Lieutenant, Horace C. Noyes, Belfast. 

Second Lieutenant, Edward R. Cunningham, Belfast. 
Co. E. Captain, Daniel L. Dickey, Stockton. 

First Lieutenant, James Johnson, Searsport. 

Second Lieutenant, John S. Tapley, Frankfort. 
Co. F. Captain, Isaac W. Starbird, Litchfield. 

First Lieutenant, George L. Whitmore, Bowdoinham. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Nash, Hallowell. 
Co. G. Captain, James W. Welch, Augusta. 

First Lieutenant, Everett M. Whitehouse, China. 

Second Lieutenant, George C. Hopkins, Mount Vernon. 
Co. H. Captain, Joseph Eaton, Jr., Winslow. 

First Lieutenant, Willard Lincoln, China. 

Second Lieutenant, Albert Hunter, Clinton. 
Co. I. Captain, Edward A. Snow, Rockland. 

First Lieutenant, Gershom F. Burgess, Camden. 

Second Lieutenant, George D. Smith, Rockland. 
Co. K. Captain, Charles S. Larrabee, Bath. 

First Lieutenant, Joseph Nichols, Phippsburg. 

Second Lieutenant, Dumont Bunker, Fairfield. 

Colonel Sewall had previously been A. A. G. on the staff 
of Brig.-Gen. O. O. Howard. Lieut.-Col. Heath was promoted 
from Captain in the Third Maine regiment, having served with 
that organization from its formation. Maj. H. W. Cunning- 
ham had also been a Captain in the Fourth Maine regiment. 
F. W. Haskell, Adjutant, had previously been a member of the 
Third Maine. 

The reghnent left Bath August 27, 1862 ; reached Wash- 
ington on the afternoon of the 29th ; the next day, after march- 
ing into Virginia, was ordered to recross the Potomac and gar- 
rison some forts on the Eastern Branch. While performing 
this duty the several companies were instructed in artillery 
drill. On the 30th of September the regiment was ordered to 
Bb.rper's Ferry, where it was assigned to the First brigade. 
Second division, Second army corps. During October the army 
remained in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry ; on the 30th it took 
up its march in the direction of Warrenton, the Second corps 



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312 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

reaching that place November 9th. Here Greneral McClellan was 
relieved from his command and Bumside took his place. On 
the 15th the regiment left Warrenton and with the corps marched 
towards Fredericksburg, arriving near Falmouth on the 17th. 
Owing to the lack of bridge material, inclination or incapacity, 
the army did not cross the Rappahannock at this time, but 
remained on the left bank until well into December, thus giving 
the enemy time to concentrate his force in the vicinity of Fred- 
ericksburg. From November 20th to December 5th the regi- 
ment was engaged in keeping the road from Belle Plaine to 
Falmouth passable ; this road being the one over which the army 
drew its supplies at this time. While returning from this duty 
to its proper place in the corps the regiment marched in a very 
cold rain which turned to snow in the afternoon. Every one 
lay down that night wet through, with little or no shelter ; this 
exposure killed more men of this regiment than any battle it 
ever engaged in. 

On the 11th of December the army had orders to cross the 
river. After wasting a long time in attempting to lay a pontoon 
bridge at Falmouth, an attempt was made by Colonel Hall of 
the Third brigade to cross in boats. This attempt succeeded, 
and the division crossed that evening, the Third and Second 
brigades doing the murderous street-fighting, and driving the 
enemy out of the city. About noon on the 13th the First brig- 
ade was ordered to the front, the Nineteenth being on the right. 
The brigade was formed in column of battalions, in mass, some 
eight hundred yards in front of Marye's Heights. It was under- 
stood that the brigade was to make a charge upon the enemy as 
soon as another brigade formed in its rear to support it ; while 
waiting, the First brigade was exposed to a severe shelling, which 
was exceedingly destructive in the four rear battalions. The 
Nineteenth was protected by a very slight rise of the ground in 
its front, which prevented any ricochet-shots from striking 
it. The brigade to support the expected charge at last made its 
appearance, and while forming in rear of the First brigade the 
rebel battery, which had been shelling the latter, opened on the 
newcomers. The effect was decisive ; in five minutes not any 
of the supporting brigade was in sight, and the charge was not 



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NINETEENTH REOIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 313 

ordered. On the night of the 15th the regiment was ordered 
back to its old camp near Fahnouth, at which time the whole 
army was withdrawn. 

During the " mud " campaign the regiment was not moved. 
The winter was passed in the usual duties, and the regiment 
attained so high a degree of efficiency and discipline that it 
was ranked among eleven regiments in the army to which were 
granted extra leaves of absence and furloughs. 

On February 21st Colonel Sewall resigned on account of ill 
health, and Lieut.-Col. Heath was promoted to be Colonel. 
On April 27th Hooker conmienced the movements which cul- 
minated in the battle of Chancellorsville. The Second division 
of the Second corps did not participate in these movements at 
first. May 1st, at 9 p. m., the regiment received orders to 
guard the field telegraph line to U. S. Ford on the Rappahan- 
nock ; on the 3d it was ordered to join the brigade at Falmouth, 
which had been engaged in the support of Sedgwick. 

From this time until early in June the army remained quiet. 
At this time the rebel army conmienced its movement towards 
Pennsylvania, drawing Hooker after it. The Second corps was 
the last to leave the Rappahannock, which it did on June 15th. 
On its march it passed the first Bull Run battlefield, and at mid- 
night of the 20th reached Thoroughfare Gap, where the regi- 
ment remained till the 25th ; on that day the corps started for 
the Potomac, crossing the same at Edward's Ferry. Shortly 
after leaving the Grap we ran into Stuart's cavalry, which opened 
fire upon the corps with a couple of guns ; one of our batteries 
went into action, and this, with the flankers, closed the disturb- 
ance. The regiment had one man killed in this skirmish. 

We left Monocacy on the morning of the 29th and marched 
beyond Uniontown, covering about thirty miles. July 1st the 
regiment was detailed to guard the corps train, but at noon it 
was relieved from this duty and ordered to push on and join its 
brigade. At 1 o'clock a.m., July 2d, it bivouacked within three 
miles of Gettysburg ; at 3 o'clock the same morning it moved 
for the field of battle, going into position near the centre of the 
Union line, south of the "* copse of trees " now marked by the 
High Water Mark Monument. Towards night it became heavily 



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314 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

engaged, losing about 130 in killed and wounded. On the next 
day it participated in the repulse of Pickett, and its losses in the 
two days' fighting amounted to 206, including four reported as 
missing who were undoubtedly killed, as they were never heard 
of afterwards. On and after July 4th Colonel Heath com- 
manded the brigade and Lieut. -Col. Cunningham the regiment. 

July 5th, at 5 p. m., the regiment with the corps started in 
pursuit of Lee, who had retreated towards Falling Waters ; 
nothing was accomplished towards attacking Lee, and he was 
allowed to cross the Potomac without more fighting, excepting 
some minor skirmishes with our cavalry. The corps moved up 
Loudon Valley without much haste. On the 23d the regiment 
marched through Manassas Gap, and inmiediately retract its 
steps, as the rebels were not within reach. After reaching 
Morris ville on the 29th there was a quiet time, nothing going 
on but ordinary camp duties. September 12th the regiment 
moved to Rappahannock Station ; on the 27th it relieved our 
cavalry on a part of the line of the Rapidan, and maintained 
an extensive picket line till October 8th, at which time it was 
removed to Culpeper. Three hundred and forty-two recruits 
were received during September and October. 

October 10th the regiment together with the corps was 
ordered out in great haste, and marched in the direction of 
Thornton's Grap. For several days, as well as nights, the 
movement was continued, in a most perplexing way. Lee was 
attempting to get in Meade's rear by the right. On the 14th 
the regiment was marching with the rest of the brigade on the 
right of the corps ; the route was on the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, and towards Washington. About 2 p. m. it arrived 
at Bristoe Station on Broad Run ; at this point the enemy made 
their appearance, and an attack was made on the Second corps. 
This was repulsed in fine style, the rebels losing five guns and 
two colors, one of which, of a North Carolina regiment, was 
taken by the Nineteenth. In this engagement the regiment 
was under command of Lieut.-Colonel Cunningham, Colonel 
Heath being in command of the brigade. The loss in the regi- 
ment was one killed and twelve wounded. The small number 
of casualties was doubtless owing to the railroad embankment, 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 315 

behind which the regiment did most of its fighting. As soon 
as darkness would permit, the march was continued towards 
Centreville, that point being reached about midnight. After 
a day or two the regiment moved back to Bristoe, and thence 
to Warrenton, arriving there the 20th. November 7th it 
moved to Kelly's Ford, crossing the river on the 9th. 

On the 26th of November it joined in the movement to Mine 
Run ; it was engaged in this attempt to fight Lee on equal terms 
until the withdrawal of the army to its former line. The loss 
in this demonstration was one wounded. 

During the winter the regiment encamped near Culpeper, 
Lieut.-Col. Selden Connor, of the Seventh Maine, was promoted 
to be Colonel of the Nineteenth, joining the regiment in Feb- 
ruary, Colonel Heath having resigned by reason of ill health. 
On February 6th the Second corps made a reconnaissance 
to Morton's Ford, in which the Nineteenth participated, and 
returned to its camp on the night of the 7th. Two men were 
wounded during the movement. 

The regiment remained in camp till the opening of the Wil- 
derness campaign. At daybreak May 4th it crossed the Bapidan 
at Ely's Ford ; May 6th it was engaged with the enemy, losing 
heavily. In this fight Colonel Connor was wounded in the 
thigh, resulting in disability from further service. For his 
gallant conduct he was promoted to Brigadier-General. 

On May 8th the regiment marched towards Spotsylvania ; 
on the 9th it did some skirmishing at Po River ; May 10th it 
formed part of column which made two assaults on the enemy's 
works ; on the 12th it was engaged in the assault made by the 
Second coips. Major Welch, who was in command of the reg- 
iment, was severely wounded in this engagement (a). On the 
18th it was engaged in another attack ; May 21st the regiment, 
Lieut.-Col. Cunningham in command, moved towards the North 
Anna, arriving there in the afternoon of the 23d ; it crossed 
the river on the 24th and again engaged the enemy. May 27th 
the regiment marched to Pamunkey River ; the 30th moved to the 
Totopotomy ; the 31st it was under fire near Bethesda Church. 

(a) Major Welch captured and took off the field, colors of the 33d Va.— See official 
report, A. Q. R. Maine. I86i-^ Vol. 1. pase 279. 



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316 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

June 1st the regiment was engaged again, and Captain 
Fogler, who conunanded it, was wounded ; on the 2d it reached 
Cold Harbor, and on the 3d participated in the sanguinary and 
fruitless assault upon the enemy's strong works. 

On the 11th it marched for the James River. From the 
opening of the campaign to this time the casualties in the regi- 
ment were 298. Lieut. -Col. Cunningham had resigned, and 
the regiment was now in conmiand of Capt. Charles E. Nash. 
June 15th it arrived near Petersburg, having crossed James 
River the previous day ; on the 18th it was attached temporarily 
to the Third division, and placed on the right of the assaulting 
column ; on the 20th it was relieved from duty in front of 
Petersburg, and with the corps moved several miles to the left. 

June 22d, under the command of Capt. J. W. Spaulding, it 
was again engaged ; owing to the troops on its left being out- 
flanked, and retreating, it lost heavily in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. July 26th it marched for Deep Bottom, and was 
engaged at that point on the 27th ; on the 29th it recrossed the 
James, and on the night of the 30th reached its old camp. 

The regiment had crossed the Rapidan, the 4th of May, with 
490 enlisted men and officers, and had been joined by 57 men, 
in the field, from the Fourth Maine regiment ; it now numbered 
scarcely 150 enlisted men, present for duty, so great had been 
the losses in killed, wounded and prisoners, and from other 
casualties. It remained in this position until August 12th, 
when, without previous orders, it suddenly broke camp and, 
under the command of Captain Spaulding, marched to City 
Point with the Second corps. Towards night of the 13th it 
went on board transports, which dropped down the river a few 
miles and lay at anchor until in the night, when they returned 
and steamed up river to Strawberry Plains, where early in the 
morning of the 14th it disembarked and marched to Deep 
Bottom ; after considerable delay it formed line of battle along 
Bailey's Creek at right angles to the river, the Tenth corps on 
the left. The Nineteenth formed the extreme right of the 
Second corps, reaching to Fassett's mill, with Gregg's cavalry 
division on the right flank. General Barlow, who was to make 
the attack, as he was desirous of winning promotion, had been 



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NINETEENTH REOIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 317 

placed in command of the First and Second divisions of the 
Second corps. He had succeeded in getting only the eictreme 
right brigade in position when the attack was ordered. The 
line was formed just back of the crest of a ridge ; in front was 
a deep ravine, through which flowed the creek below the mill. 
The enemy was posted in rifle-pits on the opposite crest. 
Colonel Macy, a brave officer of the 20th Mass., who com- 
manded the brigade, remaining on his horse on ground where 
no officer could go mounted, was soon injured by the stumbling 
of his horse and taken to the rear. The command to charge 
having been given, the brigade advanced double-quick; the 
left soon entered a heavy timber, the right moving over the 
crest, down the open bluff, across the creek, where it was 
obstructed by a thicket of underbrush so dense that a single 
man could not penetrate without difficulty. The only opening 
through this thicket was a narrow cart-road; the regiment 
halted inmiediately under the rifle-pits of the enemy, where it 
remained until after dark ; not receiving any communication 
from general or staff officers, and finding itself deserted by the 
troops on its left, without orders it withdrew by the right 
flank across the mill-dam and joined its division in the rear. 
On the 18th it was under a severe artillery fire when two attacks 
were made by the enemy on our line. That night it moved to 
the extreme left of our line, and in the night of the 20th com- 
menced its return march to the old camp in front of Peters- 
burg, where it arrived early in the morning of the 2l8t. Gen. 
Francis A. Walker, in his History of the Second Army Corps, 
and, following him. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, have severely 
criticised the troops of the two divisions under conunand of 
General Barlow for their lack of spirit in this attack. These 
writers, who were in error even in regard to the brigade and 
division engaged, probably obtained their data from a distance, 
and evidently knew nothing of the conduct of the troops which 
they criticised. The regiment in this expedition lost fifteen in 
killed and wounded. After remaining in camp a few hours, 
the First division. Barlow's, under command of Gen. Nelson 
A. Miles, and the Second division. Gibbon's, of the Second 
corps, commenced a movement to the left, and on the morning 



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318 MAINE AT GETTY8BUBG. 

of the 24th reached Reams' Station on the Petersburg and 
Weldon Railroad. Here it found some rifle-pits in the form 
of an irregular horseshoe, or letter V, thrown up by the cavalry 
during the June expedition. It was employed during the day 
in burning railroad sleepers and destroying the rails. Next 
morning the enemy conmienced an attack and continued press- 
ing our lines during the day. In the afternoon they made 
three charges, which were repulsed; finally, after a terrific 
cannonade, raking across both wings in front and reverse, they 
advanced on our right and centre ; the right wing gave way, 
then the centre ; our batteries were captured ; a battery on the 
right was turned upon the rear of the left wing ; one, at the 
junction of the centre and left wing, was turned on the flank of 
the left wing. The Nineteenth was in the centre of the left 
wing and held its position until they were the only troops on 
the line ; then withdrew and formed the nucleus of a new line, 
across the heel of the horseshoe-shaped works, which had been 
captured by the enemy. Several attempts had been made dur- 
ing the engagement, by the general oflScers, to rally the troops 
and retake the part of the works lost ; but the regimental offi- 
cers and troops would not respond. The men who had repulsed 
Pickett's charge at Gettysburg, who had repelled Lee's attacks 
in the Wilderness, and stormed his works at Spotsylvania, who 
had been hurled against his intrenchments at Cold Harbor, had 
learned to distrust the judgment of their superior officers, and 
by a tacit understanding with their regimental officers declined 
any further useless slaughter. Two decimated divisions had 
been sent to destroy a few miles of railroad; after having 
accomplished their mission they remained idle more than twen- 
ty-four hours, only four miles from other troops ; during all 
this time it was known to all officers and men that Hill's whole 
corps was on the march from Petersburg for their destruction. 
This apparent challenge for a fight was one of the unaccount- 
able blunders of the war which has never been explained ; the 
result indicated that the troops should have been withdrawn on 
the night of the 24th, or reinforcements should have been sent 
to hold the position. The commander of the army of the Poto- 
mac and the conunander of the Second corps have each placed 



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NINETEENTH REGDfENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 319 

the responsibility upon the other. No further attack was made 
by the enemy, and after dark the troops were withdrawn. The 
regiment lost twelve, killed and wounded, and many prisoners. 

From August 26th to September 24th the regiment was in 
the second and rear lines of works in front of Petersburg. 
September 7th Captain Spaulding left on sick leave, and until 
October 21st the command fell successively upon Captain Par- 
sons and Colonel Welch, the latter returning from absence on 
account of wounds. September 24th it moved into the front 
line, and on the 30th took up its position at the right of Fort 
Sedgwick — nicknamed Fort " Hell," — where it remained until 
October 26th. Colonel Welch resigned October 2 1st, and Major 
Starbird became Colonel, and was present until winter quarters. 
October 26th it moved to the left, and on the 27th was in the 
engagement at Boydton Plank Road. The losses were not heavy 
in this engagement, but the regiment was in a most trying posi- 
tion ; upon the left came shell ; in front shell came through a 
pine wood ; and ricochet-shot from across the open field ; can- 
ister was scattered over it from the right, and musket bullets 
came from the rear, driving Surgeon Randall to the line of 
battle, — the only time the writer ever knew a Surgeon to ask 
for a musket. After dark it withdrew and returned to the line 
in front of Petersburg; on the 31st it occupied Fort Haskell. 

The fifth company, unassigned infantry, formed at Augusta, 
Maine, October 5, 1864, joined the regiment October 22d, with 
three officers and sixty-four enlisted men present for duty, and 
was consolidated with the companies of the Nineteenth. The 
three officers were Capt. Addison W. L#ewis, First Lieut. Edward 
B. Sargent, Second Lieut. Charles Bennett. 

In the night of November 5th the picket line to the right of 
Fort BLaskell was captured by the enemy, the brigade losing 
thirty-five men, about one-half of them belonging to the Nine- 
teenth. This was made possible by the right of the line having 
been established in front of a mill-pond, with no line of retreat 
except by the left flank ; the enemy had only to strike the line 
in the centre, cut off the retreat, move to our right, and their 
work was done. November 29th, in the night, the regiment 
being relieved from duty in Fort Haskell moved to the left. 



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320 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

near to Patrick's Station, the terminus of the Grant raiboad, and 
built winter quarters. For the first time for two months it was 
out of the reach of shot and shell. It had been on continuous 
duty in the front line for more than two months ; much of the 
time one-half of the men were required for skirmish, picket and 
guard duty. All were under fire of artillery and musketry at 
all times, both day and night. The losses in killed and wounded 
during this period were thirty-four men and officers, which, 
added to the losses sustained at Strawberry Plains and Reams' 
Station, made a total loss of fifty-nine in officers and men. 
The regiment remained here in the quarters it constructed until 
the expedition to Hatcher's Run. 

During the year 1864 the losses in the Nineteenth were : 
killed and mortally wounded, 101 ; wounded, not fatally, 299 ; 
prisoners, 133 ; making total of 533 out of 614. 

Early Sunday morning, February 5, 1865, the corps moved 
to the left to feel the enemy's right flank and extend the lines. 
Near the Armstrong house General Smyth directed Lieut.- 
Col. Spaulding to move the regiment by the left flank out of the 
column. The regiment then advanced by itself, meeting the 
enemy's skirmish line at Hatcher's Run and, forcing them back, 
crossed the Run and pressed the enemy back from two lines of 
rifle-pits, and held the position until relieved by troops of the 
Fifth corps, when it rejoined the brigade. Three days followed 
of very severe weather, which occasioned great suffering and the 
death of the acting Adjutant, Lieutenant Gerrish, by disease. 
It was most of the time under fire. On the 11th the regiment 
went into new winter quarters near Hatcher's Run. 

March 7, 1865, General Meade issued General Order No. 10, 
as follows : 

" In accol'dance with the requirements of General Orders No. 
19 of 1862 from the War Department, and in conformity with 
the reports of boards convened to examine into the service ren- 
dered by the troops concerned, and by authority of the Lieu- 
tenant-General commanding the armies of the United States, 
it is ordered: That there shall be inscribed upon the colors or 
guidons of the following regiments and batteries serving in the 



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NINETEENTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 321 

army, the names of the battles in which they have borne a mer- 
itorious part, as hereinafter specified, viz. : 

"Nineteenth Maine Volunteers : Fredericksburg ^ Chan- 
cdlorsville^ Gettyiburg^ Bristoe Station^ Mine Run^ WHder- 
nessy Spotsylvania^ River Po, North Anna^ Totopotomy^ Cold 
Harbor^ Petersburg^ Deep Bottom^ 8trawben*y Plains^ Reams* 
Station^ Boydton Road.'* 

It appears from that order that only one other infantry reg- 
iment (1st U. S. Sharpshooters) in the army, during the time 
that this regiment had been a part of the army of the Potomac, 
had been in a greater number of engagements. That regiment 
had the names of seventeen battles upon its colors. But four 
other infantry regiments (20th Mass., 61st N. Y., 57th Penn., 
7th Mich.) had as many as the Nineteenth Maine during the 
same period. The order was issued upon reports made prior 
to the Hatcher's Run fight of February 5th. 

The final campaign began Wednesday, March 29, 1865. 
The Second corps moved out to the left by the Vaughan Road. 
The Nineteenth and one other regiment, both under command 
of Colonel Starbird, advanced through the woods as skirmishers 
to Dabney's Mill, from which location the enemy had hurriedly 
departed. The next day the regiment again advanced as skir- 
mishers to within a few rods of the enemy's fort near the Crow 
house, pushing the rebel skirmishers all the way. 

The regiment again engaged the enemy March 31st, and still 
again Sunday, April 2d, when our troops entered the enemy's 
works, capturing many prisoners, and started off in pursuit of 
Lee's army on the Cox Road. April 3d Richmond and Peters- 
burg were occupied by Federal troops. The regiment partici- 
pated with the corps during the week in hot pursuit of Lee's 
army. April 7th the regiment, advancing as skirmishers, had 
a sharp and spirited fight with the enemy at High Bridge, in 
which Colonel Starbird was again severely wounded. The enemy 
had fired both the railroad bridge and wagon bridge across the 
Appomattox at this point, and the regiment fought the enemy 
and saved the traveled bridge upon which the two army corps 
(Second and Sixth) crossed that day in close pursuit of the 
enemy. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, who conmianded the corps 



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322 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

later in the day, addressing Lieut.-Col. Spaulding, commended 
the regiment in strong terms. He with General Barlow, the 
division commander, had personally witnessed the heroic fight 
that the regiment made, and had sent the gallant General Smyth 
with his brigade to its support. General Smyth, later in the 
day, gave his life to his country. 

The regiment again that day, and for the last time as ene- 
mies, met the Confederates near Farmville just at nightfall. 

On Sunday, April 9, 1865, it participated in the wild and 
joyous excitement over the news of Lee's surrender, which Gen- 
eral Meade himself carried to the troops. 

The return march was begun two days after the surrender. 
The corps remained for about a month near Burkeville ; then 
marched, passing through Richmond and along familiar routes, 
till it approached Alexandria, and went into camp May 15, 1865, 
near Bailey's Cross Roads. Tuesday, May 23d, it participated 
in the Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac by the Pres- 
ident in Washington. 

On the 31st of May it was mustered out of United States 
service by Capt. H. Y. Russell, 10th N. Y. Vols., mustering 
officer of the division. 

The regiment left its last camp early in the morning of June 1 , 
1865, for Maine, and was finally paid at Augusta, Maine, June 
7th and disbanded. The only commissioned officers mustered 
at Bath in August, 1862, who were with the regiment at the 
final muster, were Lieut.-Col. Spaulding and Major Parsons, 
and only two more of the original officers (Colonel Starbird 
and Captain Lincoln) were still on the rolls of the regiment. 



ROSTER. 

The following information relating to officers of the Nine- 
teenth Maine regiment is obtained from the Volunteer Army 
Register, published by the War Department August 31, 1865, 
and other reliable sources. 

Officers at Muster-out, May 31, 1865. 
Colonel: Isaac W. Starbird, Nov. 16, 1864, mustered out June 7, 1865, 
—brevet Brig. -General, March 13, 1865. 



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ROSTER OF THE NINETEENTH REGIMENT. 323 

Lieutenant-Colonel: Joseph W. Spaulding, Nov. i6, 1864. 

Major: David E. Parsons, Nov. 16, 1864. 

Adjutant: First Lieut. Henry Sewall, July 18, 1864. 

Captains: Willard Lincoln, Nov. i, 1862, mustered out June 10, 1865; 
Nehemiah Smart, Oct 27, 1863; Ansel L. White, Oct. 31, 1864, — brevet 
Major, April 9, 1865; Elbridge C. Pierce, Nov. 3, 1864; Oliver R. Small, Nov. 
16, 1864, — brevet Major, March 13, 1865; Calvin B. Hinkley, Dec. 2, 1864; 
John A. Lord, Jan. 11, 1865; Thomas P. Beath, Jan. 11, 1865; Addison W. 
Lewis, Oct. 4, 1864, discharged June 9, 1865. 

First Lieutenants: Edwin H. Rich, Feb. 28, 1864; Albert Hunter, 
Quartermaster, March 9, 1864; Charles P. Garland, Sept. 14, 1864; William 
B. Sawyer, Oct. 29, 1864; George P. Wood, Oct 29, 1864,— previously Ser- 
geant, Fourth Maine; Alfred E. Nickerson, Dec. 2, 1864; James H. Pierce, 
Dec. 2, 1864; Beniah P. Dolloff, Jan. 11, 1865; Charles Bennett, Jan. 13, 
1865; George Studley, Feb. 16, 1865; Edward B. Sargent, Oct 4, 1864, dis- 
charged June 9, 1865. 

Second Lieutenants: George H. Page, Oct. 27, 1863; Joseph B. 
Babson, Oct. 29, 1864,— previously of Fourth Maine; William H. Tripp, Oct 
29, 1864, — previously of Co. H, Fourth Maine, brevet Captain, March 13, 
1865; Clarendon W. Gray, Dec. 2, 1864; Franklin Adams, Jan. 13, 1865; 
George A. Barton, Jan. 31, 1865. 

Surgeon: William H. Randall, Nov. 16, 1864. Assistant Surgeon: 
Benjamin Bussey, Jr., Nov. 21, 1864. 

Chaplain: George W. Hathaway, June 14, 1863. 

(The dates given above refer to rank or commission; those hereafter 
given refer to the date of event. ) 

Died. 

Captains: Lindley M. Coleman, Oct. 18, 1862, of disease; George D. 
Smith, killed in battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 

Second Lieutenants: Leroy S. Scott, July 13, 1863, of wounds in 
battle of Gettysburg; Lafayette Carver, June 22, 1864, of wounds; James N. 
Hinkley (commissioned, not mustered), of wounds, Feb. 15, 1864; George 
E. Grows (commissioned, not mustered), of wounds, July 7, 1864; William 
L. Gerrish, Feb. 11, 1865, of disease. 

Promoted and Transferred out of Regiment. 

Colonel Selden Connor, July i, 1864, to Brigadier-General of Volunteers. 

Chaplain Eliphalet Whittlesey, March 11, 1863, to Captain and Assistant 
Adjutant-General, U. S. Vols. 

Assistant Surgeon Henry C. Levensaler, promoted to Surgeon Eighth 
Maine regiment, Aug. 17, 1863. 

Discharged. 

Captains: Asbury C. Richards, Sept. 18, 1863; Everett M. Whitehouse, 
Oct. 14, 1864, expiration of term of service, — ^previously Corp'l Third Maine; 
Dumont Bunker, Oct. 26, 1864; William H. Fogler, Nov. 2, 1864; Charles E. 
Nash, Nov. 28, 1864; Edgar A. Burpee, May 15, 1865. 

First Lieutenants: Albion Whitten, Nov. 17, 1863; Francis W. Has- 



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324 MAINE AT OETTTSBUBG. . 

kell, Adjutant, Feb. 6, 1864; Richard Crockett, April 26, 1864; George A. 
Wadsworth, April 27, 1864; Edward R. Cunningham, June 15, 1864; George 
R. Palmer, Aug. 9, 1864; Loring Farr, Sept 15, 1864; William H. Emery, 
Oct. 13, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants: Francis H. Foss, Oct. 27, 1863; Henry W. Nye, 
Feb. 23, 1864; Alvirus Osborne, Mar. 4, 1864; Samuel E. Bucknam, April i, 
1864; Thomas B. Campbell, Nov. 22, 1864; Columbus S. Anderson, Mar. 
17, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeon: Fred G. Parker, Mar. 5,1864. 

Resigned. 

Colonel Frederick D. Sewall, Feb. 19, 1863, — ^afterwards Colonel Third 
regiment V. R. C. and brevet Brig.-General, July 21, 1865. 

Colonel Francis E. Heath, on account of ill health, Nov. 4, 1863,— brevet 
Brig.-General, Mar. 13, 1865. 

Colonel James W. Welch, Oct 21, 1864. 

Lieut -Colonel Henry W. Cunningham, June 11, 1864. 

Captains: Charles H. Rowell, Oct. 12, 1862; Joseph Eaton, Jr., Oct 31, 
1862; James W. Hathaway, Nov. 5, 1862; Daniel L. Dickey, Jan. i, 1863; 
Horace C. Noyes, Feb. 20, 1863; Edward A. Snow, Feb. 23, 1863; Charles 
S. Larrabee, Mar. 3, 1863: Geoi^ L. Whitmore, Nov. 7, 1863. 

First Lieutenants: James Johnson, Oct., 1862; Joseph H. Hunt, Oct. 21, 
1862; William Clements, Oct. 17, 1862; Francis M. Ames, Nov. 18, 1862; 
Gershom F. Burgess, Feb. 10, 1863; John S. Tapley, Feb. 14, 1863; Jason 
Gordon, Feb. 17, 1863; James W. Wakefield, Quartermaster, Nov. 13, 1863; 
Elisha W. Ellis, Dec. 12, 1863; Josiah W. Tucker, Dec. 28, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants: Levi Rackliff, Oct 29, 1862; Almon Goodwin, 
Dec. 17, 1862; George C. Hopkins, Jan. 27, 1863; Benjamin B. Hanson, Jan. 
23, 1863; Stephen R. Gordon, Nov. 5, 1863; Joseph L. Clark, Nov. 30, 1863. 

Surgeons: Adoniram J. Billings, Jan. 11, 1864; John Q. A. Hawes, Nov. 
2, 1864, — resigned as Assistant Surgeon, June 22, 1863, and commissioned 
as Surgeon, Feb. 29, 1864. Assistant Surgeons: Wallace Bolan, Mar. 22, 
1864; Benjamin F. Sturgis, Oct 22, 1864. 

Chaplain Edwin B. Palmer, Feb. 10, 1863. 

Otherwise Left the Service. 

First Lieutenant Joseph Nichols, Feb. 16, 1863, cashiered. 



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Dew's SIXTH MAINE BATTERY. 325 



MONUMENT. 

The monument of the Sixth Maine Battery, of Hallowell granite, stands 
in a conspicuous position upon Hancock avenue, in the left centre of the 
Union line. The monument is surmounted by a pyramid of five black cannon 
balls made of Addison granite. Upon its plinth is a group of cannon, flags, 
swords, etc*, carved in bas relief; and on the die above is a five-pointed star, 
also in relief. 

Admbasurbmbnts: Base, six feet by six feet by one foot six inches; 
plinth, four feet four inches by four feet four inches by two feet four inches; die, 
three feet six inches by three feet six inches by four feet eight inches; five 
balls, each one foot two inches in diameter. Total height, nine feet eight inches. 
On its front and two flanking sides are the following inscriptions: 



Dow's 
6th Maine 



Battery. 

Campaigns A. P. 
1862 1865. 

McGilvery's Brigade 
Reserve Artillery. 



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DOWS SIXTH MAINE BAnERT, 

FIB8T VOLUNTEER BRIGADE, RESERVE ARTILLERY, 

AT THB BATTLB OF OKTTTSBURO. 



IN the line " patched up " to stay the tide which had rolled the 
advanced Sickles' line back, another Maine organization 
appeared and 'bore a conspicuous part in the repulse of the 
final Confederate advance. It was Dow's Sixth Maine battery, 
attached to the Fourth (a) volunteer brigade of reserve artillery. 
This battery, consisting of four light twelve-pounder Napoleon 
guns, brought onto the field one hundred and three men and 
officers and ninety horses. It had been recruited from York, 
Waldo and Aroostook counties, and had been in service since 
January 1, 1862. First Lieut. Edwin B. Dow commanded at 
Gettysburg. The battery arrived on the field from Taneytown 
about 8 A. M., July 2d, with the other batteries of the artillery 
brigade. During the forenoon and first part of the afternoon of 
that day the battery was parked in a field near the Taneytown 
road, whence its officers and men were anxious spectators of the 
struggle between Sickles and Longstreet. At 6 o'clock General 
Tyler, commanding the artillery reserve, ordered Lieutenant 
Dow to report to Maj. Freeman McGilvery (b), commanding 
the First volunteer brigade of the reserve artillery. 

Major McGilvery, to whom Lieutenant Dow was ordered to 
report, was at that hour commanding his own and some other 
artillery at the front, where he had been heavily engaged with his 
batteries, which lined the cross-road below the Peach Orchard, 
sustaining Sickles' advanced position. In the crisis of the battle 
attending the breaking up of the Third corps line along the 

(a) The headinflr places the hattery in the First hrigade, with which it fotiffht in 
this hattle, as the monument inscription indicates, although regularly attached to 
Fourth hrigade. When the army was "stripped " to follow Lee it was found nec- 
essary, on account of the lack of men, to leave two guns at Falmouth, Va. 

(b) Bfajor McGilyery, who rendered yery distinguished services in this battle, 
was a Maine soldier, and promoted from Captain of the Sixth Maine battery. 



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DOW'S BATTEBY ENGAGED. 327 

Emmitsburg road, McGilvery seized the opportunity to assemble 
some retreating batteries, and also to order up Dow, who had 
not been engaged, and posted them along the ridge assigned for 
the main line, which Hancock had been strengthening for the 
salvation of the army. 

It was about seven o'clock when the Sixth Maine battery 
reported to McGilvery (a) . The enemy had just overrun and 
captured four guns of Bigelow's Ninth Mass. battery near the 
Trostle house, as the Sixth Maine opened fire. Directing his 
fire towards the abandoned guns, Lieutenant Dow soon drove 
the enemy from them ; and later in the evening was able to 
recover and restore three of them to their rightful owners. 

As the enemy near the Trostle house were driven from Big- 
elow's guns, McGilvery discovered them advancing in force upon 
the left centre of our lines, intending to push through and com- 
plete the victory of the afternoon. This was the hour when 
McGilvery's genius as an officer of artillery shone brightest. 
He hurried into position battery I, 5th U. S., three guns of the 
5th Mass., two guns of Thompson's Penn. battery, and a vol- 
unteer battery the name of which was not ascertained in the 
confusion. To these he added the Sixth Maine, which had made 
a flank movement from its first positibn. Lieutenant Dow posted 
his guns in full view of the enemy, whose line of artillery and 
infantry had advanced into the open field about seven or eight 
hundred yards in front ; while in the bushes along the banks of 
Plum Run, which flowed just in front of the position of the bat- 
teries, the Confederate sharpshooters had sheltered themselves 
and were directing an annoying and dangerous fire upon the 
artillery-men. This was the hour when Barksdale's brigade of 
fiery Mississippians, whom we have already seen overwhelming 
the Third Maine at the Peach Orchard, were advancing with una- 
bated ardor. As the Sixth Maine went into position it came 
under a heavy fire from two batteries in the enemy's line. Lieu- 
tenant Dow replied to them with solid shot and shell, until the 
enemy's line of skirmishers advanced from their shelter towards 
the batteries. Very soon, moreover, a battle line of the enemy 

(a) Bfajor McGilvery's official report, 1863. —Rebellion Records, serial No. 4S. 
page882. « 



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328 MAINE AT GETTY8BUKG. 

appeared, moving up at a distance of about six hundred yards, 
and evidently bent upon dashing through the line of batteries 
to the Taneytown road. At this moment the situation of 
the battery was most perilous. Its anxious commander saw 
nowhere any infantry supports ; the batteries around it, unable 
to stand the terrible fire, were moving off to the rear or were 
deserted by their cannoneers. The guns of battery I, 5th U. 
S., became silent; Thompson's Penn. battery, getting out of 
ammunition, was sent to the rear ; Pettit's 1st N. Y. battery, 
which had come up about the time the Sixth Maine reported, 
moved off, as did also the volunteer battery which McGilvery 
had put in position beside battery I, 5th U. S. (a) . Alone of the 
line Dow's Sixth Maine and Phillip's 5th Mass. stood to their 
guns. McGilvery, whose bravery and sagacity were invaluable 
at this hour, directed Lieutenant Dow to " hold the position at 
all hazards," until reinforcements could be brought up. The 
Sixth Maine and its commanding officer were equal to the 
demands of the hour and the orders of their chief. Upon 
the advancing enemy the Sixth Maine and 5th Mass. used spher- 
ical case and canister with such precision and rapidity that his 
line could not advance, and was forced to retire. Lieutenant 
Dow, perceiving the enemy advancing beyond his left flank, 
hastily moved his guns to fire in that direction, and contributed 
largely to the repulse of Wofford. 

It was about 7 : 45 p. m. when the enemy was repulsed. 
The battery had expended two hundred and forty-four rounds 
of ammunition. Although under a severe artillery and skirmish 
fire, the battery had only eight men wounded and not one killed. 
Altogether it was in action about an hour and a half. At eight 
o'clock the Sixth Maine was relieved by battery K, 4th U. S., 
then commanded by Second Lieut. Robert James. Before retir- 
ing from the field, however. Lieutenant Dow and his men, 
assisted by others, recovered seven guns abandoned during the 
battle of the afternoon, but not carried off by the enemy (b) . 

(a) Major McQilvery's report, 1863, cited ante. 

(b) Lieutenant Dow received his commission as Captain September 1, 1868. He 
was brevetted Major of Artillery '*for srallant and meritorious serrice at the battle 
of Gettysburg." 



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DOW'S BATTERY ENGAGED. 329 

On the morning of July 3d, having repaired damages and 
received a new supply of anmiunition, the battery reported 
again to Major McGilvery. The latter was at that time bring- 
ing his batteries into line on the low ground on the Union left 
centre, in anticipation of a conflict with batteries which the Con- 
federates were then massing in great force, on the high ground 
by the Enmiitsburg road. Against those batteries McGilvery 
massed thirty-nine guns. First upon the left, resting upon an 
oak wood occupied by our infantry, was Ames' battery G, 1st 
N. Y., six guns, and next to Ames was Dow with the Sixth 
Maine, four guns. Then came other batteries, making the 
number of guns thirty-nine. In front of these guns a slight 
earthwork was thrown up, to cover the men in the cannonade 
which was anticipated. Supporting these guns at their rear was 
the First division of the Second corps, reinforced by General 
Humphreys with his brigades of Carr, Brewster and Burling ; 
on their left were two brigades, under Torbert and Nevin, of 
the Sixth corps ; and on their right, portions of the Third corps. 

About 1 o'clock the enemy opened upon the Union centre, 
with about one hundred and fifty guns, that memorable cannon- 
ade which preceded Pickett's charge. But much of this fire that 
was directed against the line of McGilvery's guns was so inac- 
curate as to do little damage, and the cannoneers were ordered 
not to reply, but to shelter themselves behind the earthworks in 
front of their guns. It was not until an hour or more of this 
cannonade that the batteries under McGilvery began a slow, 
well-directed fire upon those single batteries of the enemy most 
plainly in view. Several of them were thus badly broken up 
and driven to the rear before the Confederate infantry was ready 
to advance. 

About 3 o'clock the cannonade ceased and Pickett's division 
advanced, with Pettigrew's division on its left, and Trimble 
closing the charging column. On the right were Wilcox's and 
Lang's brigades, whose line of march was towards McGilvery's 
batteries. These two brigades, ♦however, never reached the 
Union line ; they did not even succeed in getting within musket 
range of the line of guns that poured upon them such a wither- 
ing fire. These being repulsed, the guns were turned obliquely 



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330 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

to the right upon Pickett's line, which could now be swept by 
a most destructive, raking fire. No hill or forest interrupted 
the level plain over which the Sixth Maine cannoneers and their 
comrades trained the guns of McGilvery's line. The effect of 
this raking fire was terrible for the Confederates, but most 
advantageous for the defenders of the Union line. The deci- 
mated brigades and regiments which finally rushed upon Han- 
cock's line, where we have already observed the Nineteenth 
Maine under fire, had been doomed to defeat when they came 
within range of the Union batteries. 

During this day's action five men of the Sixth Maine battery 
were wounded. Only one hundred and thirty-nine rounds of 
anununition were expended, but it was used to the greatest 
advantage. In the two days of the battle the battery lost not 
a gun nor a carriage. 



REPORT OF LIEUT. EDWIN B. DOW, SIXTH 
MAINE BATTERY. 

Camp near Berlin, Md., July 17, 1863. 

Captain: — I have the honor to report the action taken by the Sixth 
Maine battery, under my command, at the battle of July 2d and 3d, near 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

I received orders from General Tyler, through Lieutenant Blucher, to 
report to General Sickles* (Third) corps, on the left centre, about 6 p. m., 2d 
instant. I immediately marched my command to the front, meeting an ambu- 
lance with General Sickles in it badly wounded. 

I had not gone far when Major McGilvery ordered me into position in 
rear of the first line, remarking that he had charge of the artillery of the Third 
corps. On going into position my battery was under a heavy fire from two 
batteries of the enemy, situated some one thousand yards in my front I 
replied to them with solid shot and shell until the enemy* s line of skirmishers 
and sharpshooters came out of the woods to the left front of my position and 
poured a continual stream of bullets at us. I soon discovered a battle line 
of the enemy coming through the woods, about six hundred yards distant, 
evidently with a design to drive through and take possession of the road 
to Taneytown, directly in my rear. I immediately opened upon them with 
spherical case and canister, and, assisted by a section of Captain Phillips' 
(5th Mass.) battery, drove them «back into the woods. Their artillery, 
to which we paid no attention, had gotten our exact range, and gave us a 
warm greeting. 

We continued to shell the woods after their infantry retired, and upon 
visiting the spot the same night, about 9 o'clock, found many ret)els dead 



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DOW'S OFFICIAL REPORT. 331 

and wounded. It was evidently their intention, after capturing the 9th Mass. 
battery and company I, Fifth regular, to have charged right through our lines 
to the Taneytown road, isolating our left wing and dividing our army; but 
owing to the prompt and skillful action of Maj. Freeman McGilvery, in form- 
ing his second line as soon as he found the first line lost, their plan was foiled, 
for they no doubt thought the woods in our rear were filled with infantry in 
support of the batteries, when the fact is we had no support at all. At this 
crisis my orders from Major McGilvery were to hold my position at all haz- 
ards until he could reinforce the position and relieve me. It was about 7 
o'clock when the enemy retired, and I was in action altogether about one 
hour and a half. 

At 7:30 p. M. I was relieved by Major McGilvery, who placed Seele/s 
battery, under command of Lieutenant James, in my position, and I retired 
into the edge of the woods. Lieutenant Rogers, of this battery, in recon- 
noitering found the enemy had retired from the field in haste, and had not 
taken the captured guns with them nor even spiked them. He immediately 
reported the fact to me, and as many men as I could spare were sent under 
his charge to bring them off the field. With the aid of the Garibaldi Guard, 
of New York, he brought off, under a fire from the enemy's sharpshooters, 
four 3-inch rifled guns and two limbers belonging to company I, Fifth reg- 
ular, which we immediately limbered on our caissons and ran to the rear. 

I was then ordered by Major McGilvery to go to the front and see if any 
other public property was on the field, which order I obeyed, and discovered 
four light i2-pounder guns and a limber of the 9th Mass. battery. The rem- 
nant of the 150th N. Y. regiment, although tired and weary, took hold of the 
guns and ran them up to Lieutenant James* position, where I turned them 
over to Lieutenant James, not having force sufficient to bring them off the 
field. Lieutenant James brought the guns off, and, I understood, turned 
them over to the 9th Mass. battery (a). 

By order of Major McGilvery I reported to Generals Tyler and Hunt 
what we had done. General Hunt ordered me to go to the rear near the 
reserve train with the guns. I did so, and next morning had the satisfac- 
tion of returning the guns of company I, Fifth regular, to their command- 
ing officer. 

I am happy to state that in this action, although under the most severe 
artillery and sharpshooters' fire, I had only eight men wounded, not one 
killed. Ammunition expended, 244 rounds. 

After repairing damages and getting a new supply of animunition, I 
reported to Major McGilvery on the morning of the 3d, and was ordered 
mto position between the 2d Conn, battery and Ames' (ist N. Y) battery, 
supported by a brigade of the Second corps. I built earthworks in front 
of my gims. 

Nothing of importance occurred until about 11 o'clock, when, at a signal 
of one gun, the whole rebel line opened a most terrific fire upon our position. 
Case shot and shell filled the air. The men were ordered to cease firing and 
take refuge behind their earthworks. This fire lasted without much abate- 

(a) Only three of the guna of 9th Mass. battery were taken off by this detail.— 
See James' report, Rebellion Records, serial No. 48, page 580 ; also report of Colonel 
Ketcham, IfiOth N. T., ibid., pa^e 40e. 



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MAINE AT GETTT8BURG. 

ment about one hour and a half, when we discovered the enemy advancing 
under cover of the artillery. A light 12-pounder battery of four guns ran 
some four or five hundred yards in front of the enemy's line, so as to enfilade 
the batteries on our right. We opened with solid shot and shell upon this 
battery, and succeeded in dismounting one gun, disabling the second, and 
compelled the battery to leave the field minus one caisson and several horses. 

I deem it due to Major McGilvery to say that he was ever present, riding 
up and down the line in the thickest of the fire, encouraging the men by 
his words and dashing example — his horse receiving eight wounds, of which 
he has since died, the gallant Major himself receiving only a few scratches. 

The enemy fired mostly case shot and shell at our position, nearly all of 
which passed over our line of artillery and supports and exploded in the 
woods behind, covering the road with their fragments. Our loss this day 
was only five men wounded and five horses killed. 

Owing to an injunction from General Hunt not to reply to the enemy's 
fire, but save our ammunition, we expended only 139 rounds. In the two 
days* action we did not lose a gun or carriage, but reported for duty again 
as soon as our stock of ammunition was replenished. I was ably seconded 
by Lieutenant Rogers, to whom we owe much of our success. 

Where all did well it is useless to specify any certain individual among 
the non-commissioned officers and privates. 

I have the honor to be, Captain, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Edwin B. Dow, 
First Lieutenant, Commanding Sixth Maine Battery. 
Capt. C. H. Whittelsey, 

Assistant Adjutant' General, Artillery Reserve, 

— Rebellion Records, VoL xxvii., part /., Serial No, 43, page 8gj, 



PARTICIPANTS. 

Senior First Lieutenant, Edwin B. Dow, Portland, commanding the battery. 
Junior First Lieutenant, William H. Rogers, Stockton. 

SERGEANTS. 

Marshall N. McKusick, Baring, Jeremiah Gardiner, Portland, 

Joshua J. Seamons, Gary Plantation, Samuel Thurston, Portland, 

Joseph W. Burke, Lee, James A. Pray, Gardiner, 
Timothy Hegarty, Miramichi, N. B. 

CORPORALS. 

Wilson W. Sawtelle, Dexter, William S. Leavitt, New Limerick, 

Andrew J. Brown, St. George, Albert A. Fling, Gardiner, 

Edward R. Lamb, New Portland, John G. Deane, Portland, 

Thomas J. Daggett, Gary Plantation, Winslow Hutchings, Alexander, 

Edward L. Merrithew, Searsport, Joseph Winter, Carthage, 
John Cronan, Houlton. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, John Q., Hodgdon, Annis, John, Houlton, 

Appleby, George, Hodgdon, Appleby, Murray, Hodgdon, 

Bartlett, Henry D., Eustis, Bonnar, Thomas, Frederickton, N. B. 

Broderick, John, Houlton, Brown, Edward E., Brewer, 



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DOW'S BATTERY PARTICIPANTS 



333 



Brown, William G., Dixfield, 
Calkins, Ira, Hodgdon, 
Clarence, Felix, Houlton, 
Clement, Henry, Smithfield, 
Driscoll, Timothy, Rockland, 
Ellis, Luther, Waterville, 
Esancy, William H. H., Appleton, 
Finn, James, Biddeford, 
Gilpatrick, Lyman, Weston, 
Haskell, Harvey L., Dexter, 
He wins, Joseph T., Augusta, 
Horr, Henry J., Portland, 
Kelly, Daniel, Biddeford, 
Law, Norris M., Union, 
Libby, Elias D., Stockton, 
Lothrop, Stillman H., Carroll, 
McCue, Peter, Portland, 
Merrill, Joshua P., Cary Plantation, 
Moore, John W., Easton, 
Nelson, Joseph G., Hartland, 
O' Heron, Daniel, Houlton, 
Pattee, Albert M., Mercer, 
Perkins, Nathaniel, Chesterville, 
Proctor, Uriah, Eustis, 
Reed, Elias H., Dead River PI., 
Rich, Charles H., Smithfield, 
Riley, Thomas, Rockland, 
Russell, Asa, Amity, 
Seavey, Charles C, Meddybemps, 
Taylor, Samuel, China, 
Trefethen, Epps A., Portland, 
Wallis, Robert, Crawford, 
Welch, John W., Augusta, 
Wilds, Joseph, Biddeford, 
Woodbury, David L., Hartland, 



Bums, George, Searsmont, 
Chamt)ers, John, Presque Isle, 
Clarence, George, Houlton, 
Daggett, Benjamin F., Houlton, 
Dunton, Samuel F., Camden, 
Emery, George, Biddeford, 
Evans, Oscar W., Sidney, 
Foster, Sanders P., Monticello, 
Hanson, Alt)ert N., Saco, 
Herrick, Florin G., Hodgdon, 
Hinkley, Joseph D., Argyle, 
Jackson, Leroy, Camden, 
Lane, Orestes H., Carroll, 
Lermond, Ambrose L., Appleton, 
Littlefield, Edward, Biddeford, 
Maddocks, George, Warren, 
McKenzie Michael, Houlton, 
Metcalf, James, Talmadge, 
Mosher, Albert, Smithfield, 
Norton, Ervin C, Vinalhaven, 
Ome, William A., Friendship, 
Penley, Joseph A., Wayne, 
Proctor, Erastus, Appleton, 
Reed, Eben, Dead River Plantation, 
Reed, Henry, Houlton, 
Richardson, Henry, Belgrade, 
Robinson, Joel F., Sidney, 
Sawyer, Edward T., Danville, 
Smith, William G., Saco, 
Thomdike, Thomas W., Camden, 
Walden, James, Camden, 
Waters, Ruel W., Augusta, 
White, Charles L., Chesterville, 
Wiley, David M., Easton, 
Woodman, Marston, Searsport. 



Bugler, Henry H. Crosby, Augusta. 

Artificers and Blacksmiths: Jonas C. Spooner, Houlton, William 
H. Charles, Smithfield, Aaron P. Kinney, Houlton. Wagoner, Watson 
Andrews, Saco. 

Detached in Army: Amos Metcalf, Talmadge pi., hospital cook. 

Morning report for June 30, 1863: Present for duty, officers 2, men loi; 
total, 103. Absent, detached service, 2; absent sick, 13. Present and absent, 
3 officers, 116 men. 



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334 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

Sergeant Joseph W. Burke, wounded. 
Corporal William S. Leavitt, wounded slightly. 

PRIVATES. 

Annis, John, wounded slightly. Ehinton, Samuel F., wounded slightly. 

Ellis, Luther, wounded slightly. Jackson, Leroy, wounded slightly. 

Lothrop, Stillman H., wounded. Maddocks, George, wounded slightly. 

Proctor, Erastus, wounded. Reed, Elias H., wounded. 

Wiley, David M., wounded slightly. Woodbury, David L., w*d slightly. 
Woodman, Marston, wounded slightly. 

All those marked as *' wounded slightly ** returned to the battery soon 
after the battle. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF SIXTH MAINE BATTERY. 

CX>MPILED BY BREVET BRIG.-GEN. CHARLES HAMLIN. 

The Sixth battery, recruited principally in York, Waldo and 
Aroostook counties in the months of November and December, 
1861, was mustered into the United States service at Augusta, 
January 1, 1862. The battery was officered as follows : 

Freeman McGilvery, Stockton, Captain ; George H. Smith, 
Hodgdon, Edwin B. Dow, Portland, First Lieutenants ; Fred 
A. Morton, Augusta, William H. Rogers, Stockton, Second 
Lieutenants. 

The battery lay in camp at Augusta until March, when it 
received orders to proceed to Portland and occupy the barracks 
called Camp Berry. Orders were received March 30th for all 
the light batteries in Maine to report at Washington, D. C, 
and April Ist the six batteries took the cars for that city; 
arrived in Washington April 3d, and went into camp at East 
Capitol Hill. 

The Sixth battery remained in camp about a month, when 
it was ordered to march to Fort Buffalo and garrison that out- 
post. Fort Buffalo was a small redoubt, mounting four light 
guns, situate near the village' of Falls Church, Va., about seven 
miles from the Potomac. A portion of the company was armed 
with muskets, while the remainder acted as artillery-men. Mat- 
ters becoming quiet in the neighborhood of Washington the guns 



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• 4 . • ••« 



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DOW'S BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 335 

in the fort were sent to Fort Ramsay, and the Sixth battery was 
ordered to relieve the Fourth Maine battery at that post. 

A few days afterwards orders came to dismantle Fort Ram- 
say, which mounted several heavy guns en barbette and had a 
large stock of ammunition. After several days the fort was 
vacated and the battery ordered to occupy the village of Falls 
Church, Captain McGilvery being appointed commander of the 
post. At this time the rebel general " Stonewall " Jackson made 
his advance down the valley, driving General Banks into Mary- 
land, and great fears were entertained that an attack might be 
made on Washington. The Sixth battery held the extreme out- 
post and picketed as far south as Fairfax Court House. Com- 
municating with the headquarters at Arlington Heights by a 
system of signals. Captain McGilvery received very compli- 
mentary notices for his energy and watchfulness on this occasion. 
Shortly after, the battery was ordered to Washington to receive 
its proper armament. After fitting up a camp at East Capitol 
Hill it received its battery, which consisted of four light 
12-pound brass pieces (Napoleons) , and two 3-inch rifle guns 
(10-pounders), with one hundred and twenty horse-harnesses, 
ammunition and accoutrements complete. 

Before it was properly drilled the battery was ordered to 
report to General Banks at Hai-per's Ferry. It marched up 
the valley via Charlestown and Winchester to Cedar Creek, Va., 
where General Banks' army then lay, and remained at Cedar 
Creek until after the 4th of July, when the corps moved via 
Front Royal across the Blue Ridge to Little Washington, near 
Culpeper. It remained in camp at Little Washington nearly a 
month, during which time the battery was well drilled and per- 
fected for the field. 

About this time Jackson was reported to be advancing with 
a heavy force from Gordonsville towards Culpeper. The sep- 
arate corps or armies under Generals McDowell, Banks and 
Sigel were consolidated under the command of General Pope, 
and designated the Army of Virginia. General McDowell's 
corps lay at Culpeper ; General Banks was ordered near Cul- 
peper, and General Sigel remained at Sperryville. News having 
arrived that Jackson had crossed the Rapidan, thirty thousand 



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336 MAINE AT OETTTSBURO. 

strong, General Banks' corps, six thousand six hundred strong, 
was ordered to move forward and engage him. The morning 
of August 9th Banks' corps passed McDowell's and met the 
enemy strongly posted at Slaughter's (or Cedar) Mountain. The 
attack was made immediately, and after six hours of most ter- 
rific fighting, General Banks was forced to retire, he having 
received no aid from Generals McDowell or Sigel. The Fourth 
and Sixth Maine batteries were in Banks' corps and fought 
their maiden fight on that day. The Sixth was posted on the 
extreme left flank of the corps and repulsed a most determined 
attack made by the enemy, who, after repeated charges, was 
driven in confusion. 

The battery was attached to General Augur's division and 
was under a heavy fire of rebel artillery. The rebels hoped to 
disable and drive us from the field. After General Augur was 
wounded he sent word to Captain McGilvery, congratulating 
him and his battery on their gallant fight, and said the battery 
was the means of repelling the assaults on the left flank, and 
saved the division from being destroyed or taken prisoners. 
The last gun was brought off the field in the face of the enemy's 
infantry not fifty yards distant. 

Next day General Banks' corps occupied Culpeper, and 
General McDowell's corps watched Jackson. August 20th the 
retreat to the Rappahannock River began, and from that time 
until the 29th they marched and counter-marched, fought night 
and day, the men living on half rations and the horses on what 
they could pick up. 

The Sixth battery was engaged at Rappahannock Station, 
Sulphur Springs and Blackburn's Ford. At Catlett's Station 
orders were received detaching the Sixth battery from Banks' 
corps and ordering it to proceed by forced inarches and report 
to Major-General Hooker, who had just arrived at Manassas 
with the advance of the army of the Poton^w, and had fought 
and driven Jackson without any artillery. It reported, as 
ordered, on the morning of August 29th and fought at Second 
Bull Run all day, with its division, which was relieved about 
4 p. M. by General Kearny's division. 

At daylight on the 30th the army was re-formed, and as 



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DOVS BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 337 

Jackson had been reinforced during the night by General Long- 
street, our army awaited the rebel attack. At 2 o'clock p. m. 
it was made by a heavy column falling upon our left flank ; at 
the same time an attack was made along our whole front. So 
sudden and overwhelming was this assault of the enemy that 
our whole line gave way before it, losing whole batteries, 
almost without firing a shot. 

The Sixth Maine was the centre of three batteries. That 
on the right was captured entire and the one on the left got 
away. The enemy charged the Sixth on the right and front. 
It fought them until its support had left and all the horses of 
two guns had been killed. Captain McGilvery finding it use- 
less to maintain the unequal contest, and the enemy gaining 
his rear, gave orders to fall back, which was done, leaving the 
two disabled guns on the field. 

Captain McGilvery made a stand at the brick (hospital) 
building and repulsed the enemy with great loss, amply paying 
for the loss of his two guns. The repulse at the hospitid 
enabled us to get off many of the wounded. 

The battery was ordered to fall back towards Centreville 
by General Heintzelman, as the army was in full retreat. It 
arrived at Centreville Heights the next morning and was ordered 
into position on the heights covering the Bull Run road. Sep- 
tember 1st the army evacuated Centreville and fell back upon 
the defenses of Washington. At night the enemy made a 
grand attack upon the right of our army with the expectation 
of cutting off the column, but after a desperate resistance, 
wherein we lost two of our best generals, Kearny and Stevens, 
they withdrew. The Sixth battery was with Keamy*s division 
but was not called into action. Next morning it continued its 
movement and arrived at Fort Lyon, near Alexandria, the same 
night. The battery remained at Fort Lyon ten days, refitting, 
and moved with its division, via Rockville, to Frederick, Md. 
General McClellan then assumed command of the combined 
armies of the Potomac and Virginia. 

The enemy were reported crossing the Potomac at Shep- 
herdstown and moving on Frederick City. September 7th the 
army commenced its movement to encounter the enemy, and 



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338 MAINE AT OETTYSBURQ. 

on the 14th he was found strongly posted at South Mountain 
and Crampton's Gap. The attack was ordered and both posi- 
tions were carried by bayonet charges, the enemy falling back 
on the main body, which took position on the south side of 
Antietam Creek. On the 17th our army moved into position 
and conunenced a furious attack on the rebel left and centre, 
commencing the battle of Antietam. The Fourth and Sixth 
Maine batteries were posted on an eminence covering the stone 
bridge over which Hooker's corps had passed in the morning 
and Franklin's corps later in the day; but neither of these 
batteries was engaged. On the morning of the 19th the rebel 
army had entirely disappeared from our front, and our forward 
movement commenced. Finding General Lee had recrossed 
into Virginia, General McClellan ordered our army into camp. 
Two corps encamped around Harper's Ferry, Va., and the 
remainder in Pleasant Valley, Md., where McClellan's head- 
quarters were. The Sixth battery encamped at Sandy Hook, 
Md. Upon the reorganization of the army. Banks' old corps 
was incorporated into the Twelfth army corps, and General 
Slocum assigned to the command. General Geary commanded 
the Second division, to which the Sixth battery was attached. 
During its stay at Sandy Hook it received a number of recruits 
and a full section of guns, horses, harnesses and material to 
replace those lost at Manassas. 

When the army made its flank movement to Falmouth the 
Twelfth corps was left at Harper's Ferry to guard the valley. 
General Burnside had succeeded McClellan in conunand, and 
had fought the battle of Fredericksburg. 

The Sixth battery was ordered to cross the Potomac and 
take position on Bolivar Heights, covering the Winchester pike. 
The division made many reconnaissances up the valley as 
far as Berryville and Winchester, but developed no enemy. 
December 10th the Twelfth corps moved to guard the line of 
conmiunications from Alexandria to Falmouth. The First divis- 
ion moved to Stafford Court House, the Second division halt- 
ing at Fairfax Station. The First brigade of the Second division, 
with one section of the Sixth battery, was ordered to proceed 
to Dumfries and hold that important post. On the morning of 



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DOW^S BATTEBT HI8TOBI0AL SKETCH. 339 

December 27th the enemy suddenly appeared before the town 
with three thousand cavalry and six pieces of artillery, under 
Stuart, and demanded the surrender of the post. Colonel Candy 
of the 66th Ohio, commanding the brigade, refused, and imme- 
diately made dispositions for defense. After a severe fight of 
three hours the enemy were compelled to withdraw. Colonel 
Candy spoke very highly of the firing of the section of the Sixth 
which prevented the cavalry from forming for a charge. Hearing 
the rapid artillery fire. Lieutenant Dow was permitted to take 
the balance of the battery to Lieutenant Rogers' assistance, and 
after a severe march through mud axle deep he arrived at Dum- 
fries at dark and joined his comrade. The division shortly after 
moved to Acquia Creek, which was our base of supplies, leav- 
ing the First brigade and the Sixth battery at Dumfries, which 
immediately made preparations to resist any attack, and built 
winter quarters. 

Lieutenant Smith, who had been absent on recruiting ser- 
vice since the battery was at Cedar Creek, returned to the bat- 
tery here, but resigned and left for home. Lieutenant Morton 
resigned while the battery lay at Sandy Hook, and Sergt. Orville 
W. Merrill, of Portland, was commissioned in his place. Lieu- 
tenant Merrill resigned while in camp at Dumfries, and Ser- 
geants William H. Gallison, of Portland, and Edward Wiggin, 
Jr. , of Hodgdon, were commissioned Second Lieutenants. Cap- 
tain McGilvery had been promoted to Major of Maine mounted 
artillery during his absence, and the command of the battery 
devolved upon Lieutenant Dow. 

The battery remained at Dumfries until May 27th, when it 
was ordered to report to the reserve artillery camp at Falmouth, 
where it was again reduced to a four-gun battery, on account 
of the diminished number of men. Lieutenants Gallison and 
Wiggin were mustered out by order of the War Department 
on account of this reduction. June 13th the army commenced 
its movement towards the Potomac. On the 15th the battery, 
which was attached to the Fourth brigade of reserve artillery, 
arrived at Fairfax Court House and remained till the 24th, when 
it marched to the Potomac, crossed at Edwards Ferry, and 
encamped until the 28th, then marched via Frederick and Taney- 



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340 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

town to Gettysburg, arriving there early on July 2d. In the 
memorable contest at Gettysburg the Sixth Maine was kept in 
reserve until 6 p. m., July 2d, when the crisis of the battle had 
arrived. Our artillery, posted on the road leading from Little 
Round Top to the Peach Orchard and along the Emmitsburg 
road northerly, had been charged by the rebel infantry and 
forced to give way. Many pieces were captured, while others 
were limbered up and went to the rear in haste and confusion. 
Our infantry fell back to the ridge running parallel with the 
Taneytown road, connecting Little Round Top with Cemetery 
Hill. The Sixth battery was posted near a road that led from 
the rebel position through our lines. The rebel infantry halted 
to re-form, and their batteries took up new positions. At half 
past six or later the final attack waa made, and the enemy endeav- 
ored to pierce our lines by the road near which the battery was 
posted. For an hour the contest raged with great fury, but the 
Sixth held the position. Major McGilvery, who, after the 
wounding of Captain Randolph, commanded all the artillery 
along that part of the line, started after another battery, as the 
men of the Sixth were hard pressed and their ammunition was 
getting short, and just as the enemy was completely repulsed 
at all points, he brought up Seeley's battery K, 4th U. S. artil- 
lery. This battery had been engaged during the afternoon, 
with the Second division of the Third corps at the Emmitsburg 
road, near the Smith house, and Lieutenant Seeley having been 
wounded and carried to the rear, left the battery in conmiand of 
Lieutenant James, who brought the battery off the field when 
the division fell back to the main line. Battery K suffered 
severely, and went into position under Major McGilvery with 
only four guns, one section having been sent to the rear for 
want of men to handle it. Lieutenant James during the night, 
with the assistance of the Sixth Maine battery and an infantry 
detail, succeeded in bringing from the field several guns which 
had been abandoned by our troops during the day. 

The Sixth battery was highly complimented by Major McGil- 
very and Generals Tyler and Hunt, respectively chiefs of the 
reserve and army artillery, for its gallantry on this occasion. 
On July 8d it was placed in McGilvery's line of batteries on 



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I 
DOW'S BATTERY HISTORICAL SKETCH. 341 

the left centre, supported by the First division, Second corps, 
and the Third corps. The battery participated in the terrific 
artillery duel of that morning, and assisted in the repulse of 
Longstreet's assault on our lines, a little south of Cemetery Hill, 
which decided the fate of the battle and compelled the rebel 
army to recross the Poton^w. 

Marching thence to Hagerstown they were ordered to report 
to Major-General Howard, commanding the Eleventh corps, 
in his advance on Williamsport ; but without being engaged 
rejoined the artillery reserve at Berlin. On the 18th they 
crossed the Poton^w into Virginia, and proceeded by easy 
inarches to Warrenton, arriving on the 25th, remaining till 
August Ist, then marched to Warrenton Junction and camped. 
They broke camp at the Junction September 16th and marched 
to Culpeper, where they lay until October 12th, when they 
commenced their retreat to Centreville Heights, subsequently 
advancing to Brandy Station. During the retreat the battery 
was ordered to the First corps, and participated in the skir- 
mishes in which that corps was engaged as rear guard ; and in 
this retreat the battle of Bristoe Station was fought and won 
by the Second corps. From the 1st of November till the 26th 
the battery was posted by sections along the railroad, supported 
by infantry, to guard the communications with Washington. 
November 26th it moved towards the Rapidan, and crossed two 
days later, finding the enemy strongly posted at Mine Run. 
December 1st they recrossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, and 
marched towards Brandy Station, arriving on the 3d. On the 
8th it was ordered to the reserve again, and went into winter 
quarters. Lieutenant Dow was commissioned Captain and mus- 
tered in September 1, 1863, having been Lieutenant command- 
ing since December 10, 1862. Large and convenient log houses 
were built for officers and men and stables for the horses. 
During the winter the battery was recruited to the maxi- 
mum standard. 

Lieutenant Wiggin had been re-commissioned a First Lieu- 
tenant, and Sergeants Samuel Thurston and Marshall N. McKu- 
sick were commissioned Second Lieutenants. The recruits were 
being drilled constantly and the battery made efficient. In 



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342 MAINE AT GBTTT8BUEG. 

April, 1864, upon the reorganization of the army, the battery 
was assigned to the Second corps, General Hancock. A very 
high compliment was given the battery by Colonel Burton, 
commanding the reserve, upon its high state of discipline 
and efficiency. 

May 3d the battery, under Captain Dow, left camp near 
Stevensburg at 8 p. m. and marched towards the Rapidan; 
crossed next morning and bivouacked at night on the Chancel- 
lorsville battle ground. On the 5th it broke camp at daylight 
and took up the line of march towards Spotsylvania Court 
House. Arriving at Todd's Tavern it was announced that the 
enemy was advancing rapidly against us. Hancock's corps 
marched back by the Brock road to connect with another corps. 
The enemy, assaulting, had pitched the battle in the woods 
where but little artillery could be used. The Second corps line 
was formed on the Brock road, extending on either side of the 
Plank road. The battery was posted on the Brock road with 
the right section on the Plank road. The 1st N. H. battery was 
posted on the left of the Sixth Maine. A line of works had 
been thrown up hastily in our front, and a second line was 
formed, behind which the battery was posted, out of sight of 
the enemy. About 4 o'clock the armies met, and most terrific 
infantry fighting ensued, until darkness interposed. 

The battle ground was truly a ** wilderness." At 5 a. m. , May 
6th, the battle again opened fiercely, and our troops had driven 
the enemy two miles at 10 o'clock, but were in turn forced to 
retire to their own works. At 4 o'clock p. m. Longstreet made 
his grand attack upon our left and at the junction of the Brock 
and Plank roads. He advanced boldly against our hastily con- 
structed line of breastworks, where he was checked. But the 
dry logs of which the works were built caught fire, and our 
troops at that point were forced to retire to our second line. 

The rebel line now quickly advanced, little dreaming of what 
was in store for them. On they came with banners flying, con- 
fident of victory until within two hundred yards of their goal, 
when the Sixth Maine and the 1st N. H. batteries opened upon 
them with double-shotted canister, making great gaps in their 
lines and causing the greatest consternation. In vain they tried 



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DOW'S BATTERY HI8TORIGAL SKETCH. 343 

to re-form and advance. General, field and line officers fell 
beside their men and colors, while the artillery and infantry 
poured volley after volley into the broken rebel ranks. They 
could not stand such fire and, amid a storm of shot and shell, 
they sought their own lines, broken and discomfited. During 
the action, which lasted half an hour, our breastwork caught 
fire, but the men stood to their guns till they were blistered, 
and had to be sent to hospital after the action was over. The 
battery suffered a loss here of one officer and seven men 
wounded. "During this attack Dow's battery. Sixth Maine, 
rendered effective service, one section on the Plank road, the 
other near Mott's left, in the second line. It was served with 
great steadiness and gallantry " (a) . Night coming on the men 
lay beside their guns, and nejrt day remained in position repair- 
ing damages. 

May 8th, at daylight, they resumed the line of march to 
Todd's Tavern, near which our flankers were furiously attacked. 
The battery was ordered into position north of the tavern, 
where it remained until the morning of the 9th, when it relieved 
the 10th Mass. battery south of the tavern, covering the roads. 
Two guns were detached for picket duty with Colonel Kitch- 
ings' brigade, about four hundred yards out on the road. May 
10th it resumed its line of march for Spotsylvania, went into 
position near the Deserted House, and opened fire, covering the 
advance of the Fourth division. At night it was ordered to 
report to General Gibbon, Second division, on the right. It 
went into position till night of the 11th, when they marched 
and bivouacked near the Fifth corps hospital. On the morn- 
ing of the 12th it marched and parked in rear of the Deserted 
House. At 4 a. m. the grand salient attack was made by the 
Second corps, in which twenty pieces of artillery, two general 
officers and a whole division of Confederates were captured. 
The Sixth battery hauled off six rebel guns. At 11 a. m. it 
advanced to the Landrum house and opened fire on the salient 
of the rebel line. Lieutenant Thurston was wounded by a rifle 
shot. During the night of the 13th the enemy retired, and the 
battery was ordered forward and posted at the captured works 

(a) Virginia Campaign of '64 and '6S, page 48, by Gen. A. A. Humphreys. 



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344 MAINE AT GBTTTSBURG. 

of the enemy. Leaving this position on the morning of the 
15th it parked on the Fredericksburg road. 

On the 17th it turned in one section of guns under a gen- 
eral order reducing all six-gun batteries to four guns. Several 
changes of positions were made and on the 20th marched with 
Tyler's Heavy Artillery (now infantry) division, via Bowling 
Green, around the right ftank of the Confederate army, crossed 
the Mattapony River and formed in battery near Poplar Tav- 
ern. It was in position till May 23d, when it approached the 
North Anna River and went into battery, covering Bimey's 
attack on the redoubt and works at Taylor's bridge, which were 
handsomely carried. On the night of the 24th it crossed North 
Anna River and relieved Clark's N. J. battery near Doswell's 
house. At 6 p. m. of the 25th it opened fire on the enemy's 
breastworks, driving them out, Smjrth's brigade charging and 
capturing the works. At 9 p. m. it withdrew, recrossed the 
river and went into battery covering the pontoon bridge, and 
at 11 A. M. on the 27th moved towards the Pamunkey River 
and crossed, and was in position at different points on the line 
till night of June 1st, when it moved to Cold Harbor. 

On June 3d the Second corps made a charge upon the 
enemy's works and the battery took an advanced position, one 
section going with an intrenching detachment/ and received a 
counter-charge by the enemy after our own had failed. The 
enemy's artillery opened upon the position with a large number 
of guns, to which the Sixth responded. When their infantry 
advanced, the Sixth poured into it shell, case and solid shot, 
which, with the stout resistance made by Smyth's and Owen's 
brigades, hurled back the rebel line. After this, desultory 
firing occurred until the 11th, when the battery was withdrawn 
from the front and next day marched with the corps for Peters- 
burg. On the 16th and 17th of June Dow engaged the enemy 
and drove him out of position at the Hare house, and on the 
18th took up position farther in advance on the front line at 
the Hare house. Here he had a sharp duel with the enemy's 
intrenched battery, at short range, to assist in a desperate 
charge of our troops upon the enemy's intrenchments. In 
these operations the battery sustained a large loss in killed and 



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DOW'S BATTERY HI8TOBIGAL SKETCH. 345 

wounded. The battery accompanied Mott's (formerly Bir- 
ney's) division on its first movement north of the James in 
July, and again in the second movement, August 14th, when one 
section engaged a Confederate battery ; these engagements were 
termed Deep Bottom. On its return to Petersburg the battery 
was placed in Fort Davis on the Jerusalem Plank road, and took 
its place as one of the siege batteries. It remained in Fort Davis, 
frequently engaging the enemy, lyitil October 22d, when it was 
removed to Fort McGilvery (named in honor of its former com- 
mander) . Fort McGilvery overlooks the city of Petersburg and 
is situate about six hundred yards from the rebel forts, near the 
Appomattox River. The battery was engaged almost daily with 
the rebel batteries opposite, and established a reputation for the 
accuracy of its practice. 

Lieutenant Wiggin resigned on the 1st of May, and Sergt. 
John G. Deane of Portland was promoted Second Lieutenant (a) . 

The battery's original term of service expired December 
31, 1864, but it re-enlisted for three years. On the 29th of 
November Captain Dow was discharged for disability and 
Lieut. William H. Rogers was shortly after promoted to the 
Captaincy. Sergt. Joseph W. Burke of Lee was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant, November 28th, and afterwards promoted 
to First Lieutenant. 

Captain McGilvery, after his promotion to field oflScer, was 
for some time in command of the First brigade of artillery 
reserve with the army of the Potomac. He was a daring and 
successful officer and distinguished himself at the battle of 
Gettysburg. At the time of his death, September 7, 1864, he 
had conmiand of a hundred guns. Being wounded in one of 
his fingers at Deep Bottom, and it being necessary to amputate 
it, chloroform was administered to him for the purpose. He 
died during the operation. 

The battery was filled and fully equipped, and under its new 
Captain (Rogers) bade fair to add new laurels to those already 
attained under his two predecessors. During the winter of 
1864-5 it kept one section in comfortable quarters near Meade's 

(a) Darinff the olosing portion of the battery's service Lieut. Deane served as act- 
ing aide^e-camp upon the staff of General Hazard, Chief of Artillery. Second corps. 



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346 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Station on the line of the railroad. The right section, under 
Lieut. Samuel Thurston, was stationed in the right front of 
Fort McGilvery, the left section, under Lieutenant Burke, was 
allotted to "Battery No. 9," a dug-out redoubt on low ground 
in near proximity to the Confederate Spring Hill battery, and 
exposed to incessant picket firing. Both of these positions were 
under the enemy's guns, many of the latter well posted across the 
river. Daily artillery practice occurred with astonishingly few 
casualties. In the preliminary movements for the 1865 spring 
campaign the battery was withdrawn from its winter position, 
detached from the Second corps, and placed where need required. 
In the final assault and capture of the Petersburg works, April 
2, 1865, it was in position in Fort Sampson on the Fifth corps 
line. Upon the evacuation of Petersburg the battery joined the 
artillery reserve at City Point. May 3d it commenced its home- 
ward march, by way of Richmond, Bowling Green and Stafford, 
to Alexandria, Va., where it remained until transportation to 
Maine was furnished. Arriving at Augusta, Me., June 7th, it 
was mustered out of service June 17, 1865. 

• There were present at the muster-out 174 men and officers. 
It bore upon its rolls during its term of service 314 names, 45 
of them, who were original members, had served more than 
three and a half years. While in service 33 were killed or 
died of wounds or disease. There were sent to the battery 
while in the field 163 recruits. 

The following is a list of the principal battles and engage- 
ments of the Sixth battery as announced in general orders by the 
War Department : Cedar Mountain^ Second BuU Run, Chan- 
tillyy Antietanij Gettysburg, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spotsyl- 
vania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and Deep Bottom. 

ROSTER. 

Captains. 

Freeman McGilvery, Feb. 3, 1862; commissioned Major First Regt. Maine 
Mounted Art'y, Feb. 5, 1863; Lieut. -Colonel, June 23, 1863; Colonel, Sept i, 
1863, — not mustered to last two grades. Died Sept. 2, 1864, from effects of 
wounds in action of Deep Bottom, Va. 

Edwin B. Dow, Sept. i, 1863, promoted from First Lieutenant; dis- 



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ROSTER OF SIXTH MAINE BATTERY. 347 

charged Nov. 29, 1864; brevet Major of Vol. Art'y, for gallant and merito- 
rious conduct at battle of Gettysburg. 

William H. Rogers, Dec. 7, 1864; mustered out with battery June 17, 
1865; originally Second Lieut, pro. to First Lieut. Mar. 2, 1863, and to Capt 

First Lieutenants. 

George H. Smith, Jan. 16, 1862; resigned Feb. 17, 1863. 

Edward Wiggin, Jr., Mar. i, 1864, discharged May 3, 1864; originaUy 
Private, promoted to Sergt., promoted to Second Lieut., promoted to First 
Lieutenant. 

Samuel Thurston, July 12, 1864, mustered out with battery June 17, 1865; 
originally Private, promoted to Sergt, promoted to Second Lieut., Mar. i, 
1864, promoted to First Lieutenant. 

Joseph W. Burke, Jan. 11, 1865, mustered out with battery June 17, 1865; 
originally Private, promoted to Sergt., promoted to Second Lieut., Nov. 28, 
1864, promoted to First Lieutenant. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Frederick A. Morton, Feb. i, 1862; resigned Sept 24, 1862. 

Orville W. Merrill, commissioned Oct i, 1862; resigned Jan. 29, 1863; 
originally Sergeant. 

William H. Gallison, Mar. 2, 1863; resigned June, 1863; originally Sergt, 
promoted to First Sergt, promoted to Second Lieutenant. 

Marshall N. McKusick, Mar. i, 1864; discharged Nov. 17, 1864; origi- 
nally Corp'l, promoted to Sergt, promoted to Second Lieutenant. 

John G. Deane, June 28, 1864, mustered out with battery June 17, 1865; 
originally Private, promoted to Sergt., promoted to Second Lieutenant. 

Elias D. Libby, Jan. 11, 1865, mustered out with battery June 17, 1865; 
promoted from Private. 



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348 MAINE AT GETTT8BURG. 



MONUMENT 

OF 

COMPANY D, MAINE VOLUNTEERS, 

SECOND UNITED STATES SHARPSHOOTERS. 

The monument of company D, Second U. S. Sharpshooters, is placed 
on a cross-road leading easterly out of the Emmitsbui^ road, towards Big 
Round Top, and to the Slyder buildings. Its position is about five hundred 
yards from the Emmitsbui^ road, and about seven hundred yards south- 
westerly from Devil's Den. It is a polished die of white granite, resting 
upon a rough, white granite base. 

Admeasurements: Base, 3 feet 4 inches by 3 feet 4 inches by i foot 6 
inches; die, 2 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 3 inches. Total height, 
4 feet 9 inches. 

The inscription is: — 

Company D, 

Maine Volunteers, 

2nd U. S. Sharpshooters. 

July 2, 1863. 

Killed 1. 

Wounded 5. 

Missing 5. 



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COMPANY D, SECOND U. S. SHARPSHOOTERS, 

SECOND BRIOADEy FIRST DIVISION, THIRD ARMY CORPS, 
AT THX BATTLB OF OBTTT8BUSO. 



COMPANY D, of the Second United States Sharpshooters, 
of Ward's brigade, was composed of Maine soldiers, vol- 
unteers from Rockland and various towns. Captain Jacob 
McClure, of Rockland, commanded the company at Grettysburg. 
The two regiments of Sharpshooters in Ward's brigade were the 
best known regiments in the army. Recruited from picked 
men from different states, they were enlisted like regulars for 
the reason that no single state could furnish the material for a 
regiment of such fine marksmen. No recruit was eligible who 
could not make ten consecutive shots whose aggregate distance 
from the centre of the target would " string " less than fifty- 
inches, an average of less than five inches for each shot ; the 
distance being six hundred feet at a rest, or three hundred feet 
off hand. Many of the men could at that distance put the shots 
inside the bull's eye. The class of men were on a high grade 
for physical qualifications and intelligence (a) . 

On the morning of July 2d, prior to the occupation of Little 
Round Top by our lines, the regiment was ordered (b) to take 
position near the northern base of that eminence, on the pro- 
longation eastward of the cross-road which borders the Peach 
Orchard, to cover the valley of Devil's Den ; and in the dispo- 
sition of the several companies Captain McClure and his com- 
pany were posted in the valley, or ravine as it seemed to 
them. This position was hold until about 2 p. m., when the 
regiment was ordered to advance southwesterly towards the 
Emmitsburg road. It moved through the woods to the south 
of Devil's Den and the Wheatfield, advancing until it reached 
another cross-road which leads to the Emmitsburg road. The 

(a) Fox's " Regimental Loesee in the Civil War." 

(b) See official report of Lieat.-Col. H. R. Stooffhton, oommandinff the regiment, 

P09t. 



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350 IfAINE AT OETTTSBUBO. 

right of the reghnent stopped upon this road, company D being 
the right company of the regiment ; then the left of the regi- 
ment wheeled up to be more nearly parallel with the Emmits- 
burg road. Company D did not advance far beyond a house 
known then as the Slyder house. Getting into a general line 
conforming to the natural aspect of the country, the men rested 
comfortably for nearly two hours. There were no skirmishers 
or pickets or Union troops connecting on either flank of the 
Sharpshooters. Ward threw forward skirmishers from the 20th 
Ind. and 99th Penn. regiments when he had established his 
line of battle ; these did not go out so far as company D, but 
were ordered to support the Sharpshooters. The result of this 
disposition of troops was that, when Robertson advanced, he took 
the skirmish lines in broken flanks, and they had to retire to the 
general line of battle. Nor could they in any event have done 
much to restrain the onward rush of heavy lines of battle. 

Hood's division was at this time moving southerly, at the 
west of the Enunitsburg road and gradually approaching it, to 
get beyond and to strike the Union left ; and the Sharpshooters 
were sent out to watch that approach to our lines, and if the 
enemy approached, to skirmish with him and retard his advance. 
After a preliminary engagement of short duration with the 
enemy's skirmishers, or his first line of battle in rather open 
order, the heavy Confederate battle lines appeared. Hood's 
men were advancing towards Little Round Top and the hill of 
Devil's Den. This line covered the entire front and flank of the 
Sharpshooters ; but the latter nevertheless assailed it valiantly. 
Their fire was so severe that one Confederate regiment broke 
three times before it would advance. When Hood's line was 
within one hundred yards, and when their skirmishers were 
pressing in on the right flank of the Sharpshooters, the latter 
retired, although they still kept up a vigorous fire upon the 
Confederates. A portion of the company retiring, as the lines 
of the enemy swiftly advanced, found themselves at the south 
end of Devil's Den ridge, and made a stand behind the fences 
and bowlders of that wild spot, falling in with the skirmishers 
of the Fourth Maine, whence they all poured an annoying fire 
into the flanks of Hood's line, as his men essayed to carry these 
natural defenses. This interruption in the movement caused 



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MAJOR STOUGHTON'S OFFICIAL REPORT. 351 

the separation of the enemy's attack into two separate parts and 
places. The larger portion of the Second Sharpshooters fell 
back before Hood's troops, as they advanced across Plum Run 
valley, and took every advantage afforded by the nature of the 
ground to hinder and break the force of the attack, leading a 
portion of Law's brigade to follow them well up towards the 
summit of Big Bound Top. It was a scattered regiment, but 
the men were trained for just such emergencies, and every man 
could fight his own battle. 

When Benning made his assault, about 5 :30 p. m., upon 
Devil's Den he took our skirmishers in flank and cut off their 
retreat to the main line, thus capturing many of the Fourth 
Maine skirmishers and some of company D with them. 

On July 3d the regiment was on the line immediately in rear 
of Stannard's brigade of the First corps ; a squad volunteered 
to go out, and they silenced some advanced artillery of the 
enemy ; otherwise it was not engaged. July 4th it was sent 
out westerly of the Emmitsburg road, in front of the Union 
centre, as a picket or skirmish line, and came into close contact 
with the pickets of the enemy, who were posted in a wood. A 
sharp fire was kept up all day, with quite a loss to the regiment. 
Company D had men not over twenty paces from the Confeder- 
ates. It lost First Sergeant Gray, instantly killed, and another 
man wounded ; the total loss of the company in the three days 
being eleven out of twenty-seven, including Captain McClure 
wounded. As the total loss of the regiment was forty-one, it 
will be seen that company D sustained a large percentage of it. 

OFFICIAL EEPOET OF MAJ. HOMER R. STOUGHTON. 

H'dqrs Second Regiment U. S. Sharpshooters, July 27, 1863. 

Captain: I have the honor to report the operations of the Second U. S. 
Sharpshooters at Gettysburg, Pa., as follows: — 

On the morning of July 2d I was placed in line on the extreme left of the 
Third corps, remaining there for nearly one hour, when the Colonel com- 
manding instructed me to place my command in a position to cover a ravine 
near Sugar Loaf Hill [Little Round Top], which I did by putting company H 
on the brow of the hill, with vedettes overlooking the ravine, and company 
D in the ravine near the woods, to watch the enemy's movements in that 
direction. Companies A, £, G and C formed a line perpendicular to the 
cross-road that intersects with the Emmitsburg pike. Companies B and F 
I held in reserve. 



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352 MAINE AT GETTTSBURG. 

I remained in this position until about 2 p. m., when General Ward 
directed that I should deploy my regiment across the ravine and through the 
woods on the right, and advance. I moved forward to a brook [Plum Run] 
some two hundred yards beyond a second cross-road, running perpendicular 
to the Emmitsburg pike, and intersecting with it in front of Sugar Loaf Hill. 
I sent forward scouts to reconnoiter the ground. I then rode out perhaps 
the distance of half a mile, and discovered the enemy's skirmishers advancing 
on my right, which, being unsupported by any connection with skirmishers on 
my right, I was compelled to withdraw to protect my flank. In this position 
we had but little time to wait The enemy's skirmishers advanced to the top 
of the hill in our front, and immediately after they placed a battery directly 
in our front, and being too far for our range, I sent forward a few men under 
cover of woods on the left, and silenced one piece nearest us. 

The enemy then advanced a line of battle covering our entire front and 
flank. While they were advancing, the Second regiment did splendid execu- 
tion, killing and wounding a great many. One regiment broke three times 
and rallied, before it would advance. I held my position until their line of 
battle was within one hundred yards of me and their skirmishers were push- 
ing my right flank, when I ordered my men to fall back, firing as they retired. 
My left wing retreated up the hill and allowed the enemy to pass up the ravine, 
when they poured a destructive fire into his flank and rear. 

Here Adjutant Norton, with about a dozen men, captured and sent to the 
rear twenty-two prisoners. Special mention should be made of this officer 
for his coolness and bravery during this day's engagement. 

The right wing fell back gradually until they mingled with the regiments 
composing the Second brigade, and remained till night, when the brigade 
was relieved. 

In this day's action were wounded Captains E. T. Rowell (acting Major), 
J. McClure and A. Buxton. Our loss was twenty-eight, killed, wounded and 
missing. Among the missing was Lieut D. B. Pettijohn, company A. 

On the 3d instant the Second regiment was not engaged, with the excep- 
tion of about a dozen volunteers, who went out to the front of the breastworks 
of the First army corps to silence one of the enemy's guns, which was accom- 
plished, losing one killed and one wounded. 

On the 4th instant I was ordered to move forward to the Enmiitsburg 
pike, a few hundred yards to the left of the cemetery, and to deploy four com- 
panies to skirmish through the field to the woods in front The enemy was 
driven back to his earthworks, about one hundred and fifty or two hundred 
yards from his first position. We held this position through the day, under 
a sharp fire from his sharpshooters. 

The regiment sustained a loss this day of three killed and eight wounded. 
Among the wounded was Lieutenant Law, company E. 

At 7:30 p. M. I was relieved by a New Jersey regiment, of the Sixth corps, 
and rejoined the brigade. 

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant, 

HoMBR R. Stoughton, 
Major^ Commanding Second U, S, Sharpshooters, 
Capt. John M. Coonev, 

A, A, <7., Second Brigade^ First Division^ Third Am^ Corps, 

— Rebellion Records^ Series /, VoL xxvii,^page $18, 



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COMPANY D PARTICIPANTS AND CASUALTIES. 353 



PARTICIPANTS. 

Captain, Jacob McClure, Rockland. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Josiah Gray, Prentiss, 

Stephen C. Barker, Island Falls, John E. Wade, Rockland, 

Edgar Crockett, Rockland, James M. Matthews, Rockland 

CORPORALS. 

George H. Coffin, Cherry field, George U. Leighton, Jonesport, 

Argyl D. Morse, Rockland, John H. Rounds, Portland, 

Richard C. Boynton, Jefferson. 

PRIVATES. 

Allen, John B., Marshfield, Bradbury, James C, Burlington, 

Bragg, Barzillai E., Rockland, Brown, Henry, Rockland, 

Dunbar, Oscar, Cherryfield, Emerson, Stillman M., Addison, 

Jameson, John J., Rockland, Ladd, Francis W., Vienna, 

Lindsay, Edward, Rockland, McLain, Simon, Lowell, 

Morey, Albion, Machias, Pendleton, James N., Rockland, 

Salley, James F., Madison, Sullivan, John, Addison, 

Wentworth, Charles O., Rockland, Young, William H., Sidney. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal Luther G. Davis, 
Cherryfield, pioneer corps at brig, h'dqrs. Privates, Albert Bickford, Carra- 
tunk Plantation, amb. corps; John M. Hussey, China, regt*l teamster; Wilson 
R. Woodward, Bangor, regt'l quarterm*r dept.; William A. McFarland, 
Cherryfield, Charles S. White, Greenbush, amb. corps; John M. Wilson, 
Rockland, teamster div. h'dqrs. 



REVISED REPORT OF CASUALTIES. 

Captain Jacob McClure, wounded, July 2. 
First Sergeant Josiah Gray, killed, July 4. 
Sergeant John E. Wade, wounded, July 2. 

corporals. 
Argyl D. Morse, prisoner, July 2. 
John H. Rounds, prisoner, July 2. 
Richard C. Boynton, prisoner, July 2. 

privates. 
Allen, John B., wounded, July 2. 
Bradbury, James C, wounded, July 2. 
Ladd, Francis W., prisoner, July 2. 
Pendleton, James N., wounded, July 4. 
Wentworth, Charles O., reported missing; discharged Sept 25. 

The "prisoners *' were reported at the time as missing, and so appear 
upon the monument. 



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354 MAINE AT OETTTSBUBO. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

COMPILED BY THE EDITORS. 

This company was raised in accordance with the request in 
September, 1861, from the Secretary of War to the Governor 
of Maine, to have raised a company of Rifle Sharpshooters, 
selected from the best rifle shots in the state. James D. Fessen- 
den, of Portland, the son of Senator William Pitt Fessenden, 
was appointed by the Governor to superintend the formation 
of the company, to consist of three conmiissioned officers and 
ninety-seven enlisted men, to be mustered into United States 
service for three years, or during the war. Fessenden secured 
the co-operation of Lieuts. Jacob McClure at Rockland, Silas 
C. Barker at Augusta, and R. R. Park of the Yeazie Rifles at 
Bangor, to supervise the work. 

The required number of marksmen having volunteered from 
different sections of the state, the equipment and organization 
of the company was completed at Augusta, Me., November 8, 
1861. The original organization of the company was as follows : 

Captain, James D. Fessenden, Portland. 
First Lieutenant, Jacob McClure, Rockland. 
Second Lieutenant, Silas C. Barker, Augusta. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Lorenzo Hall, Rockland, 

Albion Morey, Machias, Stephen C. Barker, Island Falls, 

Asa Conary, Bluehill, George E. Nash, Cherryfield. 

CORPORALS. 

James A. Stevens, Steuben, Edwin P. Morse, Rockland, 

William A. McFarland, Cherryfield, Maxcey Hamlin, Winslow, 
Bingham S. Edgeley, Greenbush, Wilson R. Woodward, Bangor, 
Josiah Gray, Prentiss. 

Musician: Warren Ladd, Vienna. 

The company left the state November 13, 1861, with the 
Eleventh regiment, and on arrival at Washington was attached 
to the Second regiment of Berdan's U. S. Sharpshooters as 
company D. It was known that an organization of such marks- 



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COMPANY D HI8TOBI0AL SKETCH. 355 

men was being formed, under the influence of Hiram Berdan, 
a distinguished expert rifleman, drawn from various states, to 
which the Maine company should be attached, and to be armed 
with superior rifles. At first several sorts of arms were in use, 
in some cases those owned by the soldier ; some were furnished 
with globe sights at great cost. In the course of time, how- 
ever, the breech-loading Sharp's rifle was proved to be the best 
adapted and most effective, and was uniformly furnished by 
the government. The company was stationed at or near 
Washington, in Camp of Instruction, until March 19th, when 
the regiment broke camp and joined General Augur's brigade 
of King's division, then attached to General McDowell's corps. 
On Wednesday, May 31st, while being transported by railroad 
from Catletf s Station to Rectortown, a collision of the cars 
killed one and wounded twenty-two, materially reducing the 
strength of the company already diminished by sickness and 
discharge. 

We copy from the active-service report of company D, 
Second U. S. Sharpshooters, since leaving Camp of Instruction 
at Washington, D. C, March 19, 1862, and ending December 
31, 1863, made by Captain Jacob McClure : — 

"Left Camp of Instruction March 19, 1862, for camp Will- 
iams, near Alexandria, Va., sixteen miles from former camp; 
arrived there March 20th, and there joined the brigade of Gen- 
eral Augur, in King's division. Left camp Williams April 5th 
and arrived at Bristoe Station evening of April 6th, where we 
camped until April 15th, on which day we marched towards 
Falmouth, Va., via Warrenton Junction, arriving at latter 
place same night. Left there morning of April 17th for Fal- 
mouth, marching a distance of thirty miles within fifteen hours, 
and, with little opposition from rebel cavalry and infantry, we 
entered Falmouth. After entering the town, as the eniemy had 
fired the bridges connecting it with Fredericksburg, our com- 
pany was detailed to extinguish the flames within range of rebel 
sharpshooters on the opposite side of the river. We soon dis- 
persed them by a few well-directed shots and partially saved 
the bridge. Encamped at Falmouth until May 25th, at which 



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356 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

time we left, camping for the night about eight miles south 
of Fredericksburg, near Fairview. Counter-marching on the 
morning of the 29th, we started to the relief of General Banks, 
in the Valley. We arrived at Catlett's Station May 31st, and 
there took cars for Front Royal, Va,, via Manassas Junction. 
When near White Plains, about 3 o'clock on the morning of 
June 1st, the train in our rear by some mismanagement came 
into collision with ours, nearly demolishing several cars, killing 
one man and wounding twenty-two others, some severely, all 
of our company. We left the scene of our disaster same 
evening and arrived at Rectortown. Remaining there in the 
cars until the evening of June 2d, we went back by rail to 
Haymarket, Va., near Thoroughfare Gap. There we remained 
in camp until June 6th, when we left for Warrenton, arriving 
the same night, and remained there until June 8th ; from there 
we marched to Elk Run, Va. We remained there until June 
14th, when we left for Falmouth, arriving there June 16th, and 
there remained in camp until August 5th ; this day we left on 
reconnaissance, proceeding some thirty miles into the enemy's 
country south of Fredericksburg. We returned August 8th, 
having accomplished our object, destroying an important bridge 
on the Bowling Green road and taking an inmiense quantity of 
forage, horses, mules and cattle. 

" We left Falmouth August 10th, arriving at Culpeper 
evening of August 11th, making a distance of forty-six miles 
in about thirty-one hours. Remained at Culpeper in camp until 
August 16th, then marched toward the Rapidan, encamping near 
Cedar Mountain until August 19th. A retreat was then ordered, 
and we marched to Rappahannock Station, arriving there in the 
morning of the 20th. Our regiment acted as rear guard, and 
had hardly crossed the river when the rebel cavalry made their 
appearance. We had lost but one man up to this time (private 
A. W. Hutchins), who was unwell and was overtaken by the 
advance guard of the rebels; he was afterwards exchanged, 
but died at Fort Delaware. The enemy made several desperate 
attempts to cross. We were in line of battle and under a ter- 
rific fire of shell and canister for three days, with occasional 



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CX)MPANr D HISTORICAL SKETCH. 357 

firing during the nights. The company, commanded by Captain 
McClure, was detailed to go to the river and ascertain where 
the enemy were crossing to our side. While performing this 
important duty, and just as we discovered them, a company of 
rebel cavalry, sixty strong, charged on us ; our little company 
of twenty-eight men, deployed as skirmishers, repulsed and 
scattered them in every direction, killing two, wounding sev- 
eral, and taking their Captain and two privates prisoners. None 
of our men were injured. While here we were supporting bat- 
teries at times, and in this duty our regiment lost six killed and 
several wounded. 

" On the 23d of August our regiment was on picket and under 
a severe artillery fire, which lasted about two hours ; several of 
the regiment were wounded, and one man in our company, pri- 
vate Washington Tucker, received a wound which resulted in 
his death shortly afterwards. On the 23d we started for War- 
renton, where we remained until August 26th, when the regi- 
ment was detached to General Patrick's brigade, and marched 
to White Sulphur Springs. There we were deployed as skir- 
mishers, and were ordered to drive the enemy's skirmishers to 
the other side. Brisk skirmishing ensued, which lasted some 
six hours and results in our driving the enemy across the 
river. This was the fairest test we have ever had between 
rebel sharpshooters and ours. The loss of the regiment was 
three killed. The rebels lost thirty. 

'*We marched August 27th in the direction of Manassas 
Junction. When near Groveton, next day, we discovered the 
enemy in force. During the night we were compelled to fall 
back to Manassas ; remained there until the 29th, when we were 
ordered forward to the same ground we had before occupied, 
our company supporting two pieces of artillery stationed near 
the Seabury road. About dark the rebels attacked us in over- 
whelming force, and we were driven back. In this action Lieu- 
tenant Barker was taken prisoner. Private James F. Sally was 
wounded, and private John Jordan killed. We had but twelve 
enlisted men in this battle. The rest of the company were 
completely exhausted by the severe marching, counter-marching 
and fighting of the past ten days, with short rations. 



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358 MAINB AT OETTTSBUBG. 

" We lay by the roadside until about noon of August 30th, 
when another advance on the enemy was ordered. We were on 
the right and deployed as skirmishers ; the fighting became so 
fierce that we lost sight of the right wing of our regiment, and 
our company, with the remainder of the left wing, joined one 
of the Penn. Reserve regiments, where we fought in closed ranks 
during the remainder of the day. We fell back to Centreville 
on the night of August 30th, broken and disordered, where we 
remained until September 1st, when we moved to Fairfax and 
encamped for the night, and on the 2d fell back to Falls Church, 
where we encamped until September 7th; we marched into 
Maryland September 9th, eight miles from Washington, D. C, 
on the Harper's Ferry road. From there we marched, by way 
of Brookville and Lisbon, to Frederick, Md., where we arrived 
September 12th. September 14th we marched to South Moun- 
tain, and came upon the enemy in force. We engaged them 
about 3 p. M., our regiment being deployed as skirmishers and 
leading the attack. Night found the enemy completely routed 
after a brisk fight. On the morning of the 15th we pursued 
them, encamping about two miles from Keedysville and the 
enemy's line. September 16th our regiment was deployed 
and sent forward to feel the enemy's line. Slight skirmishing 
ensued, in which one man in our company, private Wellington 
(Arthur W.) Tucker was wounded, and died the same night. 
After our object was accomplished we fell back a short distance, 
and lay on our arms all night. At Antietam, on the morning 
of the 17th, we advanced in close column line of battle, the 
regiment, with its brigade (First brigade. First division. 
Hooker's corps), forming the extreme right of Doubleday's 
division. We fought continually for four hours, during which 
time our regiment lost three oflSicers and ten men killed, three 
officers and forty-eight men wounded, and two missing. The 
loss of the company was six. 

"September 19th went into camp near Sharpsburg, Md. 
October 20th marched to Bakersville, where we remained until 
the 26th, when we marched to Berlin, On the 30th crossed 
the Potomac and encamped near Lovettsville, Ya. November 



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GOMPANT D HISTORICAL SKETCH. 359 

1st marched to Puroellville, remaining there until the Sd, when 
we resmned the march and arrived at Warrenton on the 6th. 
November 11th marched for Brooke's Station, between Faknouth 
and Acquia Creek, where we remained in camp until December 
10th, when we marched towards Fredericksburg, and crossed 
the river three miles below. On the night of December 12th 
camped under the enemy's guns, and on morning of December 
13th we were ordered forward, deployed as skirmishers on the 
extreme left of Franklin's corps, our left resting on the river 
bank. During the day we advanced about a mile and a half, 
driving the enemy from their fortifications, capturing several 
men and one commissioned officer. Stood picket through night 
of 13th ; the 14th we lay in line of battle all day ; at night 
on picket; 15th on picket all day, skirmishing quite lively; 
recrossed the river night of December 15th. Our loss in battle 
was nothing. One man, a straggler (private Edwin Thompson, 
of our company) , was left behind and was captured by the 
enemy. From this date until April 28, 1863, were in winter 
quarters, doing the usual camp duty." [The First and Second 
regiments of U. S. Sharpshooters now constituted the Third 
brigade, under Col. Hiram Berdan, of the Third division of 
Third corps.] 

** Tuesday, April 28th, left camp near Stoneman's Station 
and inarched with the corps towards Fredericksburg, and 
camped three miles below. Remained there in reserve for the 
First army corps until the 30th ; marched and crossed the Rap- 
pahannock at U. S. Ford May 1st. May 2d advanced two 
miles south of the Gordonsville road, in the direction of Spot- 
sylvania Court House, where we encountered the enemy, and 
after sharp fighting captured a number of prisoners, actually 
larger than our own force engaged. Owing to the disaster to 
the Eleventh corps, the regiment was compelled to fall back to 
within one-half mile of the Gordonsville road, where we were 
entirely cut off and surrounded by the enemy. After sharp 
fighting in the night, we opened conununication with General 
Hooker, and fell back on the morning of the 3d to Chancellors- 
viUe. May 3d and 4th we were constantly engaged with the 



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360 MAINE AT GETTYSBUKG. 

enemy's sharpshooters. On the morning of the 5th retreated 
with the army across the river and went into our old camp (a) . 
June 1st were still in camp at Stoneman's Station. July 1st, 
after severe marching, were at Taneytown, Md. 

"We were constantly engaged three days in the battle at 
and near Gettysburg, July 2d, 3d, and 4th, in which eleven 
were lost in killed, wounded, missing and prisoners from the 
company. August Ist were at Warrenton, Va. ; September 
1st were at White Sulphur Springs ; October 1st, at Culpeper ; 
December 1st, at Brandy Station, Va., where we remain, 
December 31st. The company has re-enlisted for the war." 

After re-enlisting, the veterans received a furlough for a 
few weeks, and many homes in Maine were made happy by the 
presence of these heroes, whose lives were newly pledged to 
the Union. The ranks of the company had doubled in length 
with recruits when it again took the field, before the campaign 
opened. Captain McClure and Lieutenant Cummings having 
been discharged for disability. First Sergeant Stephen C. Bar- 
ker was promoted to Captain, and Sergeant Crockett to First 
Lieutenant. 

Li the consolidation of the army under Grant, in the spring 
of 1864, the Second Sharpshooters remained in Ward's brigade, 
now belonging to Third division of the Second corps; the 
Third Maine was in this brigade, and both took part in the 
same engagements in the campaign of 1864 until the 4th of 
June ; and after that, the Seventeenth Maine having been trans- 
ferred to the First brigade on June 1st, the fighting and march- 
ing of company D of the Sharpshooters can be traced in the 
history of the Seventeenth until the end of the war ; although 
the duties of the Sharpshooters differed somewhat from the other 
infantry, being to a greater degree as skirmishers. The record 
of company D attests that in the battles and engagements in 
1864 at the Wilderness, Po River, Spotsylvania, Fredericks- 

(a) After the battle of Chanoellorsyille, In which General Berry and General 
Whipple, commandins: respeotively the Second and Third diyisions of the Third 
corps, were both killed, the Third division was broken up and its parts united to the 
First and Second divisions of the corps. The First and Second regriments of Sharp- 
shooters were united to Ward's (First) briffade of the First division. 



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COMPANY D HISTORICAL SKETCH. 361 

burg Pike, North Anna, Totopotomy, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, 
Jerusalem Road, Deep Bottom, Peeble's Farm, Boydton Road, 
Hatcher's Run and other minor actions during the siege of 
Petersburg, its men never faltered. These engagements, added 
to its list of previous years, which included Rappahannock Sta- 
tion, Sulphur Springs, GainesviUe, Second Bull Run, South 
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, The Cedars, Chancellors- 
ville, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, Auburn, Kelly's Ford, 
Locust Grove and Mine Run, make the sequence through the 
three years complete. 

During the months of May and June, 1864, the regiment 
lost two hundred and twenty-three, of whom one hundred and 
eighty were in killed and wounded ; in the same time company 
D had seven killed, eleven wounded, including Captain Barker, 
and eight missing. 

The great losses and hardships of the campaign reduced the 
ranks fearfully, and yet the men were of such good metal that 
when in winter quarters in January, 1865, after the consolida- 
tion of the First, which had only about sixty men whose terms 
of service had not expired, into the Second regiment, there 
were over two hundred present for duty. Captain Barker was 
discharged, and Lieutenant Crockett was promoted to Captain, 
and Sergeant James M. Matthews had been conmtiissioned Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, and later First Lieutenant, and was acting as 
Adjutant of the regiment. On February 5th company D took 
part in the engagement of Hatcher's Run, which was its last, as 
an organization. 

About this time the terms of many of the men who had not 
re-enlisted in most of the companies expired ; and under the 
provisions of an order from the War department, A. G. O., 
Special orders No. 47, of January 30, 1865, both the First and 
Second U. S. Sharpshooters, as organizations, were broken up. 
The officers and men whose terms held beyond a certain date 
were ordered in bodies to be assigned to regiments of the various 
states from which the companies came. Under this, on the 18th 
of February, 1865, the officers and enlisted men of company D 
were ordered to be transferred to the Seventeenth Maine reg- 



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362 MAINE AT GETTT8BURO. 

iment. There was no vacancy in the latter regiment for either 
Captain Crockett or Lieutenant Matthews and, thus becoming 
supernumerary, they were discharged the service, the latter on 
February 23, 1865. The men who joined the Seventeenth 
were distribute and faithfully served to the end of the war. 
When the Seventeenth was mustered out June 4, 1865, the 
men of company D were again transferred, this time to the 
First Maine Heavy Artillery regiment, and with it were mus- 
tered out of service September 11, 1865. 

During its term of service company D had on its rolls 156 
men and officers. Of these 16 were killed in action or died of 
wounds; 16 died of disease; 5 were missing in action; 8 
deserted ; 3 were transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps and 
2 to the navy; 46 were discharged for disability and 11 at 
expiration of term of service ; 22 had re-enlisted, of whom 4 
had been killed or died of their wounds, and the remainder of 
them and of the recruits, numbering in all 49, present and 
absent, were transferred to the Seventeenth Maine regiment as 
above stated. 

When the Sharpshooters were about to be disbanded, Gen- 
eral de Trobriand, commanding the division, issued an order, 
dated February 16, 1865, — General orders No. 12, — in which 
he says he ^^ will not take leave of them without acknowledging 
their good and efficient service during about three years in the 
field. The U. S. Sharpshooters leave behind them a glorious 
record in the army of the Potomac, since the first operations 
against Yorktown, in 1862, up to the last movements of the 
army on Hatcher's Bun. And few are the battles or engage- 
ments where they did not make their mark." 

ROSTER. 

Captains. 

James D. Fessenden, Nov. 2, i86i; detached to staff of General Hunter 
March 27, 1862; promoted July 16, 1862, to Colonel and Add* lAide-de-Camp 
of Vols., and assigned to staff of Major-General Hunter; Sept 25, 1863, 
assigned to staff of Major-General Hooker in the Chattanooga and Atlanta 
campaigns; promoted to Brigadier-General of Vols. Aug. 8, 1864; rode with 
Sheridan from Winchester to Cedar Creek Oct. 19, 1864, and assigned to 



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ROSTEB OF COMPANY D, SECX>ND U. 8. SHABP8HOOTEB8. 363 

command of Third brigade, First division, Nineteenth corps, Nov. i, 1864; 
conmianded his brigade and the post at Winchester during the winter; 
brevet Major-General of Vols. Mar. 13, 1865; served in conmiand of Military 
Districts; mustered out of service Jan. 15, 1866. 

Jacob McClure, Oct 17, 1863; discharged Apr. la, 1864; commissioned 
Major, First Maine regiment of Sharpshooters, Sept 16, 1863, and Lieut-Col. 
Feb. 2, 1864, but was not mustered on either of these promotions. 

Stephen C. Barker, Apr. 27, 1864; promoted from First Sergeant; dis- 
charged for disability on account of wounds Nov. 30, 1864. 

Edgar Crockett, Dec 15, 1864; originally Private, promoted to Corporal 
and Sergeant, to First Lieutenant May i, 1864, and to Captain; discharged 
1865, rendered supernumerary by consolidation. 

First Lieutenants. 

Silas C. Barker, Oct. 17,1862; promoted from Second Lieutenant; resigned 
May 28, 1863. 

Daniel L. Cummings, Sept. i, 1863; originally Corporal, promoted to 
Sergeant and Fu^ Sergeant, to Second Lieutenant Oct. 17, 1862, and to First 
Lieutenant; discharged for disability Mar., 1864. 

James M. Matthews, commissioned Dec. 15, 1864; originally Private, 
promoted to Sergeant and First Sergeant, to Second Lieutenant, mustered 
Dec. 5, 1864, and to First Lieutenant; appointed acting Adjutant of r^:iment 
Dec. 23, 1864; rendered supernumerary by transfer of company D to Seven- 
teenth Maine regiment Feb. 18, and discharged Feb. 23, 1865. 



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364 MAmE AT OElTTSBimO. 



MONUMENT 

OF 

FIFTH MAINE REGIMENT. 

The monument stands north of Little Round Top, on the north side of 
the road leading from the Taneytown road to the Emmitsburg road and 
intersecting the latter at the Peach Orchard. The monument has an elab- 
orate design, showing upon its face the Coat of Arms of Maine, the Greek 
cross of the Sixth corps, and a group of war trophies. 

Admbasurbments: Base, six feet by four feet by one foot ten inches; 
plinth, four feet six inches by two feet six inches by one foot five inches; tab- 
let, four feet by two feet by eight feet Total height, eleven feet three inches. 

The following are the inscriptions: — 

5th 

Maine Infantry 

2nd Brig. Ist Div. 6th Corps 



Occupied this Position from 

Evening of Jui.y 2nd until 

Close of Battle. 

Mustered into U. S. Service, Portland, Me. 

June 24, 1861. Served with the Arbtt of the 

potobfac in the field from ist bull run to 

Petersburg. Mustered out, Portland, June 27, 1864. 



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FIFTH MAINE REGIMENT, 

SECOND BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, SIXTH ARMY CX)RPS, 



AT THB BATTLB OF OBTTTBBUBO. 



MAINE'S record at Gettysburg is not complete without the 
records of several other regiments that underwent the 
labors of the campaign and were present on the field, 
although by the fortunes of the day they were spared hard 
fighting and heavy losses. In General Sedgwick's Sixth army 
corps, which was thirty-five miles away at Manchester, Md., 
when the battle began on the morning of July 1st, were three 
of Maine's famous veteran regiments, the Fifth, Sixth and 
Seventh. The Fifth Maine was attached to Bartlett's brigade 
of Wright's division. It had been one of the first regiments 
to respond to President Lincoln's call for volunteers in 1861, 
and had been in nearly all the famous battles of the army of 
the Potomac. Colonel Clark S. Edwards, one of the bravest 
officers in the service from the state, commanded the regiment, 
which numbered at Gettysburg about two hundred and seventy- 
five officers and men. 

The regiment was in camp near Manchester during the day 
of July 1st, getting the rest much needed after the long march 
through Maryland. Just before dark on the evening of July 
1st orders were received to move to Taneytown, and the corps 
was immediately put in motion. The Fifth Maine, moving in 
the van of the corps, started about 9 : 30 p. m. (a) • 

News of the battle of Gettysburg had already reached the 
corps, and the soldiers of the Fifth Maine sprang forward with 
alacrity when the order came to move in that direction. As the 
column crossed the broad pike which leads from Baltimore to 
Gettysburg, and which intersects the road from Manchester 
to Taneytown, orders were received to change the destination 

(*) Statement of Colonel Edwards in his address at Qettjrsbaiv, October S, 1880. 



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366 BiAINE AT 0£TTrSBUUG. 

of the corps and move by rapid marches to Gettysburg. All 
night the colmnn tramped up the Baltimore pike and all the 
forenoon of July 2d. The soldiers of the Fifth were allowed 
to make no halt for breakfast, but pressed on hour after hour 
under the increasing heat pouring from a July sun. At noon 
the regiment was within twelve miles of Gettysburg, but the 
orders were so urgent that no time was allowed for dinner. 
They continued to press on until, between four and five 
o'clock p. M., Bock Creek near Gettysburg was reached. Can- 
teens were filled and preparations made for refreshment ; but 
before coffee could be made the wayworn troops, who had eaten 
nothing except on the move since the night before, were hur- 
ried forward to support the Third corps. The Third division 
of the Sixth corps and Bartlett's brigade of the First division 
were formed in lines of battle in that portion of the left centre 
of the Union position which was menaced by the Confederates 
who had broken through Sickles' line. The Fifth Maine, being 
in Bartlett's brigade, participated in this movement, and the 
monument to the regiment stands in the position which it held 
in this line. The Confederate attack was so far exhausted that 
the Fifth did no fighting, although about 7 : 15 p. m., when 
the troops of Ayres of the Fifth corps were coming out, it 
moved thirty or forty rods to the front down into the Plum 
Bun lowlands (a) . 

Later in the evening the regiment formed its line on the 
right of Little Bound Top, throwing up a wall of stones which 
remains at the present time. The regiment held this position 
during July 3d, until after Pickett's charge. In the evening 
three companies made a reconnaissance out towards the Emmits- 
burg road. Colonel Edwards accompanied the detachment. He 
had noticed from the side of Little Bound Top some horses near 
the Trostle buildings and some portions of a battery, and had 
determined to secure the same if possible. Taking two or three 
trusty men (b) with him, all armed with rifles, they crept out 
through the fringe of wood and approached near enough to shoot 

(a) In this movement the regiment secured two or three Confederates in a house 
to the rifirht of the cross-road which leads to the Peach Orchard. 

(b) One of these men was Charles Marshall Wentworth, of company I — after the 
war, General Wentworth,— of Jackson, N. H. 



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FIFTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 367 

the horses, so as to prevent their use by the enemy in running 
off a gun and two limbers which were near by. Finding by 
further investigation that the Confederates had retreated from 
that spot, Colonel Edwards ordered a detail from his regiment 
to run the gun and limbers back to our lines. The gun and 
other property proved to belong to Bigelow's 9th Mass. battery, 
left on the field the day before. 

July 4th the regiment advanced with two other regiments, 
one of the latter belonging to Ayxes' division of the Fifth corps, 
to look for wounded lying on the field, also to advance and 
locate the enemy's line. On the 5th it moved with the corps 
in pursuit of Lee. No casualties were reported in the regi- 
ment while on the field of Gettysburg. There were several 
men slightly wounded, on the reconnaissance, in the morning 
of July 4th, whose names we cannot fix ; the files in the Adju- 
tant-General's office at Augusta show that Private Franklin 
Bean of company I was killed July 2d, although this death 
occurred, a few days later, at Funkstown, Md. 



PARTICIPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONBD STAFF. 

Colonel, Clark S. Edwards, Bethel. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Henry R. Millett, Palmyra. 
Major, Aaron S. Daggett, Greene. 

Acting Adjutant, Second Lieut. George A. Chandler, Lewiston, company A. 
Quartermaster, William B. Fenderson, Biddeford. 
Surgeon, Francis G. Warren, Biddeford. 
Assistant Surgeon, Melville H. Manson, Limington. 
Chaplain, John R. Adams, Gorham. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Lucius M. Clark, Biddeford. 
Conmiissary-Sergeant, James L. Dresser, Portland. 
Hospital Steward, Orrin Q. Pratt, Hebron. 

Company A. 
(Present for duty, including i present sick.) 
Captain, Samuel H. Pillsbury, Biddeford. 
First Lieutenant, Charles B. Dexter, Biddeford. 
Second Lieutenant, George A. Chandler, acting as Adjt. (see Field and Staff). 

SERGEANTS. 

Charles H. Patrick, Gorham, John L. Haskell, Gorham, 

Richmond Edwards, Gorham. 



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368 



MAINE AT GETTT8BUEG. 



Charles M. Ward, Gorham, 
Morris Bumpus, Hebron, 
Theodore Shackford, Gorham. 



CORPORALS. 

Charles M. Edwards, Gorham, 
David S. Crockett, Westbrook, 



Auld, James R., Boothbay, 
Brady, Patrick, St. John, N. B., 
Cilley, Oliver, Gorham, 
Duffey, Peter, Gorham, 
Farwell, Walter H., Gorham, 
Gilbert, Albert, Gorham, 
Henley, Francis E., Westbrook, 
Lowell, Alfred O., Portland, 
Stackpole, Augustus J., Gorham, 



PRIVATES. 

Bangs, Leeman J.. Farmington, 
Brooks, Abram S., Rome, 
Darling, George L., Gorham, 
Elder, Alonzo S., Gorham, 
Foss, Alonzo E., Limington, 
Hall, Levi, Gorham, 
Johnson, Charles W., Portland, 
Nunan, William H., Kennebunkport, 
Staples, Moses M., Baldwin. 
Musicians. 
William H. Boyd, Gorham, Alvin V. Tufts, Cornish. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant William C. Phin- 
ney, Westbrook, brig, blacksmith. Wagoner Charles H. Stewart, Standish, 
teamster. Privates: James F. Harmon, Gorham, brig. com. dept. ; Cyrus S. 
Libby, Gorham, teamster; Edward B. Phinney, Gorham, amb. train; Chauncy 
C Shaw, Gorham, hosp. attendant; James G. Spaulding, Buckfield, brig, 
mail carrier. 

Company B. 
(Including 2 present sick.) 
Second Lieutenant, John S. French, Albion. 

sergeants. 
First Sergeant, Walter Foss, Biddeford, 
Samuel B. Brackett, Biddeford, John Linscott, Biddeford. 

CORPORALS. 

Billings Hodgdon, Biddeford, Junius W. Littlefield, Dexter, 

Timothy Elliot, Biddeford. 

PRIVATES. 

Adams, Jesse W., Kennebunkport, Bacon, George W., Biddeford, 



Berry, Robert, Biddeford, 
Chadbourne, Horace K., Biddeford, 
Dickinson, Sewell, Augusta, 
Friend, Dennis W., Biddeford, 
Hanson, Moses W., Biddeford, 
Heney, Thomas, Biddeford, 
Knox, Thomas T., Biddeford, 
Libby, Charies O., Biddeford, 
Moran, John E., Biddeford, 



Brackett, Peter, Biddeford, 
Dearborn, Henry A., Biddeford, 
Elliot, Joseph, Biddeford, 
Hadlock, Benjamin P., Saco, 
Harper, John, Dexter, 
Jeffrey, Jesse, Kennebunkport, 
Larrabee, Charles F., Biddeford, 
Moore, Elliot, Buxton, 
Nesbitt, John F., Biddeford, 



Willey, Jacob O., Biddeford. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Capt. Robert M. Stevens, 
Biddeford, ordnance officer div. h'dqrs. Privates: Cyrus P. Berry, Bidde- 
ford, clerk div. h'dqrs; Thomas W. Applebee, Acton, regt*l q*rm*r dept; 
Charles H. Brown, Biddeford, cook corps. h*dqrs; Aaron H. Bean, Bidde- 
ford, Sumner L. Goodwin, Biddeford, and Horace P. Smith, Biddeford, amb. 
train; Jeremiah Kelley, Kennebunkport, hosp. att*d*t; Samuel E. Scribner, 
Biddeford, teamster. 



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FIFTH EEGmENT PARTICIPANTS. 



369 



Company C. 
(Including i present sick.) 
Captain, Edward M. Robinson, Anson. 
Second Lieutenant, J. Augustine Grenier, Portland. 

SERGEANTS. 

David L. Famham, Boothbay, 
Martin Hughes, Portland, 



Charles H. P. Stevens, Saco, 
William H. Huntoon, Bangor. 



Benjamin F. Leavitt, Saco, 
Leonard Welch, Saco. 

CORPORALS. 

John E. Wayland, Saco, 



Andrews, George H., Saco, 
Avery, Dexter, Saco, 
Bell, Joseph, Saco, 
Cadarett, Euzeb, Saco, 
Emery, Ira, Limerick, 
King, Milton J., Stafford, Vt, 



PRIVATES. 

Atkinson, William H., Saco, 
Baker, Albert B., Biddeford, 
Brown, William, Greenville, Ct., 
Chorters, James, Ireland, 
Kimball, Luther G., Saco, 
McCarthy, Andrew, Saco, 
Morgan, George E., Wolfboro, N. H., Ricker, Frank, Saco, 
Senate, James, Biddeford, Small, George E. B., Saco, 

Swift, John M., Bethel, Tyne, Michael, Saco, 

Wentworth, Samuel, Saco, Whaland, Clark, St. John, N. B. 

Whitten, Benjamin F., Buxton, Wilbur, Joseph, Saco, 

Willard, John H., Great Falls, N. H., Wormell, Sylvester S., Saco. 
Musician: James B. Deas, Saco. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: First Lieut. Charles A. 
Waterhouse, Portiand, amb. train; Wagoner Eli Dennett, Saco, teamster. 
Privates: Joseph C. Dennett, Saco, amb. train; Solomon Gordon, Augusta, 
teamster. 

Company D. 

(Including i present sick.) 
Captain, Charles H. Small, Topsham. 
First Lieutenant, John H. Stevens, Acton. 
Second Lieutenant, Frank G. Patterson, Augusta. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergt., Alonzo Haley, Topsham, Lorenzo D. Fox, Rockport, Mass., 
George M. Littlefield, Greenwood, James T. Croswell, Brunswick. 

CORPORALS. 

Henry W. Farrow, Woodstock, Emery P. Blondel, Topsham, 

Ai C. Harrington, Topsham, Thomas F. Parsons, Rockport 

privates. 
Alexander, Randall T., Topsham, Barron, James T., Topsham, 



Beard, Charles, Moscow, 
Colby, George L., Topsham, 
Doughty, Isaac G., Brunswick, 
Eastman, Orlando H., Mexico, 
Few, Robert, Brunswick, 
Fuller, Alonzo M., Brunswick, 
Hassett, Lawrence, Lewiston, 
Johnson, Samuel L., Brunswick, 



Carey, Seth F., Topsham, 
Colby, John P., Brunswick, 
Dunning, Orlando, Brunswick, 
Fabian, Anthony, Biddeford, 
Fox, David M., Porter, 
Hamlin, William, Bowdoinham, 
Howland, James E., Topsham, 
Lasson, Oscar O., Portland, 



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370 MAINE AT OETTYSBUBG. 

Leary, Daniel, Boston, Mass., Lubec, William, Brunswick, 

Perkins, Stephen A., Rockport, Smith, Sewall C, Rumford, 

Thompson, Collins B., Topsham, Vickery, Albert, Brunswick, 
Walker, William A., Durham, Welch, Morris, Biddeford, 

Whitney, Dunham, Brunswick, Willis, John, Biddeford. 

Musician: George L. Harmon, Brunswick. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant William C. 
Moody, Brunswick, amb. train. Privates: Charles Manning, Lewiston, div. 
q*rm*r dept.; Charles B. Vickery, Brunswick, and Jere Warren, Biddeford, 
hosp. attendants. 

Company E. 
Captain, Frank L. Lemont, Lewiston. 
First Lieutenant, Joseph Wight, Gorham. 
Second Lieutenant, John C. Summersides, Gorham. 

SERGEANTS. 

Cyrenus P. Stevens, Greene, Norris Litchfield, Lewiston, 

John B. Bailey, Auburn, Francis Day, Durham. 

CORPORALS. 

John Casey, Rumford, Isaac A. Blethen, Durham, 

Daniel Sheehan, Lewiston, William H. Morse, Minot. 

PRIVATES. 

Adley, Alonzo, Lisbon, Atwood, Rodney B., Lisbon, 
Carpenter, Harrison, Concord, N. H., Getchell, Albion, Farmington, 

Goodwin, Increase F., Clinton, Goss, Frank F., Danville, 

Hamilton, George H., Lewiston, Haskell, Nathaniel, Lewiston, 

Jones, Charles E., Turner, Jones, David H., Auburn, 

Larrabee, William H., Lewiston, Merrill, Davis N., New Gloucester, 

Morton, William E., Poland, Purrington, Isaiah G., Lisbon, 

Robinson, W. Scott, Sumner, Taylor, Samuel W., Wales, 

Verrill, John L., Poland, Ward, Thomas, Lewiston, 
Yeaton, Isaac C, Farmington. 

MUSICIANS. 

Edward P. Harmon, New Gloucester, Clifton Jones, Canton. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Wagoner Ephraim H. 
Litchfield, Lewiston, teamster corps h'dqrs. Privates: Henry P. Estes, 
Lewiston, and Lemont Manning, Lewiston, div. q'rm*r dept; Horace E. 
Kimball, Lewiston, Luther Litchfield, Lewiston, and Lucius L. Lothrop 
Lewiston, teamsters; David Small, Danville, amb. train. 

Company F. 
Captain, Frederick G. Sanborn, Hopkinton, N. H. 
Second Lieutenant, Orrin B. Stevens, Westbrook. 

sergeants. 
istSergt, John Goldthwait, Windsor, Benjamin Norton, Portland, 
Llewellyn Goodwin, Stockton, Michael J. Murphy, Portland. 

CORPORALS. 

Benjamin A. Norton, Portland, Daniel Y. Gallison, Paris, color-guard, 

Abner H. Herrick, Greenwood, William Hayes, Pordand. 

PRIVATES. 

Bradin, John, Portiand, Cushman, Cornelius, Portiand, 

Driscoll, Daniel, Portiand, Fitzsimmons, James, Portiand, 



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FIFTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 371 

Godfrey, John, Portland, Gormley, Michael, Portland, 

Hicks, Barnard, Burke, Vt, Kelley, John, Portland, 

Kelley, Peter, Portland, Kelley, Robert, Portiand, 

Kerrigan, John, Portland, Loney, John, Lewiston, 

McCuUom, George, Portland, McDonald, John, Portland, 

McEnnany, Michael, Portland, Morgan, Charles F., Greenwood, 

Morris, Otto, Portland, Nelson, Frederick, Portland, 

Patrick, George W., Portfand, Prayi Leroy, Portland, 

Ricker, Hiram H., Gardiner, Timmony, John, Portland. 

Musician: Frank C. Kimball, Portiand. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Sergeant Joseph C. Par- 
adis, Portiand, clerk div. h'dqrs. Wagoner Lincoln Grover, Gardiner, team- 
ster corps h*dqrs. Privates: Thomas Feeney, Taunton, Mass., div. h'dqrs; 
Edwin H. Robertson, Brownfield, Albert A. Trull, Greenwood, brig. h*dqrs. 

Company G. 
(Including i present sick.) 
Captain, Album P. Harris, Portiand. 
First Lieutenant, Daniel C. Clark, Portland. 
Second Lieutenant, Sidney H. Hutchins, Saco. 

sergeants. 
istSergt., Archibald Wilson, Portiand, Charles G. Hall, Vienna, 
Alonzo Mitchell, Freeport, George B. Parsons, Conway, N. H. 

CORPORALS. 

Ambrose Anthoine, Windham, Charles H. Brewer, Freeport, 

Edward J. Dolan, Portiand. 

privates. 
Blake, James, Fall River, Mass., Brown, Enoch M., Brownfield, 

Brown, James, Brownfield, Chick, Charles H., Litchfield, 

Clark, Edward L., Portiand, Covell, Edgar C. Portland. 

Dealing, Francis O., Sidney, Dean, Charles H., Buxton, 

Drinkwater, Phillip F., Portland, Dudley, Michael, Portiand, 

Frost, Albert, Denmark, Gray, Melville, Fryeburg, 

Hamlin, Elvin L., Brownfield, Irvin, William, Portiand, 

Killeen, James, Portland, Kelly, Timothy, Portiand, 

Kenney, Edward J., Portiand, Kenniston, Jeremiah C, Brownfield, 

Latham, Seward M., Cumberland, Leavitt, Joseph, Portland, 
Libby, Henry C, Gray, Meserve, Levi P., Denmark, 

Reardon, Michael, Portland, Richardson, William, Portiand, 

Shaw, John M., Portiand. Wallace, Elisha W., Windham, 

Welch, William A. S., Portiand, Wentworth, Benjamin N., Brownfield. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Lorestin Dan- 
forth, Portiand, div. wagon-master; Isaac N. Jackson, Bridgton, brig. com. 
dept.: Charles W. Jordan, Portland, teamster; Stillman H. Saunders, Fal- 
mouth, hosp. attendant; Francis M. Smith, Portiand, amb. train; Charles T. 
Webster, Portiand, clerk div. h'dqrs. 

Company H. 
First Lieutenant, John D. Ladd, Biddeford, commanding company. 

SERGEANTS. 

1st Sergt, Charles H. Dow, Standish, James G. Sanborn, Milbridge, 
Thomas E. Lawrence, Portland, John W. Jordan, Cape Elizabeth. 



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372 



BiAINE AT OETTTSBUBO. 



Anthony B. Gould, Pownal, 
John Conlin, Lewiston. 



CORPORALS. 

George W. Tappan, Gloucester, Mass., 



Chase, Thomas R., Pownal, 
Feeny, Edward H., Bangor, 
Hunter, Sidney, Eastport, 
Knowles, James, England, 
Murphy, Dennis, Biddeford, 
Pratt, Horace, New Vineyard, 
Richardson, Darius, Cornish, 
Tracy, William, Portland, 
True, William W., Yarmouth, 



PRIVATES. 

Conlin, James, Portland, 
Goodness, William, Paris, 
Kelley, John, Ireland, 
Miller, Frederick, Machias, 
Newell, Lendall R., Portland, 
Pridham, James H., Portland, 
Sturgess, George B., Portland, 
True, George F., Exeter, 
Wilder, Samuel, Portland. 
Musician: Charles F. Moody, Portland. 
On Special Duty or Detached Service: Corporal George W. 

Briggs, Pembroke, div. q*rm*r dept Privates: George W. Holmes, Bridg- 

ton, brig. com. dept.; George N. Maxham, Waterville, and Otis H. Skillings, 

Portland, amb. train. 

Company I. 

First Lieutenant Lewis H. Lunt, Brunswick. 

Second Lieutenant, John A. A. Packard, Hallowell. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, P. Jordan Mitchell, Greenwood, 

Bethuel S. Sawyer, Bethel, David A. Edwards, Bethel, 

J. Spencer Peabody, Gilead, Enoch Whittemore, Jr., Paris. 

CORPORALS. 

Cyrus Thurlow, Woodstock, 
Alanson M. Whitman, Woodstock, 



Andrew J. Bean, Albany, 
Cyrus R. Lawrence, Sumner, 
Levi Shedd, Greenwood. 



Adams, Thomas, Stoneham, 
Bean, Franklin, Rumford, 
Brown, Orrin S., Bethel, 
Edwards, Bryce M., Otisfield, 
Farren, Patrick, Portland, 
Foye, Edgar, Wiscasset, 
Howard, Michael, Washington, 
Jordan, Asa D., Norway, 
Lemont, Daniel, Portland, 
Martin, Jere W., Rumford, 



PRIVATES. 

Andrews, David E., Andover, 
Bean, John E., Bethel, 
Daily, Dennis, Boston, Mass., 
Evans, James M., Gorham, N. H., 
Foley, Patrick, Portland, 
Harper, William R., Rumford, 
Howe, Robert, Greenwood, 
Lapham, Richmond M., Rumford, 
Littlefield, James A., Greenwood, 
Parker, Alonzo S., Baldwin, 



Wentworth, Chas. M., Jackson, N. H., Wormell, John S., Bethel. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Wagoner Willoughby R. 
York, Bethel, teamster. Privates: Horace K. Chase, Rumford, teamster; 
George Cook, Old Town, brig, h'dqrs; Charles W, Horn, Milan, N. H., brig, 
com. dept.; James Kelly, Lewiston, cook; Stillman N. Littlehale, Riley Plan- 
tation, amb. train; Lorenzo D. Russell, Bethel, hosp. attendant 

Company K. 
(Including i present sick.) 
First Lieutenant, Andrew S. Lyon, Freeport, commanding company. 
Seond Lieutenant, John McLellan, Casco. 



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FIFTH REQIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 373 

SERGEANTS. 

William A. Tubbs, Hebron, Simon L. Johnson, Buckfield, 

Charles E. Harris, Poland, Augustus A. Dwinal, Minot. 

CORPORALS. 

Samuel D. S. Duran, Raymond, Albert W. Hines, Turner, 

Henry C. West, Minot. 

PRIVATES. 

Bancroft, John F., Poland, Brown, Arthur M., Minot, 

Chase, Joseph A., Pownal, Clark, James, Frankfort, 

Dwinel, Harrison J., Minot, Fardy, John, Lewiston, 

Frost, William, Peru, Goodwin, Ezra M., Minot, 

Hackett, Edward A., Oxford, Hutchinson, Almon H., Mmot, 

Jordan, Levi F., Poland, Lombard, John C, Oxford, 

Meserve, John, Casco, Perkins, Harrison G. O., Oxford, 

Phillips, Marshall S.,' Auburn, Ricker, Samuel F., Raymond, 

St. Clair, Alanson W., Poland, Stone, James M., Otisfield, 

Thompson, James W., New Portland, Verrill, Horace A., Poland, 
Whitman, George G., Hebron. 

Musicians. 
William B. Adams, Raymond, Joseph P. Harmon, Harrison. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Richard Bailey, 
Minot, and Levi S. Robinson, Raymond, hosp. attendants; Stephen M. Bar- 
rows, Hebron, and Talbot G. Stuart, Casco, orderlies at div. h*dqrs; Charles 
F. McKenney, Minot, amb. train; Joshua S. Spiller, Casco, q'rm'r dept. 
corps h'dqrs. 



DEDICATION OF MONUMENT, 

October 3, 1889. 
ADDRESS OF COLONEL CLARK S. EDWARDS, 

B&BYBT BBiaADIBR-QBNBBAL OF YOLUNTBBBS. 

Mr. President and Comrades of the Fifth Maine : — 

It has fallen to my lot od this memorable occasion to give a 
brief, descriptive account of the part taken by the Fifth Maine 
in the great battle of Gettysburg, which occurred on this his- 
toric field twenty-six years ago. Before speaking particularly 
of what the regiment did on those early days of July, 1863, I 
wish, in as brief a manner as possible, to outline the history of 
the regiment, so far as the principal engagements are concerned 
— in which it participated — and thus correct a few errors which 
have gone forth to the world as history. Lest I may be mis- 
understood by others, I will say here that I do not claim that 
the Fifth was the best regiment sent to the field from the old 



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374 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

State of Maine, but I do assert that she sent no better one. We 
make no unwarranted claim in asserting that the services ren- 
dered and the results achieved by the Fifth justly entitle it to 
be classed among the fighting regiments of the war, notwith- 
standing the fact that other regiments lost more men. Any 
claim of the historian that only those regiments that met with 
the heaviest losses were fighting regiments, does an injustice to 
many of the best regiments in the service. 

In more instances than one, severe losses have fallen upon 
regiments through the stupidity of the commanding officer, or 
by some mistake in placing troops in an exposed position where 
soldiers were shot down by the enemy without a shot being 
fired in return. For if the loss is the only claim that entitles a 
regiment to be classed among fighting regiments, then the brave 
Warren and his men at Bunker Hill have been accorded praise 
that they did not deserve. To base the fighting qualities of a 
regiment entirely upon its losses, without regard to its accom- 
plishments, is wrong, as every soldier knows. The same may 
be said of General Jackson and his army at New Orleans, where 
the loss was slight, though the achievements were briUiant. 
For the Fifth Maine we should claim for all time, full and 
complete recognition of its services. 

The regiment was organized in May, 1861, although several 
of the companies were formed and filled in April. It was mus- 
tered into the service June 23d and 24th, having one thousand 
men, and at once started for Washington. In New York the 
regiment was presented with a banner, from the steps of City 
Hall, by the residents of the city who were formerly citizens 
of the Pine Tree State. The regiment reached Washington on 
the evening of June 27th, and went into camp on Meridian 
Hill, where it remained until July 9th, when it crossed the 
Potomac, and went into camp near Fort Ellsworth, doing picket 
duty until July 12th, when it advanced as far as Claremont, a 
point about a mile, or a mile and a half, in advance of any 
troops at this time. Here the regiment remained until July 
17th, when it was ordered to move forward against the enemy 
at Bull Run. In this, our first engagement, the loss was slight. 
The next battle of importance in which the Fifth was actively 



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FIFTH REOIMENT: EDWARDS* ADDRESS, 375 

engaged was on the peninsula, at West Point on the Pamun- 
key, May 7, 1862. It was here that the regiment made its 
first bayonet charge, driving the enemy from its intrenched 
position. The firing was hot and heavy ; the loss of men was 
two killed and five wounded. 

May 24th the regiment, now in Slocum's division of Frank- 
lin's (Sixth) corps, skirmished and fought in line of battle at 
the Chickahominy River, driving the enemy, and finally forcing 
him across the bridge. 

June 27th found the regiment in action in the rear of the 
McGee house, charging up the hill and across the open field, 
in the battle of Gaines' Mill. The division had been held in 
reserve exposed to a galling artillery fire in the forenoon, and 
at 2 o'clock in the afternoon was ordered across the river to 
the help of General Porter. So hard pressed was he that our 
division was sent piecemeal to various points of the line. The 
Fifth was finally ordered to support a battery near the centre. 
At about 5 o'clock it was ordered to the charge over the crest 
of the hill which the enemy held ; the men advanced without 
wavering, under a storm of bullets, shot and shell, drove the 
rebels before them and gained possession of the hill, and held 
possession until about dark, when they were relieved by other 
troops. In this engagement the Fifth lost ten killed, sixty-nine 
wounded and sixteen missing ; Colonel Jackson was wounded, 
and Lieut.-Colonel Heath, who assumed conunand, while recon- 
noitering was shot through the head and died instantly. The 
command of the regiment then fell to myself, then captain of 
company I. The next day, June 28th, we were engaged with 
the enemy at Golding's Farm ; June 30th at Charles City Cross 
Roads, Glendale, or Frayser's Farm, as it is variously called. 
Here the regiment experienced a terrific cannonade. The air 
was full of solid shot and bursting shell. Such fearful din of 
the cannon's roar was only once again experienced by the 
Fifth and that was, on the spot where we now stand, on the 
afternoon of July 3, 1863. 

On the afternoon and evening of July 1, 1862, the regi- 
ment was at Malvern Hill. The great assault of the enemy 
was repulsed with fearful slaughter, though our loss was com- 



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376 MAINE AT GETTYSBUKG. 

paratively slight. At Harrison's Landing we went into camp, 
remaining there until August 15th, when we were transferred 
to Alexandria, arriving there August 26th, and encamping at 
Fort Lyon until the 29th, when orders were received to advance. 
The regiment marched to Annandale, where it camped for the 
night within hearing of Pope's cannon. The evening of August 
30th found us on the south side of Cub Run, covering the 
retreat of Pope's army. The night was spent in picket duty, 
and on the following morning, August 31st, we recrossed Cub 
Run, destroying the bridge in our rear, — notwithstanding the 
report made by General Pope, as appeared in the war articles 
published in the Century Magazine^ that the Sixth army corps 
did not advance beyond Annandale. After a tedious march into 
Maryland, through dust and under a scorching sun, September 
14th found the regiment, with the 16th N. Y. on the right, 
charging the enemy at the point of the bayonet at Crampton's 
G^p, in the South Mountain range, about fifteen miles southeast 
of Sharpsburg, or Antietam battlefield. Discovering the enemy 
to be in force at this pass. General Slocum made dispositions to 
give battle. Our regiment. Colonel Jackson in command, and 
the 16th N. Y., constituted the advance, and were ordered to 
assault the enemy. For nearly a mile we moved forward under 
a severe artillery fire, over an open field in full view of the 
enemy, through a cornfield, and climbing five rail fences in our 
way until, approaching within five hundred yards of the enemy, 
they opened on us with musketry. This we returned, and con- 
tested with them for over an hour, when our cartridges gave 
out, and we fell back a few yards to better protection while 
waiting for ammunition. Directly after, however, the order 
came to charge the enemy. With a shout the men sprang for- 
ward at the double-quick, with the rest of the division, and 
charged with the bayonet ; after receiving a volley or two into 
our ranks the firing ceased ; the Confederates retreating, we 
took posssession of the heights. The regiment in this engage- 
ment lost thirty-five in killed and wounded. This victory was 
of no small importance to the Union cause. On September 1 7th, 
— one of the bloodiest days America ever saw, — was fought 
the battle of Antietam, in which the Fifth Maine took an active 



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FIFTH REGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 377 

part, Lieut.-Colonel Scamman commanding. In this battle one 
historian says that more lives were lost in the same length of 
time than on any other field during the civil war. 

On December 12th, in the battle of Fredericksburg, the 
Fifth advanced across the open plain near the Bernard house, 
and on the following day occupied an important position near 
the centre of the line of battle. 

May 3, 1863, the second battle of Fredericksburg was fought 
by a portion of the Sixth corps. The Fifth Maine assisted in 
driving the enemy from Marye's Heights at the city of Freder- 
icksburg. It was in this battle that Adjutant Bicknell was 
severely wounded. On the same day was fought the battle of 
Salem Church. In these two engagements the regiment lost 
about 100, being more than one-third of its number engaged. 
On the evening of May 4th, after some skirmishing, we crossed 
to the north bank of the Rappahannock at Banks' Ford ; after 
an hour's rest the regiment recrossed the river and was sent for- 
ward a mile to perform outpost duty and cover the retreat of the 
corps, who were crossing to the north side. About 3 o'clock 
on the morning of the 5th the whole corps had crossed, when 
the men of the Fifth, weary and almost worn out, fell back to 
the river, and were the last to cross. So ended the regiment's 
participation in the ill-fated second battle of Fredericksburg or 
Chancellorsville, .which carried the Fifth into three separate 
battles. Our loss in officers was especially severe : Lieutenant 
Brann was killed and Lieutenants Brown and Bailey mortally 
wounded ; Captains Robinson and Bearing, Lieutenants Bick- 
nell, O. B. Stevens and J. H. Stevens, wounded ; Lieutenants 
W. E. Stevens and F. G. Patterson, taken prisoners. 

After this the regiment went into camp, where we remained 
until we started north, on the campaign which terminated on 
this field before us. Our march was over routes which we had 
in part traveled during the Maryland campaign of the preceding 
year, under " Little Mac." July 1st found the regiment resting 
quietly in camp near Manchester, Md. None were aware that 
the enemy had at this time been met at Gettysburg and that a 
great battle had begun. During our march through Maryland 
a most cordial reception was given the boys in blue by the loyal 



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378 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

citizens, who could not do too much for the defenders of their 
homes and their country. Intense enthusiasm prevailed wher- 
ever the stars and stripes were seen. As we marched through 
the streets of Westminster and Manchester, thousands of flags 
and handkerchiefs were waved by the noble women and patri- 
otic children. No sacrifices were too great for them to make. 

While enjoying the rest afforded by the brief delay near 
Manchester, though the weather was hot and sultry, an order 
was received conmnanding the corps to move immediately towards 
Gettysburg, thirty-six miles distant, where our troops were now 
hastily gathering behind the defenses of Cemetery Kidge. 

Like the good soldiers they were, the Sixth corps sprang 
forward with alacrity to obey, the Fifth Maine leading in that 
famous march, which began at 9 : 30 p. m. On the evening of 
July 1st information had been received that a great battle was 
in progress, and that upon its issue depended the fate of the 
country. Every one cheerfully obeyed orders. On, on, through 
the night we marched, each hour bringing us nearer this sacred 
field. No halt was made for breakfast. The services of the 
Sixth corps were at this critical time needed at the front. The 
hot rays of a July sun poured down upon us, but no one fal- 
tered. The distant roar of cannon told us that the battle was 
on once more. Eager for the fray, the footsteps were quick- 
ened. Hour after hour tramped the Sixth corps. The noon of 
July 2d found the regiment twelve miles away. No time was 
taken for dinner, but on we marched, reaching Rock Creek at 
about 5 o'clock in the afternoon. Here the canteens were filled 
and some preparations were made for satisfying the hunger that 
each one felt, having taken no food, except by snatches, since 
the march began on the previous evening ; but before coffee 
could be made orders came for the troops to advance. The news 
of the arrival of the Sixth corps was greeted with cheer after 
cheer, as the word flew from division to division along the lines. 
The Fifth Maine, that evening of July 2d, moved to the front, 
as far as Plum Run, some thirty or forty rods in advance of 
the position indicated by this monument, in the direction of 
Devil's Den, though later in the evening it formed its line on 
the right of Little Round Top. On the following morning the 



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FIFTH REOIMENT: EDWARDS* ADDRESS. 379 

stone-wall — which still remains much as we left it — was thrown 
up. A few prisoners were found in yonder house — or rather 
in one which occupied the site of the present buildings. 

The morning of July 3d found the Fifth in an important 
position, though little was required other than holding what had 
been secured. Throughout July 3d the regiment remained in 
the position taken. The forenoon wore away. At one o'clock 
the storm of battle broke. The air was filled with bursting 
shells and solid shot. For nearly two hours the terrible can- 
nonading continued. Then came the famous charge of Pickett, 
which was against the centre of the Union line, while we were 
further to the left. On the evening of July 3d three companies 
of the regiment went forward towards the Emmitsburg road to 
reconnoitre, to look for men who had been wounded the day 
before and to bring them in ; several were found ; we also found 
near the Trostle buildings, as if abandoned, a cannon, two 
limbers and some other artillery property, which we hauled 
back that night. This belonged to the 9th Mass. battery, and 
had been lost during the fight of Sickles' corps on the 2d of 
July. The battle of Gettysburg had been fought and won. 
In the afternoon and night of July 4th the rain fell in torrents, 
and under cover of the storm Lee began his movements towards 
Virginia. 

On July 5th the regiment, while in pursuit of Lee's army, 
had engagements at Fairfield, and later at Funkstown and Will- 
iamsport. The next battle of importance was at Rappahannock 
Station, November 7, 1863. It was here that the Fifth Maine 
and the 121st N. Y., the gallant ''Onesters," charged upon 
the works of the enemy, capturing nearly three times as many 
prisoners as there were men in the two regiments. Our troops 
took up positions on the right of the railroad and formed line 
of battle. The enemy having been pressed back from the high 
ground in front, the regiment advanced, under a heavy artillery 
fire from their batteries, to within short range of their rifle-pits. 
Lieut.-Colonel Millett was wounded in this movement bjf a 
shell-fragment. About sunset an advance was ordered and the 
regiment moved forward, notwithstanding the terrific musketry 
fire poured into it. Soon after, a movement to the right was 



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380 MAINE AT GETTY8BUKG. 

ordered, and when the regiment lined up again it was to charge. 
With a yell, and amid a shower of bullets, the Fifth rushed on 
unmindful of danger. The enemy was taken by surprise and 
the rifle-pits were carried at the point of the bayonet. Mean- 
while the troops on the left having, after a heroic and san- 
guinary struggle, carried the redoubts and fortifications at that 
point, the enemy, to escape, were pressing to a pontoon bridge, 
their only means of crossing the river. The arrival of the 
Fifth among them, and the confusion which it created, enabled 
us to gather the fruits of victory in unstinted measure. The 
bridge was secured to us, and after a little resistance a capture 
of some twelve hundred prisoners, among whom were two brig- 
ade commanders and many field and staff officers, was effected. 
Four battle-flags of the regiments opposing us were captured 
also, Lieutenant Lyon, commanding company K, taking the 
colors of the 8th La., Corporal Blondel of D that of the 6th 
No. Car., Corporal Shackford of company A that of the 54th 
No. Car., James A. Littlefield of company I that of the 7th No. 
Car. The flags were subsequently presented to General Meade. 
At this battle the swords of Colonels Penn of Louisiana and 
Godwin and Murchison of North Carolina, the two first named 
being in conunand of brigades, also forty-six other swords, 
were surrendered to the colonel of the Fifth ; and Lieutenant 
McLellan and others also got some. Major Daggett was detailed 
by Colonel Upton, who conunanded the brigade, to conmiand 
the battalion which escorted the captured flags and trophies of 
the charge to General Meade's headquarters. Our loss in killed 
was 7, including Lieutenant French and acting Lieut. Tubbs 
(the latter's commission as Lieutenant being then on its way), 
and 28 wounded, several of whom died of their wounds. We 
must not forget to mention the active part taken by the Sixth 
Maine in this glorious battle. That regiment charged the 
enemy^s redoubt at our left and won its renowned victory. 

The last week of November, 1863, found the regiment, on 
the' brief campaign south of the Rapidan, at Locust Grove, 
facing the enemy once more, but in this engagement our loss 
was slight. Two days later found the Fifth skirmishing across 
Mine Run with but small loss. Returning to our camp at 



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FITTH REGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 381 

Welford's Ford, on the Major plantation, we remained, pleas- 
antly situated, during the winter. The regiment, instructed in 
drills and discipline, grew still more proficient. 

The regiment broke camp at Hazel River May 3, 1864, 
marched and crossed the Rapidan at Germanna Ford. The 
regiment had about 275 effective men in the ranks, with the 
following officers: Colonel Edwards, Lieut.-Col. Millett, 
Major Daggett, Adjutant Parsons, as field and staff ; the line 
officers being Captains: Robinson, Small, Harris, Sanborn, 
Ladd, Clark and Lemont (Captains Stevens and Walker being 
detached at division headquarters) ; First Lieutenants : W. E. 
Stevens, Dexter, Wight, Lunt, O. B. Stevens, Summersides, 
Mitchell and Lyon ; Second Lieutenants : Grenier, Patterson, 
Hutchings, McLellan, Goldthwaite and acting Lieut. Paradis. 

On the 5th and 6th participated in the battle of the Wilder- 
ness. During the three following days it was under fire, and 
on the 10th took part in one of the desperate charges of the 
great battle of Spotsylvania. The Fifth Maine was one of the 
twelve picked regiments selected for the charge on the right of 
the centre of the enemy's line. The Fifth numbered about 200 
men in the ranks, 40 others, with three officers, being absent 
on picket duty. As the twelve regiments were formed in line 
of battle. General Wright said to the commander of the Fifth : 
"Colonel, I give you the place of honor in this charge. I give 
you one of the best regiments in the whole service as a support. 
If you get into their works, serve them as you did at Rappa^ 
hannock Station." The regiment referred to by the General as 
a support was the noble Sixth Maine. Behind this was the 5th 
Wis. On the right of the Fifth Maine was the 121st N. Y.— 
as brave a regiment as was ever mustered into the service. In 
the gi*and charge that was made, 11 of the 17 line officers of 
the Fifth who went in were killed or wounded, and one-half of 
the men were shot down while crossing a field not more than 
ten rods in width, and in less than two minutes of time. The 
defenses of the enemy were reached and passed. A hand-to- 
hand conflict ensued. Nearly two thousand prisoners were 
captured by the colunm, but many of the prisoners escaped ; 



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382 MAINE AT OETTY8BURO. 

the Fifth captured two colors, one of these being taken by- 
Lieutenant Paradis. 

You have heard and seen various skeptical inquiries and 
remarks concerning bayonet conflicts and wounds. Some time 
since a friend of his inquired of General Upton, our brigade 
commander, as to the use of the bayonet, and I give you an 
extract from his reply which any one can find in Fox's Regi- 
mental Losses, page 78, foot note, as follows : ^ ♦ ♦ bayo- 
net wounds and sabre cuts are very rare. But at Spotsylvania 
there were plenty of bayonet wounds, and no picture could 
give too exalted an idea of the gallantry of the 121st N. Y., 
5th Maine, and 96th Penn., as they led the assaulting column 
of twelve picked regiments over the formidable intrenchments 
which confronted them." And need I ask you, soldiers of the 
Fifth Maine, whether anybody got hurt by the bayonet ? Think 
of our lion-heai'ted Corporal, Cyrus Thurlow, our strong man, 
who, having carried our colors through the battle of the Wil- 
derness, when he found that we were to charge the enemy's 
works, came and asked to exchange the colors for a musket, 
that he might do his share of work that afternoon of May 10th ; 
and going forward with us in the foremost ranks, pressed on 
into the second line of works where the fierce hand-to-hand 
conflict took place, to the bitter end and overthrow of our 
opponents ; and where Thurlow, too, gave up his life for the 
great cause that he fought for. His last act, seen by his com- 
panions, was when his special antagonists, in a bunch, refused 
to throw down their arms; he instantly, defending himself, 
with fierce thrusts disabled two of them with his bayonet ; but 
there were too many for him. The incredulous are referred to 
the oflicial report of General Upton, Rebellion Records, Vol. 
36, part 1, page 668, in which he describes some of the gallant 
deeds of the Fifth Maine regiment in this battle. 

On the morning of May 12th, as Hancock's corps stormed 
the "salient," or angle, the Fifth Maine was ordered to join in 
supporting the attack. Moving to the right of the angle, it 
was the first regiment to charge the enemy at this point. The 
enemy's fire on our right compelled the right to fall back, mak- 
ing an angle, the open flank being about fifty paces from their 



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FIFTH regiment: EDWARDS* ADDRESS. 383 

works. Throughout the day and late into the night the battle 
raged. It was here that the Colonel, Lieutenant Wight (a), 
and some other officers of the regiment ran up, by pushing 
with shoulders against the wheels, two guns that had ceased 
firing for lack of cannoneers and, by infantry volunteers aiding 
the artiUery-men, made use of them during the contest. The 
brigade was relieved about 6 p. m., after ten hours of fighting. 
In the eight days of the campaign we had lost of our officers 
Captain Lemont and Lieut. Lyon, killed ; Captain Clark and 
Lieut. O. B. Stevens, mortally wounded ; Captains Robinson, 
Harris and Ladd and Lieuts. Grenier, McLellan and Hutchings, 
wounded, beside two or three others slightly wounded. 

The morning of the 13th found the regiment with less than 
sixty men ready for duty, and only one line officer. This num- 
ber was subsequently increased by the return of men detailed in 
the past and of those who had been slightly wounded. The 
regiment crossed the North Anna May 23d, and helped to destroy 
the Virginia Central Eailroad, as far as Hewlett's Station. 
There was considerable skirmishing until June 1st, when late in 
the afternoon a sharp fight occurred at Cold Harbor. This was 
the first and only time in the history of the regiment that it 
acted as a support to infantry in a charge, and- the first time that 
the regiment during some portion of an action was not on the 
front line of battle. Until June 12th the regiment was daily 
under fire. Crossing the James River at Bermuda Hundreds 
the Fifth reached the vicinity of Petersburg June 1.7th, and on 
the following morning, at 2 : 30 o'clock, was ordered out to 
make a charge. The order was, however, soon countermanded, 
as it was ascertained that the enemy was too strongly intrenched 
to be driven from its position. A movement was then made 
around Petersburg to secure the Weldon Railroad, where the 
regiment had its last fight with the enemy. 

The order relieving the men from further service, the time 
of enlistment having expired, found them on the 23d of June 
in the rifle-pits on the line of battle, with loaded muskets facing 
the enemy. On the evening of the 23d the regiment marched 

(a) Evidence conoerninff this act can be found on the files of the Pension Office 
at Washingrton. 



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384 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

to City Point, and on the following morning boarded the steamer 
John Brooks for Washington. But it was not allowed to leave 
the army until General Upton had expressed his sentiments in 
a letter, prepared by himself, which was read to the regiment 
as we were about to embark. Perhaps if I again read it here 
it may quicken your blood : — 

" Headquarters Second Brigade, June 23, 1864. 
** Colonel Edwards^ Officers and Men of the Fifth Maine Regiment: — 

** At the expiration of your term of service, I feel it a g^eat pleasure to 
signify to you my appreciation of the services you have rendered your country. 
Your gallantry, your constancy, your devotion to the flag of your country, 
your patient endurance of fatigue during the campaigns of three long years, 
entitle you to the lasting gratitude and esteem of your countrymen. Spring- 
ing to arms at the first sound of danger, you have given proof of your valor 
and patriotism on every field, from the first Bull Run to the present time. 
Leaving your native state with over one thousand and forty men, and receiv- 
ing a large number of recruits, you now return with but two hundred and 
sixteen. 

"The long list of battles in which you have participated, including Bull 
Run, West Point, Gaines* Mill, Charles City Cross-roads, Crampton's Gap, 
Antietam, Fredericksburg, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Rappahannock Sta- 
tion, eight days' battle in the wilderness and at Spotsylvania court-house, and 
Cold Harbor, will account for your losses. 

** Repeatedly have the colors of the Fifth Maine been floated over the 
enemy's works. From behind their intrenchments you have captured the 
battle-flags of five of the proudest regiments in the Confederate service; and 
while inflicting a loss equal to your own, you have in addition captured more 
prisoners than you have borne names on your rolls. But while your former 
services have won for you the admiration and confidence of your command- 
ing officers, your example and conduct during the present campaign forms 
the brightest page of your history. 

*' After three years* hard fighting, well knowing the risks of battle, not 
even the ardent desire or the immediate prospect of being restored to your 
friends could dampen your ardor or enthusiasm; but like brave and patriotic 
men you have fought nobly to the end of your term, adding with each day 
increased luster to your arms. With this brilliant record and the proud con- 
sciousness that you have stood by your country in the darkest hour of her 
peril, you now return to your homes where you will receive the homage due 
the services you have rendered. 

*' Bidding each and every one of you, in behalf of your old comrades in 
arms, a hearty God-speed, I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

*'E. Upton, Brigadier- General, Commanding V 

On reaching Washington the Fifth was ordered into camp 
in a pasture near the boat landing, a place selected by the 
authorities ; but not caring to obey this order, the regiment 



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FIFTH REGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 385 

marched into the city and camped for the night on the grounds 
of the Smithsonian Institute, remaining here until paid off on 
the evening of the 26th, when it started for the north. 

Before leaving the army at Petersburg an order was received 
from the General conmnanding the army for the regiment to take 
home the battle-flags captured on the line of battle. During its 
term of service six flags had been taken — four at Rappahannock 
Station and two at Spotsylvania — though the regiment is only 
credited with the capture of five. The flag not accounted for 
in records was taken in the charge at Spotsylvania, May 10, 
1864. Doubtless the member of the Fifth to whom the flag 
was given was killed, and the flag fell into the hands of some 
other command that later passed over the same ground. The 
flags are now in the state and national capitols. The staves are 
in the Memorial Building on Peaks Island. The army records 
at Washington, at the time the regiment passed through the 
city on its way home, showed that no regiment had up to that 
time captured more flags than the Fifth. During its three years 
of service it had captured more than two thousand prisoners. 
The regiment was mustered out at Portland, July 27, 1864. 

POEM. 

READ BY MRS. HELEN S. PACKARD, 
WIFE OF LIBUT. JOHN A. A. PACKARD. 

Oh, native State, I sing of thee! 

Broad field of Freedom's loyal thought, 
Thy scented pines are dear to me, 

Thy vales with tenderest memories fraught 

Each northern blast that sweeps along 

Thy cragged hills, or mountain tiF>s, 
Is dearer far than sweetest song 

That ever fell from artist lips. 

Thy salt sea marshes freshly blown 

By winds that sweep the open sea. 
Thy gray old rocks with moss o'ergrown 

Are sacred still to mine and me. 

Oh, grand old State! land where I drew 

My earliest breath, whose fresh, strong breeze 

Told murmuring tales of valor true. 
And whispered in the leafy trees. 



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386 MAINE AT GETTY8BUKG. 

I come to-day, with every nerve 

Quivering with love for native sod ; 

With courage every end to serve, 

One iiag, one country, and one God. 

THE VOICE OF MAINB^ 

Along the outmost eastern line 

That marks our country's unlocked gate, 

Crested with hill, and towering pine, 
Fair lies our noble Pine Tree State. 

Thy landlocked bays, thy islands green. 

Thy purpling mountains flushed with light, 

Thy broadening streams that lie between. 
Are sweet to soul and sense and sight. 

The blue Atlantic laps thy coast 
In tender song and music wild. 

Thy granite hills, our pride and boast. 
Are dear to every wandering child. 

Oh, rock-bound State! Not long ago, 
0*er rugged hill and fertile plain 

A clarion voice spoke, and lo! 

Thy sons sprang up, oh, loyal Maine. 

That voice aroused the slumbering hills. 

It sounded down the lonely coast, 
Along the mountain streams and rills 

It woke to life a mighty host. 

O'er rocky farm, through village street, 
Across the meadows green and fair. 

In bugle note, and drums' loud beat, 

It sounded through the slumbering air. 

It touched the bench, the loom, the wheel, 
It echoed loud the anvil's ring. 

And dreaming student woke to feel 
That Self was slave and Duty king. 

Not long ago. But yet the chimes 

That tell the tireless round of years, 

Have sounded eight and twenty times 
The signal of life's hopes and fears. 

It is not long, we measure space 

Not by the span that binds us here. 

But in the light of deeds we trace 

Their names in letters bright and clear. 

And were ye lacking, sons of Maine, 
When duty's call rang in your ears ? 

Your 'scutcheons show no blot, no stain, 
Undimmed by aught save loving tears. 



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FIFTH REGIMENT : MRS. PACKARD'S POEM. 387 

Where are they now ? Go, ask the Past, 

That opens wide to-day her door, 
And bid her tell of shadows cast 

0*er hearts and homes forevermore. 

She tells of shattered dreams and hopes, 

Of fires long quenched, of other years. 
Of sunken graves on sunny slopes 

Kept fresh by memory's loving tears. 

With background dark of hill and wood, 

* Neath rugged rock and leafy tree 
We stand to-day, where once they stood 

A firm and tried phalanstery. 

And here with us in proud array 

Stands that old band of comrades true, 
Who marched with us that far-off day, 

Brave, loyal hearts 'neath garb of blue. 

In spite of strange, tumultuous thought. 

That teems and crowds our busy brain, 
We welcome those who with us fought, 

Back to our presence once again. 

Oh, loyal, great, true-hearted ones! 

The noble Empire State ne*er gave 
More faithful, brave, devoted sons 

To do their part amid the brave. 

Though furrowed brow and silvered hair 

Tell the old story on each face. 
Though time has plowed deep lines of care 

Instead of old-time, boyish grace, 

Yet still to-day we give you cheer 

With throbbing hearts of joy and pain; 
With you we drop the silent tear 

For those who ne'er came back again. 

With you, we here rejoice once more, 

That we may give the friendly grasp, 
And once again live old times o'er, 

And feel again the old hand clasp. 

Oh, comrades from the Empire State! 

'Twere worth the living o'er again. 
Those deadly days of war and hate. 

Those weary hours of strife and pain; 

'Twere worth the suffering and the fear, 

'Twere worth the heavy debt we paid. 
To see thy bronzed faces here 

Amid this g^een and leafy shade. 

Between our parted, sundered lives 

Old Time has plowed a chasm deep, 



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388 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

But all his manacles and gyves 
Can never chain true comradeship. 

And so, across a silver bridge, 

We give the clasping hand to thee, 

Our comrades true, on plain and ridge, 
Our comrades for eternity. 

Bound close by ties that death nor fate 
Can e*er have power to change or part. 

Though shadows fall — the hour late — 
Yet still each heart shall answer heart 

Here raged the conflict; sinking low 

The sun shone red where cannon pealed, 

And in the west, with molten glow, 

Shed sullen radiance o'er the field. • 

On blood-stained grass, once fresh and green, 
He cast his dying rays of light, 

And then o*er all the dreadful scene 
Low fell the friendly shades of night. 

No whistling bullets chill our blood, 

No cries ring through the autumn air. 

But soft winds fall in tender flood 

And trees and fiowers are passing fair. 

We hear no tread of martial feet. 

No hoof beats ring with clattering sound 

Across the grass and clover sweet. 

No cannons peal their deadly round. 

We see no serried columns there, 

No loud, commanding tones we hear. 

No phantom presence haunts the air. 
No step is heard by conscious ears. 

But here beneath these tranquil skies 
We stand to-day in solemn thought, 

And grateful prayers like incense rise 

To those who suffered, bled and fought 

Oh, heroes from the Pine Tree State! 

You kept the bridge in manly part, 
Not blood nor carnage, death nor fate, 

Could turn one true or loyal heart. 

Did Nature in that far-off time 

When slow she moulded, day by day. 

Divine the purpose, grand, sublime. 

Which grew within the hardening clay ? 

Did she e'er dream in ages past, 

What miracles should balance fate. 

And that from out her storehouse vast 
Her treasures should commemorate ? 



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FIFTH REGIMENT MONUMENT DEDICATION. 389 

Her mines of wealth imprisoned deep, 

Should grovf beneath the chisel* s will, 
To towering shaft and pillar steep 

In forms of grace by human skill ? 

In every tinted granite vein, 

In every block of native stone. 
In lordly oak and stately pine, 

The blossom of your fame is blown. 

The radiance of your star shall glow 

Brighter than stars that shine at night, 
And God in righteous power will show 

The balance sheet of truth and right. 

In future's grasp your fame still lieiS, 

An untouched book, its pages clear, 
A tiny tree that yet shall rise 

And spread its branches far and near. 

Our glorious dead! Oh, comrades gray. 

Uncover now your reverent heads, 
They sweetly sleep, step softly, pray. 

Above their low and narrow beds. 

Sleep well, oh Dead, for you too soon 

Were past all passions, hopes and fears. 
Above your graves each year shall bloom 

The grasses watered by our tears. 

Above these consecrated grounds, 

We pledge our faith and love anew. 
Time's shadow on the sunken mounds 

Shall never dim our worship true. 

Our living heroes, ye who come 

To render tribute here to-day, 
Victors are you, *neath this fair dome 

Crowned fresh with ivy, palm and bay. 

Live as ye fought in war's dark night. 

With faces turned to meet the foe. 
Fight to uphold the freeman's right 

And render justice for each blow. 

By our dear dead, whose spirits drift 

Above the mounds that hold their dust. 
Be watchful, vigilant and swift, 

To ever guard yoiu* living trust. 

Theirs be sweet rest, of valor bom. 

Yours be the living, glowing name. 
In golden text inscribed upon 

The shadowy muster-roll of fame. 



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390 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH. 

The Fifth Maine regiment was raised in the spring and 
early summer of 1861, almost without an effort, responding 
quickly to the governor's call to arms. The swelling tide of 
patriotism could not be restrained ; the limits set by the national 
authorities were speedily reached, to the full measure of the 
number of men it was willing to receive in the military service. 
The Fifth was made up of companies newly organized, one 
each at Gorham, Biddeford, Saco, Brunswick, Lewiston, Bethel 
and Minot, and three at Portland. The company locations 
indicate that the rank and file came from the counties of Cum- 
berland, York, Androscoggin and Oxford. The rendezvous 
was at Portland, and at its muster into the U. S. service on 
the 24th of June, 1861, for three years, its organization was 
as follows : — 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONBD STAFF. 

Colonel, Mark H. Dunnell, Portland. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Edwin Illsley, Lewiston. 

Major, Samuel C. Hamilton, Biddeford. 

Adjutant, Charles S. Whitman, Portland, Second Lieut Co. E. 

Quartermaster, John S. Merrill, Gorham, Second Lieut. Co. A. 

Surgeon, Benjamin S. Buxton, Warren. 

Assistant Surgeon, Francis G. Warren, Biddeford. 

Chaplain, John N. Adams, Portland. 

Sergeant-Major, Frederick Speed, Gorham. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant, Adelbert B. Twitchell, Bethel. 

Commissary-Sergeant, Benjamin Freeman, Bethel. 

Hospital Steward, William S. Noyes, Saco. 

Band Leader, Jonathan Cole, Portland. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, Josiah Heald, Gorham. 

First Lieutenant, William Merrill, Gorham. 

Second Lieutenant, John S. Merrill, Gorham. 
Co. B. Captain, Lewis B. Goodwin, Biddeford. 

First Lieutenant, Robert M. Stevens, Biddeford. 

Second Lieutenant, Samuel H. Pillsbury, Biddeford. 
Co. C. Captain, Isaac B. Noyes, Saco. 

First Lieutenant, Frederick S. Gumey, Saco. 

Second Lieutenant, David S. Barrows, Saco. 
Co. D. Captain, Edward W. Thompson, Brunswick. 

First Lieutenant, George B. Kenniston, Boothbay. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles H. Small, Topsham. 



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FFPTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 391 

Co. E. Captain, Emery W. Sawyer, Lisbon. 

First Lieutenant, Aaron S. Daggett, Greene. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles S. Whitman, Portland. 
Co. F. Captain, George P. Sherwood, Portland. 

First Lieutenant, Nathan Walker, Portland. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Atwood, Gardiner. 
Co. G. Captain, Henry G. Thomas, Portland. 

First Lieutenant, George W. Martin, Portland. 

Second Lieutenant, Thomas J. Sawyer, Portland. 
Co. H. Captain, Edward A. Scamman, Portiand. 

First Lieutenant, Ambrose S. Dyer, Yarmouth. 

Second Lieutenant, Samuel Munson, Portland. 
Co. I. Captain, Clark S. Edwards, Bethel. 

First Lieutenant, John B. Walker, Bethel. 

Second Lieutenant, Cyrus M. Wormell, Bethel. 
Co. K. Captain, William A. Tobie, Poland. 

First Lieutenant, Hamlin T. Bucknam, Minot 

Second Lieutenant, Burbank Spiller, Raymond. 

The regiment left Portland June 26, 1861, proceeded to 
Washington and remained in that vicinity until the battle of 
BuU Run. Previous to this battle, in which it took part, the 
Fifth was assigned to a brigade commanded by Colonel Howard 
of the Third Maine, in Heintzelman's division. In October 
it was transferred to Slocum's brigade (Seventh) of Greneral 
Franklin's division, and went into camp near Alexandria, and 
doing picket duty near Mount Vernon, with frequent skir- 
mishes. The regiment was not at the siege of Yorktown, in 
April and May, 1862, but with Franklin's division remained on 
transports on the rivers. Early in May the regiment engaged 
in the field operations of McClellan, and after that had a share 
in the various battles of the Peninsula campaign, terminating at 
Harrison's Landing on the James River. May 18, 1862, the 
Sixth corps was formed, with General Franklin in command, 
composed of two divisions, Slocum's and Smith's. The brigade 
to which the Fifth belonged became the Second brigade of the 
First division, and throughout its subsequent history the regi- 
ment retained its place in the same brigade of the same division 
of the Sixth corps. 

Returning from the peninsula when the battle of Second 
Bull Run was in progress, the Fifth took only a slight part in 
that, but was actively engaged at Crampton's Grap and at 



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392 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG, 

Antietam September 14 and 17, 1862. The subsequent history 
of the regiment is so clearly defined in the Address, given on 
the preceding pages, by the o£Scer who so long conmianded the 
regiment and finally brought it home for muster-out, that we 
omit the details of its general campaigns. The regiment 
received a warm reception, amounting to an ovation, upon its 
arrival at Portland, the last of June, 1864 ; its march through 
the streets was a triumphal procession ; a public reception and 
a royal feast attested the high regard in which e&ch hero of the 
Fifth was held at home. The final muster-out did not take 
place until July 27, 1864 (a). 

The men present, mustered out with the organization, 
numbered 193, besides the officers; 116 of the regiment had 
re-enlisted about the first of January, 1864, and the survivors 
of these, 78 in number, with the later recruits and several 
officers, were assigned to the Seventh Maine regiment, shortly 
after merged into the First Maine Veterans a regiment organ- 
ized in Virginia September 20, 1864, made up from the officers 
and men of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Maine regiments who 
were not discharged or mustered out with their original organ- 
izations. This new regiment was assigned to the Third brigade, 
Second division of the Sixth corps and, being thus composed of 
excellent elements, made a brilliant record for itself in the 
campaign of General Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, Sep- 
tember and October, 1864, taking part in the battles of Charles- 
town, Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. 

Rejoining the army of the Potomac in December, 1864, it 
in the spring participated with great honor in the breaking of 
the Petersburg lines and the pursuit of Lee's army until its 
surrender; it was mustered out June 28, 1865, rounding out, 
for many of the men, a term of four years' service. 

(a) The monument inscription erroneonfily reads, ** mustered out June 27," pre- 
cisely as furnished to the executive committee by a representative of the Fifth 
Maine. The regimental officers have applied to correct the inscription to ** July 27." 



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ROSTER OF THE FIFTH REGIMENT, 393 



ROSTER. 

The following information relating to officers of the Fifth 
Maine regiment is obtained from the Volunteer Army Register, 
published by the War Department August 31, 1865, and other 
reliable sources : — 

Officers at Mustbr-out July 27, 1864. 

Colonel: Clark S. Edwards, Jan. 8, 1863, — brevet Brig. -Gen. Vols., 
Mar. 13, 1865. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: Henry R. Millett, Jan. 8, 1863. 

Major: Aaron S. Daggett, Apr. 14, 1863, — Lieut. -Col. 5th U. S. Vet. 
Vols., Jan., 1865; brevet Col. and brevet Brig. -Gen. U. S. Vols., Mar. 13, 
1865; Captain i6th Inft'y U. S. A., July, 1866; brevet Major and Lieut-Col. 
U. S. A.; Lieut-Col. 25th Inft'y, U. S. A. 

Adjutant: First Lieut. George B. Parsons. Apr. 4, 1864. 

Captains: Charles H. Small, Oct 7, 1861; Robert M. Stevens, Feb. 7, 
1862; Album P. Harris, July 3, 1862; Edward M. Robinson, Apr. 13, 1863; 
Frederick G. Sanborn, Apr. 13, 1863; John D. Ladd, Nov. i, 1863; Nathan 
Walker, Nov. i, 1863. 

First Lieutenants: William E. Stevens, Nov. i, 1862; Charles B. 
Dexter, Nov. i, 1862; W. B. Fenderson, Quartermaster, Nov. 26, 1862; 
Joseph Wight, May i, 1863; Lewis H. Lunt, May i, 1863; John H. Stevens, 
May 25, 1863, paroled prisoner, discharged Mar. 16, 1865; John C. Summer- 
sides, Nov. I, 1863. 

Second Lieutenants: Frank G. Patterson, Apr. 20, 1863; George A. 
Chandler, May 3, 1863, paroled prisoner, discharged Mar. 16, 1865; Sidney 
H. Hutchings, June 19, 1863. 

Surgeon: Francis G. Warren, Jan. 9, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeon: Melville H. Manson, May 4, 1863. 

Chaplain: John R. Adams, June 24, 1861. 

(The dates given above refer to rank or commission; those hereafter 
given refer to the date of event. ) 

Died. 

Lieutenant-Colonel: William S. Heath, killed inaction June 27, 1862. 

Captains: Frank L. Lemont, killed in battle of Spotsylvania, May 12, 
1864; Daniel C. Clark, May 16, 1864, from wounds received in action, — pre- 
viously served in First Maine regiment; Joseph C. Paradis, commissioned 
June 8, not mustered to this grade, died June 18, 1864, of wounds received 
in action at Cold Harbor. 

First Lieutenants: Ambrose S. Dyer, Sept. 22, 1861, at Yarmouth, 
Me; Smith G. Bailey, May 30, 1863, of wounds received in action at Salem 
Church; Andrew S. Lyon, in action May 10, 1864, at Spotsylvania, reported 
missing; Orrin B. Stevens, May 15, 1864, of wounds received in action 
May 10, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants: Cyrus W. Brann, killed in action at Salem 
Heights, Va., May 3, 1863; John S. French, killed Nov. 7, 1863, at battle of 
Rappahannock Station. 



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394 MAINE AT GETTYSBURG. 

Promoted and Transferred Out of Regiment. 

Promoted: Colonel Nathaniel J. Jackson, Sept. 24, 1862, to Brigadier- 
General of Vols , — brevet Major-General of Vols., Mar. 13, 1865; First Lieut. 
Richard C. Shannon, Oct. 23, 1862, to Captain and A. A. G. U. S. Vols.; 
First Lieut. Stephen H. Manning, Nov. 26, 1862, to Captain and A. Q. M., — 
brevet Brig.-General U. S. Vols. ; Second Lieut. Frederick Speed, Nov. 28, 
1861, to First Lieutenant and Adjutant Thirteenth Mame Vols.; Second 
Lieut. Henry W. Stinson, Apr. 30, 1863, to Captain and A. D. C. U. S. Vols. 

Transferred: Captain John C. Goldthwait, June 23, 1864, to Seventh 
Maine regiment, afterwards to First Maine Vet Inf., died of wounds Apr. 
18, 1865; First Lieut. George E. Atwood, Oct 7, 1862, to Twenty-fourth 
Maine regiment; First Lieut. P. Jordan Mitchell, June 23, 1864, to Seventh 
Maine regiment, afterwards to First Maine Vet Inf., — promoted to Captain 
not mustered, died of wounds Nov. 12, 1864; Second Lieut. John McLellan, 
June 23, 1864, to Seventh Maine regiment, afterwards to First Maine Vet. 
Inf., — promoted to Captain, discharged July 5, 1865; Second Lieut J. Augus- 
tine Grenier, June 23, 1864, to Seventh Maine regiment, afterwards to First 
Maine Vet. Inf., — promoted to First Lieutenant and Adjutant; Walter Foss, 
Sergeant, commissioned Second Lieutenant and First Lieutenant, transferred 
to First Maine Vet., not mustered, wounded, discharged for disability. 

Discharged. 

Captains: Josiah Heald, Aug. 9, 1861; William A. Tobie, Sept 20, 
1861; Lewis B.Goodwin, Sept. 20, 1861; Burbank Spiller, March 23, 1863; 
John B. Walker, June 17, 1863; Samuel H. Pillsbury, Aug. 12, 1863; Albert 
L. Bearing, Sept 8, 1863. First Lieutenants: Adjutant Charles S. Whit- 
man, Nov. 21, 1861; William Merrill, Dec. 10, 1861; Josiah R. Brady, Feb. 
14, 1862; Abel C. T. Stevens, May 7, 1862; George B. Kenniston, May 25, 
1863; John A. A. Packard, Nov. 25, 1863. pro. from Second Lieut., not mus- 
tered as First. 

Assistant Surgeon: William S. Noyes, Mar. 31, 1863. Acting Sur- 
geon, George E. Brickett, not must*d, as no vacancy; relieved Aug., 1862. 

Resigned. 

Colonels: Mark H. Dunnell, Sept 2, 1861; Edward A. Scamman, 
Jan. 8, 1863. Lieutenant-Colonel: Edward Illsley, Sept 24, 1861. 
Major: Samuel C. Hamilton, Sept 25, 1861. Captains: Isaac B. Noyes, 
Aug. I, 1861; Henry G. Thomas, Aug. 9, 1861, — Captain nth U. S. Inftry, 
Colonel 19th U. S. C. T., Brig.-General Vols., brevet Major-General Vols., 
Mar. 13, 1865; E. W. Sawyer, Aug. 16, 186 1; Edward W. Thompson, Sept 
8, 1861; Thomas J. Sawyer, Dec. 3, 1861; David S. Barrows, Jan. 23, 1862; 
George W. Patch, June 17, 1862; George E. Brown, Oct. 19, 1862; George 
P. Sherwood, Jan. 19, 1863; Hamlin T. Bucknam, Sept. 29, 1863. First 
Lieutenants: Fred S. Gumey, Aug. 15, 1861; John S. Merrill, Quarter- 
master, Sept 2, 1861; George W. Martin, Oct. 13, 1861; Charles K. Packard, 
June 13, 1862; George W. Graffam, Adjutant, Oct. 18, 1863; Geo. W. Bick- 
nell. Adjutant, Mar. 8, 1864. Second Lieutenants: Samuel Munson, Aug. 
25, 1861; Robert J. McPherson, Dec. 11, 1861; William H. Shaw, Jan. 13, 
1862; Cyrus M. Wormell, Feb. 22, 18^2; Simeon W. Sanborn, Oct. 16, 1862. 
Surgeon: Benjamin F. Buxton, Jan. 9, 1863. 

Otherwise Left the Service. 

First Lieutenant, Charles A. Waterhouse, dis. Mar. 11, 1864. 



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SIXTH MAINE REGIMENT. 395 



MONUMENT. 

The monument of the Sixth Maine Regiment is located to the east of 
Big Round Top on the north side of a narrow road which, coming down 
from the slope of Big Round Top, crosses the Taneytown road, and stands 
about two hundred yards east of the latter road. It is a tall shaft of alternate 
red and white Hallowell granite, surmounted by an intertwined double red 
cross of the Sixth corps. 

Admeasurements: Base, 5 feet 2 inches by 5 feet 2 inches by 2 feet 9 
inches; plmth, 3 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 7 inches; shaft, 2 
feet 9 inches by 2 feet 9 inches by 13 feet 2 inches; cap, 2 feet by 2 feet by 
2 feet. Total height, twenty-one feet six inches. 

It bears these inscriptions: — 



6th Maine 

Infantby, 

3d Brigade, 

IST Div. 
6th Corps, 

Held this Position 

July 3, 1863. 

in afternoon moved 

to support op centre, 

then to big round top. 



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I 



SmH MAINE BEOIHENT, 

THIED BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, SIXTH ARMT CORPS, 
AT THB BATTLB OF OBTTTBBUBa. 

N Russell's brigade, of the same division to which the Fifth 
Maine was attached, was the Sixth Maine, which had recently 
been one of the regiments of Burnham's famous Light Divis- 
ion. Like the Fifth it was a veteran regiment, and one of the 
most famous that carried the flag of Maine, Officers and men, 
the regiment numbered at Gettysburg about three hundred and 
fifty, its ranks still showing the losses at Fredericksburg, where 
it had greatly distinguished itself in the bloody charge on Marye's 
Heights. Col. Hiram Burnham, afterwards promoted for con- 
spicuous services, was in command. Moving in the same divis- 
ion with the Fifth Maine, the Sixth suffered all the hardships 
of the forced march from Manchester to Gettysburg. Arriving 
at Gettysburg, Russell's brigade was held in reserve in the rear 
of the line formed by the Third division and by Bartlett's brig- 
ade. With ominous meaning the wild sounds of battle smote 
on their ears, and the flashings of the artillery discharges on 
the smoke of the evening conflict, like lightning in the storm 
cloud, aroused their fagged-out spirits like a command to charge ; 
but the Sixth were not called to enter the arena of strife. 

This position in reserve was held during the night of July 
2d, and on the morning of the 3d the Sixth Maine with the brig- 
ade were moved to the left, to a position on the Taneytown road 
just east of Big Round Top. There they formed part of a force 
intended to frustrate any attempt of the Confederates to get into 
the rear of the Union army. In this position, where the regi- 
ment remained nearly all day July 3d, the monument has been 
placed. The Confederates did not make the anticipated attack 
and there was no fighting. 

On July 4th Russell's brigade being placed on the left of 
the Fifth corps line, the Sixth Maine found itself in line in the 



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SIXTH REGIMENT ENGAGED. 397 

hollow between the Round Tops, The only recorded casualty 
in the regiment, at Gettysburg, is that of Phineas F. Bean, 
Private company I, wounded July 4th. On July 5th the regi- 
ment moved in pursuit of Lee. 

The following letter, written by Adjutant Clark of this 
famous regiment, and dated at Cedar Rapids, la., October 25, 
1891, and addressed to Gen. B. F. Harris, formerly the Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, is subjoined, as it contains extracts from a diary 
which the Adjutant kept : — 

My Dear Friend: — 

I received your line this morning and return the enclosed 
memoranda of the Sixth Maine at Gettysburg. I have exam- 
ined my pocket-diary written at the time on the field, as we lay 
there, and this memoranda corresponds with the diary as to our 
location. I wrote on July 2d, " Arrived on battlefield of Get- 
tysburg at 4 p. M. Since that time a most terrific battle has 
been going on just in front of us, we being held in reserve. 
The rebels attacked our left and centre with great fury and 
overwhelming numbers, and for a while they were successful 
and our lines were pressed back, but they were finally repulsed 
with great slaughter. Everjrthing promises victory to-morrow. 
We are in position on the left of our lines." The fight in our 
front was evidently the attack on Sickles at the Peach Orchard 
and Emmitsburg road, and the final repulse of the rebels was 
at Little Round Top. 

On the 3d of July I wrote of our position : *' Our brigade 
was not engaged with infantry, being posted on the extreme 
left, where the enemy did not attack us." This was evidently 
on the Taneytown road, as that was the left of our lines. 

My diary does not show our position on the 4th, but speaks 
of our men gathering up the wounded and burying the dead, 
and my recollection is that it was between the Round Tops. 
That is the day you and I rode out to the Peach Orchard and 
drew the fire of the rebel picket line. Do you remember what 
a magnificent retreat we made? 

On the 5th of July my diary shows that we were ordered out 
early for a reconnaissance of our front, from which we were 
recalled and sent in pursuit of the enemy. ** Just at dark " (so 



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398 IfAINE AT GBTTTSBURG, 

the diary reads) ** we came upon the enemjr's rear at a pass in 
the mountains near Fairfield. The day was so far spent that we 
had not time to attack them, else we might have whipped Early 
handsomely, — for it was his division we came upon. We 
shelled him severely, and our skirmishers had quite a hot brush 
with his outposts." I have no recollection, however, that our 
own regiment was engaged. On the morning of the 6th he was 
gone. We stayed about Fairfield the 6th. Marched that night 
from 9 o'clock to 3 a. m. to and beyond Emmitsburg. On the 
7th marched at 9 a. m. ; went to and through Lewistown, and 
that night marched up the mountains in the rain and camped 
on the top at 2 a. m. in a potato field, where Colonel Burnham 
gave the order, " stick arms." Faithfully yours, 

Charles A. Clark. 

PARTICIPANTS. 

FIELD, STAFF AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Hiram Burnham, Cherryfield. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Benjamin F. Harris, Machias. 
Major, George Fuller, Corinth. 

Adjutant, First Lieutenant Charles A. Clark, Sangerville. 
Quartermaster, First Lieutenant Addison P. Buck, Foxcroft. 
Assistant Surgeon, William Buck, Harmony. 
Chaplain, Moses J. Kelley, Montville. 
Sergeant-Major, William H. West, Machias. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, William H. H. Bates, Eastport. 
Commissary-Sergeant, George H. Snowman, Bucksport. 
Hospital Steward, George T. Holmes, Foxcroft. 
Fife-major, James L. Holmes, Foxcroft. 

Company A. 
(Including i present sick.) 
Captain, Alexander B. Sumner, Lubec. 
First Lieutenant, Lyman H. Wilkins, Brownville. 
Second Lieutenant, Horace S. Hobbs, Milo. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergt., Ira P. Wing, Brownville, John J. Fogg, Bangor. 

CORPORALS. 

William H. Blood, Sebec, John B. Bates, Jr., Dover. 

Edward P. Prescott, Williamsburg, Loumus Berry, Brownville. 

PRIVATES. 

Ames, Francis M., Dover, Atwood, Charles E., Kenduskeag, 

Bagley, Levi, Milo, Berry, Charles H., Brownville, 

Blanchard, Newton, Foxcroft, Brawn, William H., Lubec, 



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SIXTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 399 

Chase, Rufus G., Foxcroft, Crockett, Seth B., Guilford, 

Davis, Ozro W., Bangor, Dawes, George W., Foxcroft, 

Edes, Charles E., Foxcroft, Farrington, Henry H., Foxcroft, 

Gould, Isaiah S., Brownville, Greenleaf, William A., Abbot, 

Harris, Benjamin, Brownville, Holden, George F., Bangor, 

Kimball, Alfred, Harmony, Lurchin, Hillman P., Lubec, 

Morong, Frederick W., Lubec, Morrill, Shepard, Brownville, 

Neagle, James B., Lubec, Plummer, Fred E., Foxcroft, 

Pratt, Fernando G., Foxcroft, Sewall, William G., Foxcroft, 

Stowell, Joseph N., Brownville, Titcomb, Frank W., Corinna, 

White, Henry K., Sangerville. 

On SpecialDutv or Detached Service: Privates: Albert L. Bragg, 
Dover, and Andrew J. Robinson, Dover, at brig. h*dqrs; John E. Larrabee, 
Parkman, q*rm*r dept. div. h*dqrs; Clarence W. P. Osgood, Dover, in 3d 
N. Y. battery. 

Company B. 
(Including 2 present sick.) 
Captain, Levi L. L. Bassford, Calais. 
First Lieutenant, Albert M. Murch, Ellsworth. 
Second Lieutenant, John C. Honey, Amherst. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Charles M. Flint, Calais, 

George E. Thomas, Ellsworth, Albert L. Jones, Holden, 

George W. Bowden, Ellsworth, Cyrus L. Murch, Ellsworth. 

CORPORALS. 

Jophanus M. Withee, Hancock, George F. Peaks, Dedham, 

Jonathan K. Phillips, Dedham, Oliver H. Goodwin, Ellsworth, 

Lorenzo D. Cousms, Ellsworth. 

PRIVATES. 

Bennett, John W., Ellsworth, Billington, Charles L., Dedham, 

Buker, Cyrus, Jr., Ellsworth, Carrigan, Thomas, Milford, 

Chase, Asa D., Calais, Chick, Thomas W., Clifton, 

Eldridge, Martin V., Newburg, Farrell, Albert F. H., Trenton, 

Fields, Alexander E., Ellsworth, Foster, Bartlett, Cherryfield, 

George, Herman S., Holden, Green, Allen V., Blissville, N. B., 

Hamilton, William, Ellsworth, Hines, Jesse, Ellsworth, 

Jewell, Joseph R., Ellsworth, Joy, Joseph A., Ellsworth, 

Kitching, Robinson, Fred*ick'n, N. B., McGary, Noah S., Calais, 
McKeen, James H., Ellsworth, Maddox, Edwm P., Hancock, 

Moor, Isaac F., Mariaville, Murphy, Samuel, Calais, 

Peaks, Henry, Dedham, Potter, Allen A., Ellsworth, 

Royal, Benjamin B., Ellsworth, Scribner, Benjamin F., Bangor, 

Sweeney, William H., Ellsworth, Sumner, Elliot L., Amherst, 
Thistlewood, Robert K., Alexander. 

Wagoner: David Clark, Ellsworth. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Sylvanus S. 
Boynton, Ellsworth, William George, Ellsworth, William D. Thompson, 
Ellsworth, and David A. West, Ellsworth, 3d N. Y. battery; Apollos Hunt, 
Ellsworth, and Roscoe G. Taylor, Amherst, amb. train; Melvin S. Jellison, 



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400 MAINE AT QETTY8BUB6. 

Clifton, and Theodore J. Lyman, Ellsworth, inv. det'ment; Bartlett Lynch, 
Ellsworth, wagon train; Augustus J. Trueworthy, Dedham, hosp. dept. 

Company C. 
First Lieutenant, Frederick A. Hill, Machias, commanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, John L. Pierce, Machias. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Bayles A. Campbell, Pembroke, 

Albion H. Campbell, Bowdoin, Benjamin R. J. Thaxter, Machias, 

Theodore Hill, Jr., Machias. 

CORPORALS. 

William H. Schoppee, Machias, Samuel O. Bryant, Machias, 

William R. Blackman, East Machias, James S. Libby, Cape Elizabeth, 
William K. Stiles, Columbia. 

PRIVATES. 

Allen, George H., Machias, Balch, Horatio G., Lubec, 

Bradbury, James T., Machias, Calkins, Frank A., Trescott, 

Chandler, Hersey B., Jonesport, Conniff, Thomas, Machias, 

Crane, James E., Machias, Dagnin, Patrick, Trescott, 

Deary, James, Machias, Falkner, John R., Machias, 

Foss, George E., Machias, Foss, James A., Machias, 

George, John, Machias, Hennessy, Jeremiah, Whitneyville, 

Hitchings, Ellis L., Cooper, Lamson, William H., Baring, 

May, Thomas, Boston, Mass., McCann, Alexander, Baring, 

McGrill, Thomas, Machias, O' Regan, Michael, Portland, 

Perry, John, Machias, St Germaine, Joseph, Marshfield, 

Tower, William H., Sackville, N. S., Triffet, George W., Wesley, 
Whitman, 'Stillman H., Baring, Wilder, Caleb B., Machias. 

Musician: Henry H. Bowles, Columbia Falls. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Captain Charles F. Stone, 
Machias, signal service. Corporals William Allen, Machias, and Charles W. 
Perkins, Wesley, invalid det'ment. Privates: James Black, Whiting, brig, 
h'dqrs; Gilbert L. Edgecomb, Topsham, and David Millay, East Machias, 
q*rm*r dept brig, h'dqrs; Harrison N. Elliott, Machias, div. h*dqrs; William 
H Getchell, Marshfield, 3d N. Y. battery; Silas Smith, Machias, q'rm'rdept 

Company D. 
(Including 4 present sick.) 
Captain, Reuel W. Furlong, Calais. 
First Lieutenant, Henry H. Waite, Calais. 
Second Lieutenant, Edward Williams, Calais. 

sergeants. 
istSergt. George P. Blanchard, Calais, Warren Eraser, Calais, 
Frank A. Barnard, Calais, James A. Chamberlain, Calais. 

corporals. 
Sumner Anderson, Robbinston, Hosea Q. Morton, Lee, 

John Chamberlain, Calais, William W. Weeks, Calais. 

privates, 
Allen, William, Calais, Bacon, James M., Calais, 

Claybome, Richard, Calais, Condon, Michael, St Stephen, N. B., 

Coy, William W., Calais, Doyle, Joseph, Calais, 



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SIXTH REGIMENT PARTICIPANTS. 



401 



Doyle, William, Calais, 
Foss, Charles H., Calais, 
Glover, ]ohn, Bangor, 
Hunter, Albert, Princeton, 
McEver, Hugh, Calais, 
Moore, James, Calais, 
Roach, Alexander, Calais, 
Scott, Charles A., Machias, 
Smith, Alon20, Calais, 
Swarbrick, Henry, Calais, 



Fogg, Hugh M., Calais, 
Glidden, Amaziah, Calais, 
Hanson, Alexander, Calais, 
Mahoney, Thomas, Calais, 
McLellan, George W., Baileyville, 
Pardue, James, Calais, 
Ross, Thomas, New York City, 
Scullen, Thomas, Calais, 
Stables, John, Calais, 
Tibbetts, Thomas, Calais, 



Yates, John, Bangor. 

Musician: John Nichols, Calais. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: William Coyle, 
Jr., Machias, teamster; James McCurdy, Princeton, and Thomas Mackey, 
Halifax, N. S., 3d N. Y. battery; Elias Smith, St. Stephen, N. B., amb. 
corps; Horace C. Wilson, Calais, Stewart* s battery. 

Company E. 
(Including 2 present sick.) 
First Lieutenant, James B. McKinley, Bucksport, conunanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, Fred B. Ginn, Orland. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Henry Tapley, Bucksport, * 

Waldo S. Richards, Prospect, Moses S. Wardwell, Orland, 

Charles P. Dorr, Bucksport, Greenleaf A. Goodale, Bucksport 

corporals. 

Alfred Treat, Bucksport, 
Stephen B. Wescott, Bluehill. 

PRIVATES. 

Arnold, Byron P., Orland, 



James Stubbs, Jr., Bucksport, 
Samuel J. Clark, Jr., Veazie, 



Archibald, James, Calais, 
Blaisdell, Austin D., Orland, 
Carroll, John, Bucksport, 
Clay. George W., Bluehill, 
Doak, Charles H., Bucksport, 
Foss, Nathaniel, St Albans, 
Harriman, Charles M., Orland, 
Hunnewell, Calvin, Alexander, 
King, Joseph, Calais, 
Leavitt, John, Calais, 
McDonald, Archibald, Calais, 
Morton, Robert A., Pittston, 
Ripley, Thomas, Waite, 
Trundy, Austin H., Dover, 



Brennan, Michael, Bangor, 
Carter, Albina H., Bluehill, 
Colson, Edward L., Bucksport, 
Dudley, Francis J., Bangor, 
Foss, Thomas B., St Albans, 
Hey wood, Sewall L., Bucksport, 
Keefe, John, Ireland, 
Lampher, Edward D., Bucksport, 
Lurvey, Francis G., Tremont, 
McGlaughlin, Ira, Calais, 
Richardson, William A., Orland, 
Smart, Charles, Bucksport, 
Verrill, Moses S., Bucksport, 



Webb, John, Bucksport. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: John Kennedy, 
Bucksport, and Greenleaf G. Webster, Bucksport, nurses in regtl. hosp. 
John M. Rice, Hampden, adjt clerk; Lewis P. Abbott, Bucksport, art*y brig. 
Charles L. Davis, Bucksport, Albert N. Eaton, Oldtown, Jerome Hyde, Cor- 
inth, and Arthur I. Saunders, Orland, detached as teamsters; John Karnes, 
Houlton, saddler art'y brigade. 



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402 



MAINE AT GETTT8BUBO. 



Company F. 
Captain, Theodore Lincoln, Jr., DennysviUe. 
First Lieutenant, Simon Pottle, 2d, Perry. 
Second Lieutenant, Isaac C. Campbell, Pembroke. 

SBRGBANTS. 

William Shehan, Dennysville, James R. Hayward, DennysviUe, 

Josiah Sears, Pembroke, Thomas Matheson, Dennysville. 

CORPORALS. 

Reuben N. Maker, Cutler, Joseph Gilmore, Pembroke, 

Charles C. Leighton, Pembroke, Michael Donnelly, Pembroke, 

Josiah C. Fish, Perry. 

PRIVATES. 

Babcock, Charles C, Pembroke, 



Averill, Stephen W., Cooper, 
Benner, Amos C, Edmunds, 
Blanchard, William M., Charlotte, 
Cameron, John H., Pembroke, 
Collins, Patrick H., Calais, 
Finney, Ira J., Pembroke, 
Oilman, Warren, Meddybemps, 
Hersey, Azor H., Pembroke, 
Lawton, John A., Dennysville, 
McCarty, William, Perry, 
Morrison, Reuben H., Pembroke, 
Owens, Oeo. H., Pembroke, 
Rice, Lyman F., Hampden, 
Sawtelle, Albert, Cutler, 
Vickery, William H., Crawford, 
Welch, Thomas, Pembroke, 



Benner, Washington, Dennysville, 
Bridges, Almon H., Charlotte, 
Campbell, Adna H. R., Pembroke, 
Dudley, Freeman F., Dennysville, 
Oardner, Willard E., Meddybemps, 
Henry, William O., Eastport, 
Larrey, James, Lubec, 
Lincoln, Otis, Jr., Perry, 
Merry, James E., Robbinston, 
Nutter, George F., Crawford, 
Redman, John, Meddybemps, 
Robb, Hugh, Jr., Cooper, 
Sweeney, John, Portland, 
Ward, Amos, Pembroke, 
White, Thomas, Pembroke, 



Wood, Matthew, Meddybemps. 

Musician: Robert B. Teed, Pembroke. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Isaac Gardner, 
Dennysville, amb. corps; James F. Mitchell, Boston, Mass., 3d N. Y. batt*y; 
Bela R. Reynolds, Dennysville, signal corps; John W. Reynolds, Pembroke, 
and John Stoddard, Pembroke, art*y brig. 

Company G. 
(Including i present sick.) 
Captain, George W. Bumham, Cherryfield. 
First Lieutenant, Lindroff W. Smith, Steuben. 

sergeants. 
istSergt., George A. Dyer, Franklin, John McGregor, Eastport, 



William Shaw, Cherryfield, 

Fonze G. Leighton, Columbia, 
George H. Peva, Cherryfield, 
Hillman L. Tibbetts, Addison, 
Joseph Robinette, Portland. 

Andrews, Malcolm, Harrington, 
Bean, John, Robbinston, 
Boyden, Samuel, Robbinston, 



Horace G. Jacobs, Cherryfield. 
corporals. . ' 

Charles Frye, Machiasport, 
Samuel C. Chase, Cherryfield, 
Nelson C. Wallace, Milbridge, 

privates. 

Andrews, Samuel, Cutler, 
Bennett, Henry, Harrington, 
Conners, Horatio B., Cherryfield, 



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SIXTH BEOIMENT PARTI0IPANT8. 



408 



Davis, William F., Steuben, 
Dixon, Robert, Cherryfield, 
Granger, James, Calais, 
Hunter, Mitchell, Cherryfield, 
Leighton, William, Steuben, 
Marshall, William, Eastport, 
Mills, George W., Kenduskeag, 
Pillsbury, Thomas L., Sebec, 
Small, Joseph, Steuben, 
Smith, Ansel £., Ellsworth, 
Taylor, Charles E., Robbinston, 
Whalen, John F., Portland, 



Dean, Israel, Robbinston, 
Fuller, Alfred, Brunswick, 
Griffin, John, Eastport, 
Laughlin, Lawrence O., Cherryfield, 
Maddan, Rufus, Cherryfield, 
McGregor, Charles W., Eastport, 
Mills, Harry F., Kenduskeag, 
Scott, Charles, Calais, 
Small, Thomas J., Cherryfield, 
Stewart, John E., Columbia, 
Walton, Geot^e F., Calais, 
Willett, Louis A., Bradley, 
Wilson, Geoi^e L G., Cherryfield. 



Willey, Alonzo C, Cherryfield, 

Wagonbr: Robert Bailey, Portland. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Nahum H. 
Davis, Cherryfield, and Patrick Flynn, Boston, Mass., 3d N. Y. batt*y; Ste- 
phen S. Leighton, Columbia, musician; Charles Lynch, Cherryfield, and 
Gilbert McKinnon, Portsmouth, amb. corps; John Taylor, Robbinston, 
nurse regtl. hosp. 

Company H. 
(Including i present sick.) 
Captain, Joseph G. Roberts, Corinth. 
First Lieutenant, Solomon J. Morton, Providence, R. L 

SERGEANTS. 

First Set^eant, William H. Coan, Dexter, 

Israel Hodsdon, Corinth, Otis O. Roberts, Dexter, 

Elisha Eddy, Jr., Corinth, Albert T. Severance, Dexter., 

CORPORALS. 



James L. Mitchell, Sangerville, 
Hiram F. Safford, Dexter, 
Henry G. Lane, Bucksport. 

Babkirk, Wallace D., Baring, 
Batchelder, Alonzo, Garland, 
Bean, John H., Dexter, 
Bulger, Joseph, Bangor, 
Cooley, George H., St. Albans, 
Frost, George F., Crawford, 
Gilpatrick, Thomas W., Baring, 
Herrick, William H., Corinth, 
Lovell, Asa B., Abbot, 
McKusick, Howard M., Foxcroft, 
Moore, William H., Bangor, 
Osgood, Wesley A., Garland, 

Quimby, Jacob, Jr., 

Senter, William H. H., Bangor, 
Smith, Edward, Charleston, 
Stafford, Frederick C, St. Albans, 
Vickery, Charles B., Bangor, 
Weaver, Charles S., Parkman, 



Ferdinand W. Merrill, Williamsburg, 
John W. Pettengill, Corinna, 

PRIVATES. 

Banks, Alexander, Pembroke, 
Beale, George E., Hudson, 
Bradshaw, Robert, Calais, 
Chapman, Orville D., Sebec, 
Fitzgerald, Charles, Dexter, 
Fuller, Oliver J., Dexter, 
Hammond, Joseph S., Parkman, 
Lovejoy, Jonas P., Dexter, 
McKusick, Charles F., Parkman, 
Moore, Alonzo W., Bangor, 
O'Keefe, Patrick, Calais, 
Page, Erasmus E., Charleston, 
Roundy, James H., Bangor, 
Short, Edward, Bangor, 
Smith, Upton T., Bangor, 
Sutherland, James W., Bangor, 
Walsh, Joseph, Calais, 
Whittier, Lendall H., Kenduskeag. 



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404 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

MUSICIANS. 

Joseph F. Getchell, Bangor, Charles F. Tibbetts, Charleston. 

Wagoner: Ivory Webber, Bangor. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Charles Chase, 
St. Albans, cook; Charles Dyer, Dexter, Oilman W. Frost, St. Albans, and 
Charles L. Ray, Augusta, teamsters; Oeorge T. Gould, Dexter, and Alfred 
McDonald, Charleston, quarterm*r dept; Harrison T. Norton, Dexter, 
butcher brig, h'dqrs; Sylvanus B. Steward, Monson, inv. dept.; Edward J. 
Sturtevant, Dexter, amb. corps; William H. Tinker, Trenton, signal corps; 
Andrew R. Wheaton, Crawford, 3d N. Y. batt*y. 

Company I. 
(Including 3 present sick. ) 
Captain, Lycurgus Smith, Freedom. 
First Lieutenant, James M. Norris, Milford. 
Second Lieutenant, Henry H. Chamberlain, Presque Isle. 

SERGEANTS. 

First Sergeant, Calvin T. Livermore, Sebec, 

Walter B. Jenness, Hermon, Isaac Pratt, Oldtown, 

James S. Knowlton, Liberty, Thomas Templeton, Milford. 

CORPORALS. 

Alvin B. Hudson, Bangor, Sylvester F. Lyon, Lincoln, 

James M. Murphy, Calais, • Franklin J. Elliott, Sebec, 

David C. Whitney, Lincoln, Samuel Emery, Jr., Veazie. 

PRIVATES. 

Bean, Phineas F., Oldtown, Blackman, Joseph C, Oldtown, 

JSuzzell, Justus J., Oldtown, Clark, Clement M., Bangor, 

Estabrook, Joseph W., Bangor, Eye, James, Calais, 

Gardiner, George, Sebec, Glidden, Andrew, Barnard PL, 

Goodwin, Benjamin F., Stetson, Hinkley, Oscar E. W., Oldtown, 

House, George W., Lee, Johnston, Charles W., Oldtown, 

Keen, William A., Chester, Ladd, Edmund, Barnard PI., 

Lane, James A., Bangor, Leddy, John, Jr., Calais, 

Lishemess, Benjamin C, Oldtown, Reed, Joseph L., Cooper, 
Robbins, Asa, Bailey ville, Sibley, William T., Oldtown, 

Sleeper, Geo. W., Haverhill, Mass., Spencer, Green C, Milford, 
Stanchfield, Chauncy, Milo, Stinson, Leander C, Oldtown, 

Tibbetts, Andrew J., Carmel, Tibbetts, Ira B., Exeter, 

Webster, William M., Lincoln, White, William J., Bangor, 

Wiggin, Asa G., Stetson. 

Musician: John W. Davis, Portland. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Wagoner William H. 
Brown, Milo, det'd wagoner. Privates: Alonzo Cilley, Bangor, and Edmund 
Leard, Oldtown, div. h*dqrs; Hezekiah B. Harris, Oldtown, and Hezekiah 
F. Harris, Oldtown, brig. h*dqrs. 

Company K. 
(Including 2 present in arrest. ) 
First Lieutenant, Charles T. Witherell, Eastport, commanding company. 
Second Lieutenant, Percival Knowles, Bangor. 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 405 

SBRGBANTS. 

Thatcher Vose, Robbinston, George M. Corbett, Eastport, 

John Homer Coy, Calais, John A. Gray, Eastport, color-sergeant 

CORPORALS. 

Joseph Whelpley, Eastport, Levi Flood, Alexander, 

Joseph H. Dermott, Eastport, Thomas Sharkey, Eastport, 

Frank E. Johnson, Robbinston. 

PRIVATES. 

Bagley, Daniel W., East Machias, Brisley, Thomas D., Cooper, 

Brooks, Thomas, Lubec, Brown, George, Centerville, 

Black, George W., Jr., Cooper, Chester, Peter, Robbinston, 

Connell, John, Halifax, N. S., Cunningham, Allan, Edmunds, 

Daus, Frederick, Moncton, N. B., Denbo, Henry C, Lubec, 

Drew, Calef N., Whitneyville, Dugan, Patrick, Eastport, 

Dyer, George M., Brunswick, Foster, Alonzo F., Marion, 

Hammond, Charles, Eastport, Hannemann, Emil, Eastport, 

Hayman, Madison B., Robbmston, Jones, Thomas, Alexander, 

Lander, James C, Corinna, Lesure, Ira, Calais, 

Logan, David, Calais, McDonald, Peter, Pictou, N. S., 

McGoren, John, Saco, Morrill, George, Calais, 

Myer, Henri, Moncton, N. B., Nelson, Charles, Calais, 

O'Brien, William G., Lubec, Pike, Jeremiah K., Portland, 

Potter, Fergus, Eastport, Sadler, Thomas J., Alexander, 

Seeley, George W., Edmunds, Seeley, Solomon W., Edmunds, 

Smith, Cyrus N., Charlotte, Warton, William, Buffalo, N. Y. 

MUSICIANS. 

Stephen Canfield, New York City, Frederick Tucker, Eastport. 

On Special Duty or Detached Service: Privates: Daniel Apt, Jr., 
Eastport, regtl. quarterm'r dept.; Edmund Davy, Charlotte, and George 
McAllister, Robbinston, regtl. hosp.; Jacob S. Hinckley, Eastport, amb. 
corps; Andrew J. Potter, Eastport, officer's servant; Robert R. P. Potter, 
Eastport, butcher brig. h*dqrs; William Stinson, Portland, Mott*s batt'y; 
George F. Simmons, Calais, div. h'dqrs; Stephen A. Winchell, Calais, with 
Lieut. Mclntee, art*y brigade. 



fflSTORICAL SKETCH. 

COMPILED BY CHARLES HAMLIN, 

FB^M OFFICIAL RKPOBT8 AND OTHBB DATA FUBNI8HBD BT SUBYIVOBS 
OF THB BBOIMBNT. 

This regiment was composed of the troops largely from east- 
em Maine, and was organized as early as the month of June, 
1861. The Brownville Rifles was the only old organized and 
drilled militia company that joined the regiment. This became 
company A. The other companies were newly formed. It 
rendezvoused at Portland, and was mustered into the United 



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406 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBO. 

States service July 15, 1861, with the following original 
organization : — 

FIELD, STAFF, AND NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Colonel, Abner Knowles, Bangor. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Hiram Bumham, Cherryfield. 
Major, Frank Pierce, Bucksport 
Adjutant, John D. McFarland, Ellsworth. 
Quartermaster, Isaac Strickland, Bangor. 
Surgeon, Eugene F. Sanger, Bangor. 
Assistant Surgeon, John Baker, East Machias. 
Chaplain, Zenas Thompson, Portland. 
Sergeant-Major, Percival Knowles, Bangor. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Thomas W. Porter, Bangor. 
Commissary-Sergeant, J. W. Snowman, Bucksport 
Hospital Steward, Charles A. McQuesten, Bangor. 
Drum-major, Z. Buzzell, Bucksport 
Fife-major, John Washburn, Foxcroft 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Co. A. Captain, Moses W. Brown, Brownville. 

First Lieutenant, Charles H. Chandler, Foxcroft 

Second Lieutenant, Addison P. Buck, Foxcroft 
Co. B. Captain, Isaac Frazier, Ellsworth. 

First Lieutenant, Otis W. Kent, Ellsworth. 

Second Lieutenant, Albert M. Murch, Ellsworth. 
Co. C. Captain, Benjamin F. Harris, Machias. 

First Lieutenant, John H. Ballinger, Machias. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles F. Stone, Machias. 
Co. D. Captain, Joel A. Haycock, Calais. 

First Lieutenant, Reuel W. Furlong, Calais. 

Second Lieutenant, Henry H. Waite, Calais. 
Co. E. Captain, Joseph Snowman, Bucksport. 

First Lieutenant, Benjamin J. Buck, Bucksport 

Second Lieutenant, Virgil P. Wardwell, Bucksport. 
Co. F. Captam, William N. Lysett, Pembroke. 

First Lieutenant, John M. Lincoln, Pembroke. 

Second Lieutenant, Simon Pottle, ad, Perry. 
Co. G. Captain, Ralph W. Young, Rockland. 

First Lieutenant, Frank C. Pierce, Augusta. 

Second Lieutenant, Hiram B. Sproul, Cherryfield. 
Co. H. Captain, Cyrus Brown, Corinth. 

First Lieutenant, Joseph G. Roberts, Corinth. 

Second Lieutenant, George Fuller, Corinth. 
Co. I. Captain, Albert G. Burton, Oldtown. 

First Lieutenant Henry Soper, Oldtown. 

Second Lieutenant, William H. Stanchlield, Milo. 
Co. K. Captain, Theodore Carey, Eastport 

First Lieutenant, Thomas P. Roach, Eastport 

Second Lieutenant, Charles Day, Eastport. 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTOBIGAL SKETCH. 407 

It will be remembered that when the troops were called from 
Maine upon the breaking out of the civil war and were being 
organized into regiments, they were allowed, until 1862, to 
elect all their officers themselves. When the Sixth regiment 
was organized it was permitted to elect its own officers. Their 
first choice for Colonel was Major Henry Prince, Paymaster 
U. S. A., but he declined, feeling that he would be obliged to 
give up his commission in the regular army. The next choice 
was Abner Knowles, Esq., of Bangor, a distinguished lawyer. 

The regiment left Portland July 17th and arrived at Washing- 
ton on the 19th, where it was stationed at Chain Bridge, on the 
Potomac, and where it was engaged in building " Battery Ver- 
mont" and a small earthwork. September 3d the regiment 
crossed the Potomac into Virginia and was engaged several 
weeks in fatigue and picket duty, and in building roads and 
bridges, digging pits and erecting forts. The strength and skill 
of these trained woodsmen were the admiration of the officers 
and men of other regiments. Later in the fall the regiment was 
pushed forward to Lewinsville, occupying Fort Griffin through 
the fall and winter. In March the regiment was assigned to 
Hancock's brigade of Smith's division, and joined in the advance 
on Manassas. After remaining in camp several days at Fairfax 
Court House, the regiment proceeded to Alexandria and joined 
the movement against Richmond by way of the peninsula. It 
arrived at Fortress Monroe March 25th, and encamped near 
Hampton. 

Peninsula Campaign. — ^The army having been organized 
into corps. Smith's division was assigned to the Fourth corps, 
under Gen. E. D. Keyes. April 4th the regiment broke camp 
and joined the advance of the army towards Yorktown, where 
they arrived in front of the enemy's works on Warwick Creek 
at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and went into camp. In December, 
1861, Colonel Knowles having resigned, Lieut.-Col. Bumham 
was promoted Colonel, Captain Chandler to Lieut.-Colonel, and 
Captain Harris to Major. 

At an early hour on the morning of April 5, 1862, the Sixth 
regiment left their camp at Warwick Creek and proceeded to 
reconnoitre the enemy's works in that vicinity. Four prisoners 



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408 MAINE AT GETTTSBUBG. 

were captured, when the rebels commenced shelling the skirmish 
line of the Sixth, during which several men were wounded. The 
regiment, however, held their position until the reconnaissance 
was completed by General Hancock, with Lieutenant Comstock 
of General McCleUan's staff. A second reconnabsance imme- 
diately followed, in the direction of Lee's Mills, and was attended 
with similar success. Another reconnaissance on the 7th proved 
a creditable affair to the Sixth, and which elicited from General 
McClellan his thanks. 

At the battle of Lee's Mills on the 16th the Sixth supported 
our artillery, and was exposed to a heavy fire. On the 24th 
another successful reconnaissance was performed by the Sixth 
to Warwick Creek, which was followed by another on the 28th 
to the same place, a brisk skirmish occurring on each occasion. 

At the battle of Williamsburg, May 5th, the Sixth supported 
Kennedy's battery from 1 to 5 o'clock p. m., under a heavy fire 
from the enemy's artillery, until by order of General Hancock 
the four right companies of the regiment were placed in an 
earthwork in the centre of our lines, while the other companies 
were formed immediately on the left. Thus disposed, the reg- 
iment received the hottest of the enemy's fire, but not a man 
wavered ; and the enemy was repulsed with great slaughter by 
the fire of the regiment. 

A charge was made by the Union forces and successfully 
executed. Two days after the battle General McClellan made 
a complimentary address to the Sixth for its services on this 
occasion, as he did to all the other regiments which General 
Hancock commanded. 

The battle at Gamett's Farm took place June 27, 1862. 
At an early hour in the morning of that day the Sixth regiment, 
which formed a portion of the First brigade, under the command 
of General Hancock, was ordered to the front, where a working 
party were engaged in throwing up an intrenchment. On their 
arrival Colonel Bumham took a position a short distance in the 
rear of the earthwork, on the right, near a piece of woods, with 
orders to hold it at all hazards. In front of this earthwork was 
a large, level field, at the upper portion of which were planted 
the enemy's batteries, while in General Ebncock's rear, at a short 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 409 

distance, was a deep ravine, on the opposite side of which we 
had a masked battery of siege guns. About 9 o'clock a. m. the 
enemy appeared in force on the left, as if preparing for an 
attack. Upon this, the working party with the force which 
supported it withdrew across the ravine. 

At 10 o'clock the enemy opened with his artillery, directing 
his fire, principally, at the woods where lay the Sixth, and at 
our own battery, which had been unmasked, and which after 
an hour's rapid firing silenced the enemy's guns, forcing the 
rebels to retire out of range. During this duel the Sixth had 
two men killed and one wounded. At sunset the enemy again 
opened his batteries, but as before he was shortly compelled to 
desist firing and retired. When it was quite dark in the woods 
a few shots from the enemy, instantly foUowed by a volley 
along our whole line, brought every man to his feet. The 
attack, though sudden, was not unexpected, and immediately 
the enemy's fire was returned, and with effect, as was after- 
wards ascertained, when he advanced a short distance from the 
woods, and after nearly an hour's rapid exchange of fire silently 
withdrew. This was a singular combat in many respects, as 
no enemy could be seen, and his presence was manifested only 
by the flash and crack of his guns, and by the whistling of his 
bullets over the heads of our men. During the engagements 
the Sixth expended over fifty rounds of ammunition on an 
average. Many muskets were rendered useless by fouling the 
bores, in consequence of which, as well as from the want of 
ammunition, they with the remainder of the brigade were 
relieved by another brigade, and Colonel Bumham was ordered 
to withdraw quietly with his regiment and return to camp 
where he arrived at a little past 1 o'clock. During the engage- 
ment the casualties were one man killed and 23 wounded ; three 
of the latter died shortly afterwards. 

Next morning at 4 o'clock Colonel Bumham received orders 
for an immediate move. Breakfast was hastily eaten, and the 
work of getting in readiness promptly commenced. It was 
evident that a movement towards James River was contem- 
plated. Colonel Bumham was ordered to report the whole of 
his command to General Smith for fatigue duty, when the men 



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410 MAINE AT OETTTSBURG. 

were furnished with axes and ordered to cut down the skirt of 
the forest in which was located their camp, in order to afford a 
range for our artillery in case the enemy made an attack. This 
being accomplished, the regiment was ordered to the left of the 
felled trees, with the rest of the First brigade, when, as the 
order was being obeyed, a rebel battery opened a furious fire, 
which was, however, shortly silenced by one of our own bat- 
teries. The Sixth, however, succeeded in getting into position 
with the loss of one man who was seriously wounded. Another 
brief engagement shortly followed, ending in the repulse of the 
rebels with great slaughter, and no further fighting took place 
in that vicinity that day. Meanwhile the Sixth kept their orig- 
inal position, while the greater part of our forces made their 
retreat. During the night they were bivouacked in line of 
battle, every man with his rifle at his side, ready to spring to 
his feet and give battle in case of an attack. At last only the 
division remained to which the Sixth belonged, and their posi- 
tion was evidently a critical one, for, notwithstanding troops 
were within supporting distance, it was plain that, in case of 
an attack, they would bear the brunt of the 'battle. But the 
enemy did not choose to attack. 

On the following Monday (29th) the division began to fall 
back, leaving a proper force of cavalry and artillery behind 
as the rear guard of the corps. Falling back about three miles, 
they came to a large field containing a strong force of our troops 
and an inmiense number of baggage wagons. Positions were 
taken in line of battle, while a halt of about three hours was 
made, during which the retreat went on. Resuming the line 
of march, the division moved along leisurely until they reached 
a field a short distance from Savage Station. There another 
halt was made ; the division was deployed in line of battle and 
stationed in the edge of a piece of woods, in which position 
they remained until about 2 o'clock, when, keeping up the line 
of battle, they passed through the woods to Savage Station 
and halted a little way beyond. On resuming the march, they 
proceeded about a mile, when a rattling fire of musketry in 
their rear showed that the enemy had attacked our forces at 
Savage Station. Forthwith the division was marched rapidly 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 411 

to the scene of action, and when they arriyed the battle was 
raging furiously. The Second brigade (General Brooks') was 
hurled into the thickest of the fight, while the remainder of the 
division was stationed as a support. By order of General Han- 
cock, the Sixth was marched half a mile through a piece of 
woods and took a position on the right, in order to prevent the 
enemy from outflanking. The position was an honorable as 
well as a dangerous one. Colonel Bumham at once established 
conmiunication with the rest of the brigade, and awaited an 
attack on his right flank, which he doubted not would be made 
as the enemy subsequently threatened. After a sharp and 
bloody engagement the rebels were repulsed. The Sixth did 
not actively engage in the battle, although they were under a 
heavy fire and shared many of its perils. 

At 9 o'clock the division was again put in motion, leaving 
Heintzelman's forces to hold, for a time, the hard-earned field. 
The Sixth was placed in advance ; and as it was anticipated that 
the rebel cavalry might make a dash upon the road and attempt 
to cut them off, to lead the advance was certainly an honorable 
position. The four right companies of the Sixth were detached 
and thrown some distance ahead as an advance guard. Two 
squads, under non-conmiissioned officers, were thrown still 
farther ahead, to feel the way. In this order they marched 
until 3 o'clock on the morning of the 30th, when they crossed 
White Oak Bridge and took position on the heights beyond. 
Here a halt was ordered by General Hancock, and the men, 
totally exhausted by the severe labors of the past twenty-four 
hours, threw themselves on the ground and were almost instantly 
asleep. At 10 o'clock the following morning White Oak Bridge 
was blown up, and our troops were deployed in line of battle 
upon the heights, where they could meet the enemy advanta- 
geously in case he made his approach. By order of General 
Hancock, Colonel Bumham posted his regiment on the extreme 
right of the line, near a creek, where it was thought the rebels 
would attempt to cross and turn our flank. He threw out 
pickets and let his men rest in line of battle. The day was 
exceedingly hot and oppressive. The long hours passed slowly 
away, and up to noon there was nothing which indicated the 



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412 MAINE AT OETTY8BUBO. 

enemy's approach. Suddenly, without the slightest premoni- 
tion, the enemy opened a spirited fire with twenty pieces of 
artillery from the opposite side of the creek. For a while the 
cannonading was terrific, an unceasing shower of shell raining 
upon a portion of our lines. In obedience to orders, the Sixth 
was marched from the right to the centre of our lines, taking a 
position in the rear of the batteries within supporting distance. 
This position was maintained throughout the fight, which raged 
for three hours with great fury, and during which the Sixth 
bad two men seriously wounded. At 4 o'clock the enemy's 
guns were sUenced and he withdrew. 

At 11 o'clock the division was again put in motion, the Sixth 
still keeping the advance. Colonel Bumham was instructed by 
General Hancock to use the utmost vigilance, as it was confi- 
dently anticipated that the enemy would make an attack with the 
intention of cutting him off. He therefore detached the four 
left companies of his regiment, and put them under the com- 
mand of Major Harris. The night was spent in rapid marching, 
and the fortitude of the men, worn out as they were by the 
severe labors of the preceding three days, was taxed almost 
beyond endurance. It was exceedingly warm, and the men 
suffered terribly from a scarcity of water ; but with ranks well 
closed the brave fellows kept pushing steadily on. Twice 
during the night General Hancock sent orders for the advance 
guard to move with the utmost watchfulness and care, and be at 
all times prepared for the attack which was apprehended. 

At length, on the morning of July 1st, at a few minutes 
past 4 o'clock, they emerged from the swamps of the Chicka- 
hominy, in sight of the James River, at Turkey Bend. Here 
they remained until 11 o'clock, when the brigade was put in 
motion, while they were stationed to guard a road where it was 
thought the rebel cavalry might make its appearance. In this 
position they remained until 3 o'clock the following morning, 
when Colonel Burnham was ordered to move with the rest of 
the division down the river. Through a violent rain-storm they 
marched until 2 o'clock in the afternoon, when they arrived at 
Harrison's Landing and encamped in a large wheat-field, where 
they remained until the next morning, when they were again 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 413 

put in motion and marched about three miles from the James 
River, where they halted. 

The Antietam Campaign. — On September 11th the Sixth 
formed the advance of our column, and in a skirmish with the 
enemy at the foot of Sugar Loaf Mountain drove him back 
without loss. 

At the battle of Crampton's Gap, on the 14th, the Sixth par- 
ticipated, though they were not actively engaged. On the 15th 
Colonel Burnham took possession of a pass in South Mountain 
after a sharp skirmish, during which he captured four prisoners. 
The position was held until nightfall, when his command returned 
to their brigade. 

At the battle of Antietam, on the 17th, the Sixth arrived on 
the field at 10 o'clock in the forenoon, and took position towards 
the right of our lines, where our forces had just fallen back after 
a most desperate charge. The enemy opened fire on them, but 
he was driven back. 

Fredericksburg. — The Sixth participated in the battle at 
Fredericksburg. On the morning of December 1 2th they crossed 
the Rappahannock at the lower bridge. At 10 o'clock they 
moved up and took position under the intrenched batteries of 
the enemy, who shelled them severely during the day. The 
Sixth was in the centre of our line of battle, and their position 
was an exposed one, as the rebel batteries on their right enfi- 
laded them with ease and accuracy. This position was main- 
tained three days, during which time the men all acquitted 
themselves creditably. On January 3d the regiment was 
encamped near Belle Plaine, Va. 

Mud March. — Early on the morning of January 20, 1863, 
the Sixth left camp near Belle Plaine, and proceeded to 
Banks' Ford, where General Burnside intended to cross the 
river and give battle to the enemy ; but the mud being so deep, 
on account of a two days' rain, the movement was abandoned and 
the regiment returned to its former camp, arriving on the 23d. 

February 2d the regiment proceeded to Potomac Creek and 
went into winter quarters, having been assigned to the Light 
Division, composed of five regiments and a battery, and com- 
manded by Colonel Burnham after General Pratt had resigned. 



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414 MAINE AT OETTTSBTTRG. 

In March Lieut.-Colonel Chandler resigned ; Major Harris 
was promoted to Lieut.-Colonel, and Captain Haycock to Major. 

Chancellobsvillb Cabcpaign. — On the forenoon of April 
28th the regiment under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Harris 
marched towards the Rappahannock, and that night was engaged 
in transporting and launching pontoons preparatory to crossing 
the river. April 30th the regiment proceeded to Falmouth, and 
on the afternoon of May 1st proceeded across the rirer and took 
position in the front line of battle. May 2d an advance of the 
entire line was ordered, and the regiment went forward in line 
of battle, the skirmishers driving the enemy before them, until 
darkness put a stop to the advance. During the night the regi- 
ment was ordered to proceed to Fredericksburg, and soon after 
daylight on May 3d it formed in line of battle in front of the 
heights of Marye ; and in a few moments after 10 a. m. the 
order to charge was given, and the regiment advanced on 
the double-quick. 

Maryb's Heights and Brooks Ford.* — In the charge on 
Marye's Heights, May 3, 1863, the Sixth Maine regiment was 
a part of the Light Division, an organization of picked regi- 
ments belonging to Sedgwick's Sixth army corps. The Light 
Division on this historic occasion was coounanded by Colonel 
Hiram Bumham of the Sixth Maine. The regiment was com- 
manded by Lieut.-Col. Benjamin F. Harris. The charge was 
upon the very heights where Burnside had been repulsed with 
such dreadful slaughter in December, 1862. 

The regiment was drawn up in front of the formidable posi- 
tion to be carried, and just in the rear of a slight rise in the 
ground which protected it from the enemy's fire until the for- 
ward movement was made. In its front was a portion of the 
5th Wis. deployed as skirmishers. The rebel works were held 
by troops under the Confederate General Early, whom the 
Sixth Maine had met and wounded in its celebrated charge 
under Hancock at Williamsburg. The works were well manned, 
swarming with rebel infantry, and in the redoubts at the top of 

* [The editors are indebted to Brevet Colonel Charles A. Clark, Adjutant 
of the Sixth Maine, for the particulars of the charge at Marye' s Heights, and 
also that at Rappahannock Station. — C. H.] 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 415 

the heights was posted the famous Washington Artillery from 
New Orleans. Against such a position, which many thousands 
of troops in solid column had failed to carry under Burnside, 
it seemed incredible that this little regiment of less than four 
hundred men at the time of the charge, hurled as a single line 
of battle, should ever meet with success. 

But no man in the regiment was dismayed. Lieut.-Colonel 
Harris required every gun to be uncapped, and gave strict orders 
against firing a musket until the works at the top of the heights 
were reached. The men carried their muskets at "arms port." 
The command for the attack was given at about eleven o'clock 
A, M. The men dashed forward with unflinching will. As the 
line swept over the roll of ground in its front it faced and at 
once came upon the "slaughter pen" of Burnside's calamitous 
battle. At once the stone-wall at the foot of the heights, the 
rifle-pits higher up, and the artillery in the earthworks at the 
top blazed forth death in every form. Major Haycock, a brave 
and gallant officer, fell at the first fire. Many of the men were 
struck down at this point. The regiment swept across the 
" slaughter pen " and attacked and carried the old stone-wall at 
the point of the bayonet. Without firing a shot, the men 
pushed on to the rifle-pits further up, and there the most des- 
perate and bloody part of the engagement occurred. The rebels, 
driven from the stone-wall, made a determined stand with their 
other forces at the rifle-pits. They were driven out after hot 
resistance, and a shout of victory went up from the assailing line. 

It has been asserted that the bayonet was not used in actual 
contact with the enemy during the war. The Sixth Maine in 
this charge, both at the stone-wall and the rifle-pits, used the 
bayonet and nothing else. Decimated by bullets, pierced 
through and through by canister and case shot from the enemy's 
artillery, it wasted no time in firing so much as a volley, but 
using bayonets or clubbed muskets, fought its way on to the 
redoubts. More than 25 of the enemy were killed at these 
points by the bayonet alone, and many were wounded. Private 
George Brown of company K bayonetted two of the enemy in 
succession, and then as the resistance was obstinate, he brained 
a third with the butt of his musket. Captains Young, Gray 



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416 MAINE AT GBTTY8BUBG. 

and Bollinger fell at these points, cheering on their men and 
fighting like the brave and true men that they were. 

As the enemy's line gave way at the rifle-pits, the regiment 
swept forward, following the retreating foe so closely that they 
never rallied, and rushing on, scaled the earthworks at the top 
of the hill, capturing many prisonei's and seven guns from the 
Washington Artillery. In five minutes from the time when 
the regiment started on its charge, its colors wave4 over the 
enemy's strongest work and the victory was won. The loss 
was 128 men and officers killed and wounded, out of less than 
400 who were present for duty. There were many instances 
of individual gallantry which it is impossible to mention. Offi- 
cial reports record that Color-Sergeant John A. Gray, who 
afterwards fell at Rappahannock Station, was the first man of 
the Union forces to enter the enemy's works, and that he 
planted his colors there while the rebel artillery-men were still 
at their guns and the infantry making a stubborn resistance. 

To identify the ground over which this magnificent charge 
was made, it may be stated that, facing the heights, it was just 
at the right of where the National Cemetery is now located. 
The left of the regiment passed over a portion of the ground 
now made sacred as the last resting place of those who fell for 
their country, and the line of the regiment extended to the 
right across the little ravine which now separates the old Marye 
brick mansion from the present residence of Colonel Charles 
W. Richardson, who was then of the Confederate artillery, and 
who met the regiment with the remainder of the Sixth corps 
later in the day at Salem Church. The residence of Colonel 
Richardson stands upon the very ground where the principal 
Confederate redoubt was stormed and carried by the Sixth 
Maine, and where the guns of the Washington Artillery were 
captured. 

At Salem Church, on the evening of the same day, the 
Sixth Maine met Longstreet's forces, which had been detached 
from ChancellorsviUe by General Lee to check the forward 
movement of Sedgwick's corps. But the regiment was not 
very actively engaged. 

The following night of May 4th, at Brooks' Ford, the Sixth 



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SIXTH REGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 417 

Maine was the extreme right of Sedgwick's corps and held a 
position which commanded Sedgwick's pontoons at Banks' Ford 
further down the river, over which the corps was withdrawn 
that night. It was a position of honor but extreme danger. 
The regiment, as at Marye's Heights, was the forlorn hope of 
the corps. Its safety and its successful withdrawal depended 
much upon the Sixth Maine. 

As the rest of the corps was gradually retired, the regiment 
became detached from all of the other Union forces, and at 11 
o'clock was entirely surrounded by the swarming Confederates. 
It was attacked by overwhelming numbers in the belt of timber 
where it was posted, and repulsed the attack handsomely. Then 
as the rebels were re-forming for the capture of .the regiment 
which had successfully assailed its strongest position the day 
before, the Sixth Maine was at the last moment successfully 
withdrawn over a precipitous bluff in its rear, and made its way 
along the water's edge down to the pontoons, where it recrossed 
in safety, being the rear guard of the corps. Before it made its 
appearance at the pontoons it was believed to have been anni- 
hilated and captured at Brooks' Ford, where it had been posted 
as a probable sacrifice to insure the safety of the remainder of 
the corps. Adjutant Charles A. Clark was awarded a special 
Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery, gallantry and 
coolness in handling and extricating his regiment from its per- 
ilous situation, and in saving it from annihilation and capture 
in the absence of his superior officers who were disabled and 
separated from the regiment at that time. 

On the 11th of May the Light Division was broken up and 
the regiments composing it assigned to different brigades, in 
consequence of the discharge from the service of two years' and 
nine months' troops. The Sixth was assigned to the Third 
brigade. First division. Sixth corps. 

Gettysburg Campaign. — On June 9th the regiment, in 
conjunction with two other regiments of infantry under the 
command of General Russell, arriving at Kelly's Ford, dashed 
across the river, surprising and routing the enemy. The pursuit 
was hotly continued until reaching Brandy Station, where 
it joined General Ames' force of infantry and cavalry, and 



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418 MAINE AT OETTTSBURG. 

the command retired to the north bank of the river, having 
accomplished the object of the expedition, which was the gaining 
of correct information about the movements of the enemy. 

The regiment participated in the long and fatiguing marches 
of the Pennsylvania campaign and arrived at Gettysburg, having 
marched thirty-six miles in twenty hours. The Sixth was not 
actively engaged in that memorable battle, but it occupied a 
responsible position upon the extreme left flank of the Union 
army until the last desperate charge of the enemy upon our left 
centre, when it was ordered to act as a reserve. In the close 
pursuit of the enemy, July 5th, the Sixth regiment was in the 
front, skirmishing not infrequently with the enemy's rear, and 
kept this exposed but honorable position until Lee succeeded 
in crossing into Virginia. July 12th, the raiment being in 
line of battle near Funkstown, Md., supporting the skirmish line 
of the division. Captain Furlong, with his company (D) , num- 
bering only 25, went beyond the skirmishers and succeeded in 
surprising a portion of the enemy's pickets, killing and wound- 
ing about 30, and capturing 32 prisoners without losing a man. 
July 19th the regiment crossed the Potomac on its way into the 
interior of Virginia. The day following Colonel Burnham was 
ordered to Maine on duty connected with the draft, and the 
command devolved upon Lieut.-Colonel Harris. 

The following is from the official report of Brig.-General 
Russell, commanding brigade, dated August 20, 1863 : — 

^^ On June 28th this command broke camp near Edwards 
Ferry, Md., at 4 p. m. With the exception of much heavy 
marching and the share taken by it in the battle of Gettysburg, 
of which a report was forwarded from these headquarters on the 
3d inst., nothing of moment occurred until Sunday, July 12th, 
on the morning of which last-mentioned day we were encamped 
within about two miles of Funkstown, Md. 

*' At 4 : 30 o'clock on the morning of July 12th we broke 
camp and marched out about half a mile beyond Funkstown, 
where we halted and formed line of battle. 

" The Sixth Maine Volunteers was placed on the left of the 
road (its right resting on the road) leading from Funkstown 
to Williamsport ; the 5th regiment Wis. Vols, in the rear of the 



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SIXTH REGIMENT mSTORIGAL SKETCH. 419 

Sixth Maine; the 119th regiment Penn. Vols, on the right of 
the road, its left resting on the road, while the 49th regiment 
Penn. Vols, was stationed by the general commanding the divis- 
ion about a third of a mile to the right of the road, to support 
a battery in position at that point. A strong line of skirmishers 
was thrown out in front of the Sixth Maine, and the skirmish 
line was advanced a little during the morning and some brisk 
firing ensued therein. 

"About 2 p. M. Capt. R. W. Furlong, commanding company 
D, Sixth Maine, ^vith his company, in a highly daring and gal- 
lant manner, broke through the skirmish line, and, without los- 
ing a man, surrounded and captured 33 enlisted men, a captain 
and a lieutenant, — an entire company." 

The regiment was encamped near Warrenton, Va., during 
the month of August, until the first part of September, when 
it proceeded to Culpeper Court House, and was engaged in 
i*epairing the roads between Culpeper and Hazel Kiver. After 
rendering the roads and ford passable, the regiment returned 
to Culpeper and remained there till October 5th, when with the 
corps it proceeded to the Rapidan, relieving the Second corps. 

October 10th the regiment staiiied on the return march with 
the army and arrived at a certain point near Centreville and 
Chantilly, where a line of battle was formed, and the army 
remained there a number of days awaiting the enemy's attack. 
While there about fifty men of the Sixth, being on picket, were 
attacked by about five hundred of Stuart's cavalry, but they 
handsomely repulsed them after a very spirited skirmish. 

October 19th the regiment advanced to Warrenton, and on 
the 7th of November, 1863, the Sixth Maine marched with the 
remainder of the Sixth army corps from Warrenton to Rappa- 
hannock Station. 

Rappahannock Station. — The regiment was commanded 
by Lieut.-Col. Benjamin F. Harris ; the brigade by Gen. David 
A. Russell. The right wing of the regiment was thrown out as 
a line of skirmishers to cover the advance as soon as the works 
of the enemy were approached, at about 1 o'clock p. m. Over 
an open plain, broken and undulating, the enemy were pressed 
'back vigorously for three-quarters of a mile, until within close 



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420 MAINE AT OETTTSBUBG. 

proximity to the works. The other battalion of the regiment was 
then deployed and advanced as skirmishers, making a double 
line of skirmishers with the men about six feet apart. There 
were present for duty about 250 men and 21 officers. The 
Confederate works were held by two brigades of infantry and 
a battery of artillery. The position was commanded by the old 
adversary of the regiment, Gen. Jubal A. Early. 

At about dusk General Russell gave the command for the 
regiment, deployed as a double line of skirmishers as already 
stated, to assault the works of the enemy in front, and he joined 
in the charge himself. The regiment was joined in the assault 
by about eighty men of the Twentieth Maine, under Captain 
Walter G. Morrill of that regiment. Captain Morrill had for- 
merly been a member of the Sixth Maine, and when he saw his 
old comrades making the perilous charge, he ordered his own 
skirmishers forward upon his own responsibility and entered 
the rebel works with the Sixth Maine upon its right ; and was 
by his almost unexampled courage and gallantry of the greatest 
assistance in the achievement which followed. 

As at Marye's Heights, the Sixth Maine uncapped their mus- 
kets and advanced at double-quick, entering the works of the 
enemy without firing a shot. There a fierce hand-to-hand con- 
flict ensued, in which bayonet and sword thrusts were delivered 
and received, and in spite of the terrific fire which the regiment 
had faced in its advance, and the brave and determined resist- 
ance which it encountered upon entering the works, this little 
band was none the less successful ; and there, in the face of 
overwhelming and astounding superiority of numbers sheltered 
behind rifle-pits and redoubts, it captured the enemy's guns, 
his redoubts and works, and holding the position which it had 
gained, nothing was left but for other forces to come up and 
receive the surrender of the defeated and disorganized enemy. 

The regiment paid dearly for its gallantry. It lost in killed 
and wounded 16 officers out of 21 engaged, and 124 enlisted 
men, or very nearly fifty per cent of all the men who went into 
the engagement, and more than seventy-six per cent of the 
officers who led the assault. General Russell was also slightly 
wounded, and Captain Russell of his staff seriously wounded. ' 



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SIXTH BEOIMENT HI8TORIGAL SKETCH. 421 

This brilliant charge of the Sixth Maine received the imme- 
diate support of its twin regiment, the 5th Wis., which entered 
the works at the right of the Sixth Maine skirmishers, shortly 
after they were carried by the skirmish line, and gallantly aided 
in repulsing the attempts of the enemy to recapture their works. 

Further to the right Colonel Emory Upton, commanding 
the First brigade, promptly put into the fight another heroic 
Maine regiment, the Fifth infantry, commanded by Col. Clark 
S. Edwards, and also the 121st N. Y. These regiments carried 
at the point of the bayonet, the works in their front into which 
the rebel forces had swarmed from the rifle-pits and redoubts to 
the left ; and great numbers of prisoners surrendered to the 
Fifth Maine. This movement completed the discomfiture of 
the enemy and resulted in the surrender of his entire forces. 
The official reports of this engagement are given in Volume 29, 
Part 1, of Rebellion Records. 

Colonel Upton, page 592 of this volume, reports that about 
dusk he was ordered to bring two of his regiments rapidly to 
the front to help hold the redoubts already captured by the 
Third (Russell's) brigade, and he says : " The Fifth Maine and 
121st N. Y., being in the front line, were immediately ordered 
forward. The Third brigade still holding possession of the 
works they had captured. General Russell directed me to dis- 
lodge the enemy from a rifle-pit to our right of the redoubt, and 
from which he maintained an enfilading fire. Everything being 
ready, the line advanced at quick time to within thirty yards of 
the works, when the order to ' charge ' was given. The works 
were carried at the point of the bayonet, and without firing a 
shot. The enemy fought stubbornly over their colors, but being 
overpowered soon surrendered. The Fifth Maine in this charge 
captured two colors." [The Fifth Maine captured four colors 
as shown by Colonel Edwards' report.] 

The report of Col. Clark S. Edwards, page 594 of the same 
volume, shows that his regiment, the Fifth Maine, lost in this 
engagement 7 killed and 28 wounded. The 121st N. Y. is 
shown by the same reports to have lost 25 officers and men, 
killed and wounded, out of 314 present. The losses of the 5th 
Wis. were 59 in killed and wounded. The detachment from 



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422 MAINE AT OETTY8BURO. 

the Twentieth Maine who volunteered to join in the charge 
under Captain Morrill, lost 7 in killed and wounded. 

The Sixth Maine lost more than all of the other regiments 
engaged in this fierce encounter. Its losses, as already stated, 
were 16 officers killed and wounded out of 21 engaged, and 124 
enlisted men killed and wounded out of about 250 engaged. 

The official reports in the volume above referred to give full 
credit to all of these regiments. Gen. John Sedgwick, com- 
manding the Sixth corps, says in his report, page 575 : ''The 
officers and troops engaged in the assault, particularly Brig.- 
Greneral Russell, Colonels Upton and Ellmaker, and the 5th 
Wis. and the Sixth Maine Volunteers, deserve the highest praise 
that can be bestowed upon a soldier." 

General Sedgwick also issued a congratulatory order in 
which he said : *' The assault of the storming party under Gen- 
eral Russell, conducted over rough ground, in the full fire of 
the works, could not be surpassed in steadiness and gallantry. 
The brigades of Colonel Ellmaker and Colonel Upton and the 
troops of the Fifth corps which participated in the assault 
have nobly earned the admiration and credit of their comrades 
and coDMuanders." 

"The Sixth Maine and 5th Wis. volunteers, for carrying the 
redoubt ; the 121st N. Y. and Fifth Maine, for taking the line 
of rifle-pits with the bayonet and seizing the enemy's bridge, 
deserve a special honor." 

General Meade also issued an order of thanks to the forces 
engaged, page 576 of volume referred to. 

General Wright, division commander, said in his report, 
page 586 : '* To the 5th Wis. and Sixth Maine, comprising 
the storming part}^ belong the honor of carrying the enemy^s 
works; while the Fifth Maine and 121st N. Y. subsequently 
carried the rifle-pits on the right most gallantly, taking large 
numbers of prisoners. I must not omit to mention about 
fifty men from the Twentieth Maine, belonging to the Fifth 
corps, under Captain Morrill, who joined the storming party, 
and by their dash and gallantry rendered efficient service in 
the assault." 

As already stated, the assault was made under the inmiediate 



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SIXTH BEGIMENT HISTORICAL SKETCH. 423 

command and supervision of Gen. David A. Russell, who per- 
sonally knew what transpired. He was himself in the thick of 
the fight and was wounded. His report, pages 587 to 590 of 
the volume above mentioned, contains the statements not only 
of a commanding officer, but of an eye-witness. He says that 
five companies of the Sixth Maine were deployed as skirmishers 
until the command reached the immediate vicinity of the forti- 
fications, which were assaulted, and he adds : " Here the order 
was given to deploy the remaining five companies of the Sixth 
Maine, to double the skirmish line, and, with that formation and 
the 5th Wis. as a support, to make a charge upon the enemy's 
works. Upon the command 'Forward, double-quick,' the skir- 
mish line with their support dashed on in a style never surpassed 
by any troops. The ground was of a nature well calculated to 
check the impetuosity of a charge. Across the way as they 
advanced the storming column encountered a formidable ditch 
twelve or fourteen feet wide, some six feet deep, and filled with 
mud and water to an average depth of three feet. Across this 
they came to a plain, broken with stumps and underbrush, while 
before the skirmish line in the advance could be reached a dry 
moat or ditch had to be crossed, nearly as formidable as the 
obstacles already passed. But over every hindrance, in the face 
of a heavy fire of musketry and artillery, the storming party 
pressed on with bayonets fixed, and never pausing to fire a shot. 
The left wing of the skirmish line entered the smaller redoubt 
upon the enemy's right almost at the same time that the right 
of the skirmish line leaped into the larger redoubt and the rifle- 
pit extending from its left. The 5th Wis. were directed upon 
the stronger work, and the right of the skirmish line wheeled 
down to aid their left in the smaller work. A desperate hand- 
to-hand struggle ensued. The foe was overpowered and the 
works were ours. Staff officers were sent to Col. Emory Upton, 
commanding the Second brigade of this division, with orders to 
him to bring up speedily two regiments of his command, and 
the 121st N. Y. and Fifth Maine, under Colonel Upton, were 
led to the assault upon the rifle-pits with commendable coolness, 
steadiness and bravery. They overcame the enemy everywhere 
at the point of the bayonet, and resistance was speedily over." 



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424 MAINE AT GETTrSBURG. 

General Russell, referring to the heroic men of the Twen- 
tieth Maine, says : " Much praise is due to Captain Morrill of 
the Twentieth regiment, Maine volunteers, who commanded 
a skirmish detail of 75 men from the Fifth corps. His men 
joined the left of the Sixth Maine, and on learning the works 
in their front were to be stormed, he called for volunteers to aid 
their sister regiment. Some 50 men responded to the call, and 
by their valor and dash rendered most efficient aid." 

The flags captured from the enemy in this desperate engage-